Cognitive training based on metamemory and mental images: Follow-up evaluation and booster training effects

Treino cognitivo baseado em metamemória e imagens mentais: avaliação de seguimento e de efeito de reforço

Flávia Ogava Aramaki Mônica Sanches Yassuda About the authors

Abstract

In the second semester of 2008, 37 seniors participated in five cognitive training sessions based on creation of imagery and modification of self-efficacy for memory tasks.

Objective:

To carry out a follow-up evaluation after 18 months in order to detect possible maintenance of gains reported in the first post-test, namely, in measures of self-efficacy and episodic memory, and to evaluate the impact of a training booster, that is, test whether there are additional gains when training is offered for the second time to the same participants.

Methods:

16 older adults agreed to participate in five training sessions for the second time. Participants were evaluated with the Mini Mental Status Examination - MMSE, the Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery - BCSB (naming and memorization of 10 pictures, animal category verbal fluency test, the Clock Drawing Test - CDT), the Story subtest from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test - RBMT, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire - MAC-Q, and the Picture and Story domains from the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire - MSEQ used to evaluate the effectiveness of the first intervention.

Results:

This study reports the maintenance of the effects generated by the original training conducted in 2008, and follow-up evaluations detected the presence of potential additional gains in some aspects of memory.

Conclusions:

Training boosters may help maintain cognitive stability in adulthood and old age.

Key words:
cognitive training; imagery; self-efficacy; metamemory; seniors; aging

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