Pisa and grade retention costs in Brazil

João Galvão Bacchetto About the author


The Pisa 2012 report mentioned that Brazil has one of the highest rates of grade retention in the world, which is an expensive process. This study proposes a method for calculating the cost of retention using the Educational Census data to estimate the number of students who repeated a grade in 2012, and the cost per student presented in the National Fund for Basic Education (Fundeb). As showed by other studies, this cost is high, and there is a necessity to create new policies that take grade retention into consideration to distribute educational resources.

Grade repetition; Fundeb; Pisa; School Census

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