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Potential of wild Solanum stramonifolium accesses as rootstock resistant to soilborne pathogens in tomato crops

Potencial de acessos selvagens de Solanum stramonifolium como porta enxertos resistentes para patógenos de solo em cultivos de tomate no Brasil

ABSTRACT

Resistant rootstocks is one of the most effective method to control soilborne pathogens in tomato crops. Thus, this study was installed to evaluate the reaction of Solanum stramonifolium accesses to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) races 2 and 3 and to Meloidogyne enterolobii (Me). The seedlings were grown in trays and inoculated separately with Fol races 2 and 3 at 50 days after planting by immersing the roots in the spore suspension (1×106 microconidia mL-1). Then, seedlings were transplanted in pots containing sterilized soil and kept in greenhouse conditions. To study the reaction of S. stramonifolium accesses to nematodes, we used 27-day old seedlings that were also planted in pots and inoculated with 6,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles in greenhouse conditions. The experiments were evaluated in the 34th day (Fol) and in the 64th day (Me) after inoculation. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design with five replications, where each plot consisted of one pot with three plants (Fol) and one pot with one plant (Me). We observed that the plants used as controls, susceptible to Fol races 2 and 3 and Me, presented 100% of incidence. All accesses were resistant to Fol race 2 and the accesses CNPH-19, CNPH-22, CNPH-23, CNPH-25, CNPH-120, CNPH-122 and CNPH-349 presented multiple resistance to pathogens, indicating great potential for using as resistant rootstock. The CNPH-24, CNPH-119, CNPH-121 and CNPH-336 accesses also presented resistance to nematode. However, they presented slight browning symptoms of vascular tissues when they were inoculated with Fol race 3. This symptom was also observed in the CNPH-21, CNPH-107 and CNPH-117 accesses. All other accesses were resistance to Fol race 3 and susceptible to Me.

Keywords:
Meloidogyne enterolobii; Solanum lycopersici; fusarium wilt; grafting; genetic resistance

RESUMO

O uso de porta-enxertos resistentes é um dos métodos mais efetivos para o controle de patógenos de solo em cultivos de tomateiro. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a reação de acessos de Solanum stramonifolium a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) raças 2 e 3 e a Meloidogyne enterolobii (Me). As mudas foram formadas em bandejas e inoculadas separadamente com Fol raças 2 e 3 aos 50 dias após o semeio, mediante imersão das raízes em suspensão de esporos (1×106 microconídios mL-1). Em seguida, essas mudas foram transplantadas para vasos contendo solo esterilizado. Para a inoculação do nematoide, foram utilizadas plantas com 27 DAS, transplantadas para vasos e inoculadas com 6.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 34 (Fol) e aos 64 (Me) dias após a inoculação. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, em que cada parcela foi composta por um vaso com três plantas (Fol) e um vaso com uma planta (Me). As testemunhas suscetíveis a Fol raças 2 e 3 e a Me apresentaram 100% de incidência. Todos os acessos foram resistentes a Fol raça 2, enquanto os acessos CNPH-19, CNPH-22, CNPH-23, CNPH-25, CNPH-120, CNPH-122 e CNPH-349 apresentaram resistência múltipla aos patógenos, indicando grande potencial para uso como porta enxertos resistentes. Os acessos CNPH-24, CNPH-119, CNPH-121 e CNPH-336 também apresentaram resistência ao nematoide. Contudo, estes acessos apresentaram leves sintomas de escurecimento nos tecidos vasculares quando inoculados com Fol raça 3. Este sintoma também foi observado nos acessos CNPH-21, CNPH-107 e CNPH-117. Os demais acessos apresentaram resistência a Fol raça 3 e suscetibilidade a Me.

Palavras-chave:
Meloidogyne enterolobii; Solanum lycopersici; murcha de fusário; enxertia; resistência genética

Tomato crop is highly attacked by pathogens, which can cause significant economic losses. Among these pathogens, we highlight the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) (Carneiro et al., 2006CARNEIRO, RMDG; ALMEIDA, MRA; BRAGA, RS; ALMEIDA, CA; GIORIA, R. 2006. Primeiro registro de Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasitando plantas de tomate e pimentão resistentes à meloidoginose no estado de São Paulo. Nematologia Brasileira 30: 81-86.) and the fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, whose injuries can become impracticable its cultivation in certain regions or seasons. These pathogens can occur during all over phenological phase of the tomato, but it is more common during flowering and fruiting periods (Lopes et al., 2005LOPES, CA; REIS, A; BOITEUX, LS. 2005. Doenças fúngicas. In: LOPES, CA; ÁVILA, AC (eds). Doenças do tomateiro. Brasília: Embrapa Hortaliças. p. 17-51.).

In Brazil, the most common Meloidogyne species in tomato crops are M. javanica, M. incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4) and M. arenaria. However, in 2001, Carneiro et al. (2001CARNEIRO, RMDG; ALMEIDA, MRA. 2001. Técnica de eletroforese usada no estudo de enzimas dos nematoides de galhas para identificação de espécies. Nematologia Brasileira 25: 35-44.) reported large losses in tomato crops in São Paulo State due to the attack of M. enterolobii (syn. M. mayaguensis). Recently, Pinheiro et al. (2015PINHEIRO, JB; BOITEUX, LS; ALMEIDA, MRR; PEREIRA, RB; GALHARDO, LCS; CARNEIRO, RMDG. 2015. First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii in Capsicum rootstocks carrying the Me1 and Me3/Me7 genes in Central Brazil. Nematropica 40: 184-188.) reported the occurrence of this species in Central Region of Brazil, which made unfeasible the tomato cultivation in such areas.

Currently, three physiological races of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are known in Brazil, which are able to infect and to cause disease in many tomato host cultivars. Race 3 has been confirmed to be responsible for epidemics outbreaks in tomato crops in the Southeast and Northeast regions of Brazil (Reis et al., 2005REIS, A; COSTA, H; BOITEUX, LS; LOPES, CA. 2005. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 on tomato in Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira 30: 426-428.; Reis & Boiteux, 2007REIS, A; BOITEUX, LS. 2007. Outbreak of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in commercial fresh-market tomato fields in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Horticultura Brasileira 25: 451-454.; Barbosa et al., 2013BARBOSA, EA; CABRAL, CS; GONÇALVES, AM; REIS, A; FONSECA, MEN; BOITEUX, LS. 2013. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 infecting tomatoes in Northeast Brazil. Plant Disease 97: 422-422.; Gonçalves et al., 2013GONÇALVES, ADM; AGUIAR, FM; LOPES, CA; FONSECA, MEN; COSTA, H; REIS, A. 2013. Primeiro registro de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici raça 3 no Estado de Minas Gerais. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE FITOPATOLOGIA, 46, e REUNIÃO BRASILEIRA DE CONTROLE BIOLÓGICO, 11. Anais... Outro Preto: UFV e Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia. Available at Available at http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/98201/1/46-CBF-757-1.pdf . Accessed July 18, 2016.
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), although races 1 and 2 are the most common in tomato producing areas.

The majority of commercial tomato cultivars grown in Brazil have the dominant gene Mi, which confers resistance to the prevailing nematode species in the country. However, the gene Mi do not provide resistance to M. enterolobii in many crops, including tomato (Pinheiro et al., 2011PINHEIRO, JB; MENDONÇA, JL; SANTANA, JP. 2011. Reaction of wild Solanaceae to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica. Acta Horticulturae 917: 237-241.). According to Trudgill (1991TRUDGILL, DL. 1991. Resistance and tolerance of plant parasitic nematodes in plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology 29: 167-192. ), little is known about sources of resistance to nematodes in vegetables, such as Solanum species. The majority of tomato cultivars and rootstocks traditionally grown in Brazil are resistant to races 1 and 2 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. However, resistant cultivars and rootstocks to race 3 are scarce, Race 3 is disseminated to the main production areas of tomato in Brazil (Reis & Boiteux, 2007REIS, A; BOITEUX, LS. 2007. Outbreak of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in commercial fresh-market tomato fields in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Horticultura Brasileira 25: 451-454.; Gonçalves et al., 2013GONÇALVES, ADM; AGUIAR, FM; LOPES, CA; FONSECA, MEN; COSTA, H; REIS, A. 2013. Primeiro registro de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici raça 3 no Estado de Minas Gerais. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE FITOPATOLOGIA, 46, e REUNIÃO BRASILEIRA DE CONTROLE BIOLÓGICO, 11. Anais... Outro Preto: UFV e Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia. Available at Available at http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/98201/1/46-CBF-757-1.pdf . Accessed July 18, 2016.
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).

Therefore, the use of resistant tomato rootstocks can be an alternative method to be used in the control of soilborne pathogens responsible for causing diseases in tomato crops (Lopes & Mendonça, 2016LOPES, CA; MENDONÇA, JL. 2016. Reação de acessos de jurubeba à murcha bacteriana para uso como porta-enxerto em tomateiro. Horticultura Brasileira 34: 356-360.). In this sense, plant species of the genus Solanum, sub-genre Leptostemonum have been evaluated in order to use them as rootstock for tomato. Mendonça et al. (2005)MCKINNEY, HH. 1923. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on infection of wheat seedlings by Helminthosporium sativum. Journal of Agricultural Research 26: 195-218. evaluated the performance of ‘Santa Clara’ tomato grafted onto S. lycocarpum rootstock on soil infested with Ralstonia solanacearum and obtained higher yields in comparison to the non-grafted. These authors also reported 95% of compatibility between S. lycocarpum accesses and ‘Santa Clara’ tomato. Mattos et al. (2011MATTOS, LM; PINHEIRO, JB; MENDONÇA, JL; SANTANA, JP. 2011. Wild Solanaceae: potential for the use as rootstocks resistant to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). Acta Horticulturae 917: 243-247.) evaluated the reaction of S. stramonifolium and S. asperolanatum and reported resistance of accesses to M. incognita race 1. In addition, they found that accesses of S. stramonifolium, S. paniculatum and S. subinerme showed resistance to M. enterolobii. Pinheiro et al. (2011PINHEIRO, JB; MENDONÇA, JL; SANTANA, JP. 2011. Reaction of wild Solanaceae to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica. Acta Horticulturae 917: 237-241.) evaluated the reaction of the same accesses of S. stramonifolium, S. paniculatum and S. subinerme evaluated by Mattos et al. (2011)BARBOSA, EA; CABRAL, CS; GONÇALVES, AM; REIS, A; FONSECA, MEN; BOITEUX, LS. 2013. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 infecting tomatoes in Northeast Brazil. Plant Disease 97: 422-422. to root-knot nematode and they found that these rootstocks were also resistant to M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica.

Considering the encouraging results reported up to date to wild Solanum resistant rootstocks against the main soil pathogens in tomato crops, we developed a study to evaluate the reaction of S. stramonifolium accesses to the fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 2 and 3 and to the nematode M. enterolobii.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The assays were conducted in the Laboratory of Plant Pathology and Nematology and in a greenhouse located at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, Brazil, during the period of September to December 2014.

Twenty-two accesses of S. stramonifolium were evaluated separately regarding the reaction to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 and 3 and to M. enterolobii, CNPH-19, CNPH-21, CNPH-22, CNPH-23, CNPH-24, CNPH-25, CNPH-107, CNPH-108, CNPH-109, CNPH-110, CNPH-111, CNPH-113, CNPH-114, CNPH-116, CNPH-117, CNPH-118, CNPH-119, CNPH-120, CNPH-121, CNPH-122, CNPH-336 and CNPH-349. In the experiments of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 and 3 the tomato cv. Santa Clara was used as susceptible control to pathogen, while in the reaction experiments to nematodes, we used tomato plants cv. Nemadoro and cv. Rutgers, which are resistant and susceptible control to pathogen, respectively.

Methods for obtaining pathogen isolates and inoculum preparation

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 2 and 3

Pathogens were isolated from adult tomato plants presenting symptoms of the disease. After isolation, the races were identified based on the reaction of differential cultivars, by using ‘IPA-5’ tomato plants (resistant to race 1), ‘BHRS-2,3’ (resistant to races 1, 2 and 3), ‘Floradade’ (resistant to races 1 and 2) and ‘Ponderosa’ (susceptible to all races) (Reis & Boiteux, 2007REIS, A; BOITEUX, LS. 2007. Outbreak of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in commercial fresh-market tomato fields in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Horticultura Brasileira 25: 451-454.).

For inoculum preparation, we used three discs (5 mm diameter) removed of pure pathogen colonies. Then, the discs were transferred to Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 mL of culture medium made of potato dextrose broth (BD) and maintained at temperature of 23 to 27°C under constant agitation (90 rpm). After seven days of incubation, the liquid culture medium containing the fungus microconidia was filtered on sterile gauze, and its concentration was measured by hemocytometer, according to Santos (1997SANTOS, JRM. 1997. Methodology for screening tomato for Fusarium wilt, Verticilium wilt, gray leaf spot, early blight and septoria leaf spot. In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TROPICAL TOMATO DISEASES, 1. Anais... Alexandria: ASHS. p. 164-166.). In order to identify races and accesses in all reaction experiments, we used the same concentration of the inoculum suspension (1×106 microconidia mL-1).

Meloidogyne enterolobii

The nematode species were obtained from tomato plants presenting gall symptoms on roots. The identification process was done by exam of the perineal cuts of adult females extracted from galls and confirmed by standard isoenzymes (Carneiro & Almeida, 2001CARNEIRO, RMDG; MOREIRA, WA; ALMEIDA, MRA; GOMES, ACMM. 2001. Primeiro registro de Meloidogyne mayaguensis em goiabeira no Brasil. Nematologia Brasileira 25: 223-228.).

Eggs and any second stage juveniles (J2) were collected of M. enterolobii females previously obtained and inoculated in tomato cv. Rutgers plants for multiplication of inoculum. These plants were grown in 3.0 L pots containing sterilized substrate and maintained in greenhouse. Fifty days after inoculation, eggs and J2 were extracted from tomato roots [Hussey & Barker (1973HUSSEY, RS; BARKER, KR. 1973. A comparison of methods of collecting inoculum of Meloidogyne spp., including a new technique. Plant Disease 57: 1025-1028.) modified by Bonetti & Ferraz (1981BONETTI, JIS; FERRAZ, S. 1981. Modificações do método de Hussey & Barker para extração de ovos de Meloidogyne exigua em raízes de cafeeiro. Fitopatologia Brasileira 6: 553.)] and quantified under microscope stereoscope. For the experiment, the inoculum suspension was adjusted to 6,000 eggs and J2 per plant, and distributed in 5 mL of suspension.

Experiments conduction

All tomato and S. stramonifolium accesses were planted in 72-cell trays containing substrate, which was composed of vermiculite and carbonized pine bark. Seedlings were daily irrigated according to necessity and kept in greenhouse throughout the experimental period.

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 2 and 3

Seedlings of S. stramonifolium accesses and tomato plants were inoculated separately with the races of the pathogen after 50 days in case of S. stramonifolium and 25 days for tomatoes (Santos, 1997SANTOS, JRM. 1997. Methodology for screening tomato for Fusarium wilt, Verticilium wilt, gray leaf spot, early blight and septoria leaf spot. In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TROPICAL TOMATO DISEASES, 1. Anais... Alexandria: ASHS. p. 164-166.). After that, seedlings were removed from the trays, and roots washed in tap water in order to remove the substrate. Roots were cut about 4 cm from the stalk by using a sterile scissor. Then, roots were completely immersed (2 min.) in the inoculum suspension (1 × 106 microconidia mL-1) and transplanted to 1.5 L pots, filled with autoclaved substrate, which was a mixture of 85% of sifted “cerrado” underground, 5% of dry rice husk and 10% carbonized rice husk (v:v). The substrate was enriched with 100 g of dolomite lime, 200 g of superphosphate and 60 g of ammonium sulfate.

The experiment consisted of randomized block design with five replications where each plot consisted of one pot containing three plants.

Meloidogyne enterolobii

The 27-day old seedlings of S. stramonifolium accesses and tomato plants used as controls were also transplanted into pots (4.5 L) filled with same substrate described in the previous experiment.

The accesses of S. stramonifolium and controls were inoculated, distributing 5 mL of the suspension (6,000 eggs and J2) per plant, around the neck of the seedlings, with 2 cm range and depth approximately.

The experiment consisted in a randomized block design with five replications, where each plot consisted of one pot with one plant.

Experimental assessments

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 2 and 3

The disease symptoms were evaluated 50 days after inoculation, based on a scale of notes, wherein: 0= no symptoms, 1= plants without wilting or yellowing symptoms but with vascular browning, 2= plants with intense vascular browning and beginning to wilt or with yellow leaves, 3= plants with intense wilting associated with yellowing and leaf drop, 4= dead plants (Aguiar et al., 2013AGUIAR, FM; MICHEREFF, SJ; BOITEUX, LS; REIS, A. 2013. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 13: 33-40.).

Based on the notes, we were able to determine the disease index (DI), that was calculated by using the formula DI (%) = 100.Σ [(fv) / (nx)], where f= is the number of plants with same note, v= observed note, n= total number of evaluated plants and x= maximum rating scale plants (McKinney, 1923MCKINNEY, HH. 1923. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on infection of wheat seedlings by Helminthosporium sativum. Journal of Agricultural Research 26: 195-218.). It is important to highlight that only the genotypes with note zero were considered as resistant.

Immediately after evaluation, the plants with symptoms of the pathogen were identified and sent to the laboratory for isolation of the fungus in potato-dextrose-agar (PDA) culture medium. Conidia suspensions of each isolate were prepared from pure cultures of the pathogen, which were inoculated on susceptible tomato plants cv. Santa Clara. Then, the pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed in all S. stramonifolium plants, which present darkened vascular bundles symptoms.

Meloidogyne enterolobii

The evaluation of M. enterolobii was performed 64 days after inoculation, where plants were removed from the pots and identified. Roots were washed thoroughly in tap water and processed by using the technique developed by Hussey & Barker (1973HUSSEY, RS; BARKER, KR. 1973. A comparison of methods of collecting inoculum of Meloidogyne spp., including a new technique. Plant Disease 57: 1025-1028.) and modified by Bonetti & Ferraz (1981BONETTI, JIS; FERRAZ, S. 1981. Modificações do método de Hussey & Barker para extração de ovos de Meloidogyne exigua em raízes de cafeeiro. Fitopatologia Brasileira 6: 553.). Then, the final population of eggs and J2 obtained from each root system was quantified under microscope stereoscope.

The reproduction factor (RF) was obtained by the ratio between the final densities (Pf) and initial (Pi) of the nematodes, according to the formula: RF = Pf / Pi (Oostenbrink, 1966OOSTENBRINK, M. 1966. Major characteristics of the relations between nematodes and plants. Mededelingen Landbouw 66: 1-46.). Pi was considered the inoculum distributed at the time of inoculation, where, 6,000 eggs and J2 per pot. Pants with RF= 0 were considered as immune, those resistant to RF<1.0 and those susceptible to RF>1.0.

The reproduction factor data (RF) were transformed to √(x+1), submitted to the analysis of variance in statistical software Sisvar® (v. 4.5). Averages were grouped by the Scott-Knott test (p≤0.05).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

All 22 accesses of S. stramonifolium showed resistance to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 2 (Table 1), without expressing any symptoms of the disease. However, seven accesses of S. stramonifolium (CNPH-21, CNPH-24, CNPH-107, CNPH-117, CNPH-119, CNPH-121 and CNPH-336) presented mild symptoms of vascular browning when inoculated with race 3 of the pathogen. These accesses presented disease index (DI) of 3.10, 6.30, 6.30, 9.40, 12.50, 15.60 and 18.80, respectively, and they were considered susceptible. The tomato cv. Santa Clara, used as susceptible control for both pathogen races, showed the symptom of disease in 100% of the plants and presented DI= 82.30% to race 2 and 71.90% to race 3.

Regarding the resistance of S. stramonifolium to the nematode M. enterolobii, we observed that there was great variability among the accesses (Table 1). Eleven accesses (50.0%) (CNPH-19, CNPH-22, CNPH-23, CNPH-25, CNPH-120, CNPH-122, CNPH-349, CNPH-119, CNPH-24, CNPH-121 and CNPH-336) showed complete resistance to the nematode, with reproductive factors (RF) lesser than 0.99. All other accesses presented RF higher than 1.00 and consequently were considered susceptible. Tomato cultivars Rutgers (susceptible control) and Nemadoro (resistant control) presented RF= 4.48 and RF= 0.03, respectively.

Table 1
Reaction of Solanum stramonifolium accesses to soilborne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 2 and 3 and to Meloidogyne enterolobii. Brasília, Embrapa Hortaliças, 2014.

Accesses of S. stramonifolium were grouped based on RF value, according to Scott-Knott test (p≤0.05). The resistant accesses CNPH-19, CNPH-23, CNPH-25, CNPH-120, CNPH-349, CNPH-119, CNPH-24, CNPH-121, CNPH-336 and cv. Nemadoro did not differ from each other and showed RF between 0.01 and 0.44, followed by CNPH-21, CNPH-22, CNPH-111, CNPH-117 and CNPH-122, with RF between 0.86 to 1.44. The accesses CNPH-107, CNPH-108, CNPH-109, CNPH-113, CNPH-114, CNPH-116 and CNPH-118 presented higher multiplication ratio of the nematode, with RF values between 1.71 and 3.24, followed by CNPH-110 and ‘Rutgers’ tomato, which presented RF 5.00 and 4.48, respectively.

These results highlight the potential use of accesses of S. stramonifolium as resistant rootstocks against F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 2 and 3 in tomato crops. Similar results were found by Pinheiro et al. (2011PINHEIRO, JB; MENDONÇA, JL; SANTANA, JP. 2011. Reaction of wild Solanaceae to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica. Acta Horticulturae 917: 237-241.), where the selected accesses of S. stramonifolium and other wild Solanum species were resistant to M. incognita race 1 and to M. javanica. In addition, Mendonça et al. (2005MENDONÇA, JL; LOPES, CA; ANDRADE, RJ; GIORDANO, LB. 2005. Avaliação da lobeira (Solanum lycocarpum St Hill) e do tomateiro CNPH 1048 para porta-enxertos de cultivares de tomateiro em solo infestado com RS (R. solanacearum). In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE OLERICULTURA, 45. Resumos... Fortaleza: Horticultura Brasileira (CD-ROM).) verified higher yield in tomato cv. Santa Clara grafted onto S. lycocarpum rootstocks in soils contaminated with R. solanacearum when compared to non-grafted tomato. Subsequently, Amorim et al. (2012AMORIM, DS; QUEIROZ, ES; OLIVEIRA, FL; SCHURT, DA; LIMA, HE. 2012. Controle da murcha bacteriana via enxertia de tomateiro em jurubeba silvestre. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE FITOPATOLOGIA, 45. Anais... Manaus: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia. Available at Available at http://webftp.cpaa.embrapa.br/site/Trabalhos/408.pdf . Accessed July 21, 2016.
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) observed in a greenhouse experiment that the tomato seedlings ‘Santa Clara’ grafted onto S. stramonifolium in soil contaminated with R. solanacearum did not show symptoms of bacterial wilt in comparison to non-grafted tomato plants. The compatibility of tomato cv. IPA-6 (Farias et al., 2013FARIAS, EAP; FERREIRA, RLF; ARAÚJO NETO, SE; COSTA, FC; NASCIMENTO, DS. 2013. Organic production of tomatoes in the amazon region by plants grafted on wild Solanum rootstocks. Ciência e Agrotecnologia 37: 323-329.) and cv. Santa Adélia (Simões et al., 2014SIMÕES, AC; ALVES, GEB; FERREIRA, RLF; ARAÚJO NETO, SE; ROCHA, JF. 2014. Compatibilidade de tomateiro sob diferentes porta-enxertos e métodos de enxertia em sistema orgânico. Enciclopédia Biosfera 10: 961-972.) grafted onto S. stramonifolium and S. lycocarpum rootstocks was evaluated and higher yield and graft compatibility with tomato cultivars was obtained.

Therefore, according to literature some accesses of wild Solanum species presented resistance to multiple soil pathogens, not interfering negatively on the tomato production. In the present work, we could find similar results, where seven accesses of S. stramonifolium showed multiple resistance, CNPH-19, CNPH-22, CNPH-23, CNPH-25, CNPH-120, CNPH-122 and CNPH-349, indicating that these accesses possess high potential to be used as resistant rootstocks to diseases in tomato grown in infested areas. According to Farias et al. (2013FARIAS, EAP; FERREIRA, RLF; ARAÚJO NETO, SE; COSTA, FC; NASCIMENTO, DS. 2013. Organic production of tomatoes in the amazon region by plants grafted on wild Solanum rootstocks. Ciência e Agrotecnologia 37: 323-329.) it is important to keep focusing on studies such as the present one, in order to select new tomato cultivars, compatible with wild Solanaceae rootstocks, which will help to control soil pathogens and increase tomato productivity. However, the knowledge about the genes involved in the resistance reactions and in the defense mechanisms involved in the interactions between accessions of S. stramonifolium and soil pathogens need to be elucidated.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal (FAP-DF) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financial support.

REFERENCES

  • AGUIAR, FM; MICHEREFF, SJ; BOITEUX, LS; REIS, A. 2013. Search for sources of resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) in okra germplasm. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 13: 33-40.
  • AMORIM, DS; QUEIROZ, ES; OLIVEIRA, FL; SCHURT, DA; LIMA, HE. 2012. Controle da murcha bacteriana via enxertia de tomateiro em jurubeba silvestre. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE FITOPATOLOGIA, 45. Anais... Manaus: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia. Available at Available at http://webftp.cpaa.embrapa.br/site/Trabalhos/408.pdf Accessed July 21, 2016.
    » http://webftp.cpaa.embrapa.br/site/Trabalhos/408.pdf
  • BARBOSA, EA; CABRAL, CS; GONÇALVES, AM; REIS, A; FONSECA, MEN; BOITEUX, LS. 2013. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 infecting tomatoes in Northeast Brazil. Plant Disease 97: 422-422.
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Apr-Jun 2018

History

  • Received
    29 Sept 2016
  • Accepted
    14 Nov 2017
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