Accessibility / Report Error

Tuber yield and quality of potato processing cultivars submitted to nitrogen rates

Produtividade e qualidade de tubérculo de cultivares de batata indústria submetidas a doses de nitrogênio

ABSTRACT

Consumption of processed potatoes is increasing in Brazil. However, little information is available on the effect of nitrogen (N) rates on performance of potato cultivars developed in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and quality of tubers of potato processing cultivars, submitted to N rates at planting. Three field trials with eight treatments were conducted: two cultivars (Atlantic and BRSIPR Bel) and four N rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg/ha). Yield and quality of tubers were evaluated, as well as the post-frying absorbed oil content. Cultivar BRSIPR Bel showed higher total tuber yield (18% more) and commercial tuber yield (15% more) due to the production of higher number of tubers (29% more) compared to the cultivar Atlantic. On the other hand, Atlantic cultivar produced tubers with higher dry weight (22%) and lower oil absorption (38%). For both cultivars, the estimated N rate of 151 kg/ha resulted in the highest commercial tuber yield (diameter larger than 45 mm): 34.0 t/ha. For all studied variables there was no interaction between cultivar and N rate, concluding that the cultivars in this study (American and Brazilian origin) respond similarly to N rates.

Keywords:
Solanum tuberosum; Atlantic; BRSIPR Bel; fertilizing; fried potato; variety

RESUMO

O consumo de batata industrializada está aumentando no Brasil. Entretanto, há pouca informação sobre o efeito de doses de nitrogênio (N) no desempenho de cultivares de batata estrangeira e brasileira. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade de tubérculos de cultivares de batata destinada ao processamento industrial submetidas a doses de N no plantio. Foram conduzidos experimentos a campo por 3 anos com oito tratamentos: duas cultivares (Atlantic, EUA e BRSIPR Bel, Brasil) e quatro doses de N (0, 75, 150 e 225 kg/ha). Foram avaliadas a produtividade e a qualidade dos tubérculos, além do teor de óleo absorvido. A cultivar BRSIPR Bel apresentou maior produtividade total (18% a mais) e de tubérculos comerciais (15% a mais) devido à produção de maior número de tubérculos (29% a mais) em relação à cultivar Atlantic. Por outro lado, a cultivar Atlantic produziu tubérculos com maior porcentagem de massa seca (22%) e menor absorção de óleo (38%). Para ambas as cultivares, a dose estimada de N de 151 kg/ha foi a que proporcionou a maior produtividade comercial (diâmetro maior que 45 mm): 34,0 t/ha. Para todas as variáveis estudadas não houve interação entre cultivar e dose de N, concluindo-se que as cultivares do presente trabalho (de origem americana e brasileira) respondem de maneira análoga às doses de N.

Palavras-chave:
Solanum tuberosum; adubação; Atlantic; batata frita; BRSIPR Bel; variedade

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is worldwide an important food due to its nutritional compounds, on average 109 kcal, 18 g carbohydrates, 2.3 g protein, 150 to 1386 mg potassium, 42 to 120 mg phosphorus, and 14 mg vitamin C per 100 g of peeled cooked potato (Burgos et al., 2020BURGOS, G; ZUM FELDE, T; ANDRE, C; KUBOW, S. 2020. The potato and its contribution to the human diet and health. In: CAMPOS, H; ORTIZ, O (eds). The potato crop: its agricultural, nutritional and social contribution to humankind. Cham: Springer, p.37-74.). In addition, potato is a staple food in several countries (Burgos et al., 2020BURGOS, G; ZUM FELDE, T; ANDRE, C; KUBOW, S. 2020. The potato and its contribution to the human diet and health. In: CAMPOS, H; ORTIZ, O (eds). The potato crop: its agricultural, nutritional and social contribution to humankind. Cham: Springer, p.37-74.).

With an increasing demand for greater convenience in food preparation, the trend for several foods is to increase their industrialization, as processed foods have a more practical and faster preparation (Silva et al., 2016SILVA, PNL; R, JUNIOR RF; SANTOS, EF. 2016. Conhecimento do consumidor e forma de apresentação da batata no mercado no Estado de São Paulo. Revista IPecege 2: 46-55.). The global potato chips market reached $32.2 billions in 2021 and the market is estimated to reach $39 billions by 2027 (IMARC, 2022IMARC. 2022. Potato chips market: global industry trends, share, size, growth, opportunity and forecast 2022-2027. Available at: <Available at: https://www.imarcgroup.com/potato-chips-manufacturing-plant >. AcessedJanuary 9, 2022.
https://www.imarcgroup.com/potato-chips-...
). In Brazil, the industrialized potato sector makes up 39% of the overall market (Deleo et al., 2018DELEO, JPB; INÁCIO, HAC; BOTEON, M. 2018. Especial batata: gestão sustentável. Hortifruti Brasil 17: 10-24.). Of this segment, 21% is still reliant on imports, primarily in the form of pre-fried products, while the remaining 18% is produced domestically and includes pre-fried items as well as chips (Deleo et al., 2018DELEO, JPB; INÁCIO, HAC; BOTEON, M. 2018. Especial batata: gestão sustentável. Hortifruti Brasil 17: 10-24.).

The most planted potato cultivars for the industry are imported: Asterix, of Dutch origin, the main cultivar to produce French fries, and Atlantic, of USA origin, which is the main cultivar in Brazil and worldwide to produce chips and crisps (Evangelista et al., 2011EVANGELISTA, RM; NARDIN, I; FERNANDES, AM; SORATTO, RP. 2011. Qualidade nutricional e esverdeamento pós-colheita de tubérculos de cultivares de batata. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 46: 953-960.). Cultivars intended for industrial processing produce tubers with characteristics that allow to obtain a final product with good quality. Some examples are high dry weight and low reducing sugars content (Silva et al., 2018SILVA, GO; PEREIRA, AS; AZEVEDO, FQ; CARVALHO, AD; PINHEIRO, JB. 2018. Selection of potato clones for tuber yield, vine maturity and frying quality. Horticultura Brasileira 36: 276-281.).

The better the characteristics of the cultivar, the better the quality of the final product and the lower the production cost, because the higher the dry weight content of the tuber produced, the lower the absorption of oil, providing a higher frying yield (Araújo et al., 2016ARAÚJO, TH; PÁDUA, JG; SPOTO, MH; ORTIZ, VD; MARGOSSIAN, PL; DIAS, CT; MELO, PC. 2016. Productivity and quality of potato cultivars for processing as shoestrings and chips. Horticultura Brasileira 34: 554-560.). It is important to study the different cultivars that are specific for this purpose, and test if fertilizer management affects production and quality (Wang et al., 2020WANG, C; ZANG, H; LIU, J; SHI, X; LI, S; CHEN, F; CHU, Q. 2020. Optimum nitrogen rate to maintain sustainable potato production and improve nitrogen use efficiency at a regional scale in China. A meta-analysis. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 40: 1-14.).

Nitrogen (N) is the main macronutrient required and absorbed by potato plants (Fernandes et al., 2011FERNANDES, AM; SORATTO, RP; SILVA, BL. 2011. Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de batata: I - macronutrientes. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 35: 2039-2056.). Its application can directly affect tuber growth, yield, and quality (Souza et al., 2019SOUZA, EFC; SORATTO, RP; FERNANDES, AM; ROSEN, CJ. 2019. Nitrogen source and rate effects on irrigated potato in tropical sandy soils. Agronomy Journal111: 378-389.). Potato cultivars can take up different amounts of N and respond differently to N fertilizers (Reiter et al., 2012REITER, MS; RIDEOUT, SL; FREEMAN, JH. 2012. Nitrogen fertilizer and growth regulator impacts on tuber deformity, rot, and yield for russet potatoes. International Journal of Agronomy 2012: 1-7.). It is necessary to evaluate the characteristics and N requirements of each cultivar and appropriately adjust the rates of N fertilizer (Assunção et al., 2021ASSUNÇÃO, NS; FERNANDES, AM; SORATTO, RP; MOTA, LHSO; RIBEIRO, NP; LEONEL, M. 2021. Tuber yield and quality of two potato cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilizer management. Potato Research 64: 147-166.).

Nitrogen rates affected the dry weight content of the cultivar Asterix (ranging from 18.4% to 20.8%) (Oliveira et al., 2006OLIVEIRA, VR; ANDRIOLO, JL; BISOGNIN, DA; PAULA, AL; TREVISAN, AP; ANTES, RB. 2006. Qualidade de processamento de tubérculos de batata produzidos sob diferentes disponibilidades de nitrogênio. Ciência Rural 36: 660-663.). Another study with cultivar Agata observed that N rates affected the tuber dry weight percentage and when N was supplied in full rate at planting, the plants had higher leaf area index and dry weight of tubers (Kawakami, 2015KAWAKAMI, J. 2015. Redução da adubação e doses e parcelamento de nitrogênio no crescimento e produtividade de batata. Horticultura Brasileira 33: 168-173.).

In these studies, variations in fertilization were evaluated in foreign cultivars, but fertilization may affect Brazilian cultivars differently. The management of N fertilization for Brazilian cultivars may not be the same as that adopted for imported cultivars, due to their different origins. In addition, optimum N rate for potato fertilization varies around the world (Reiter et al., 2012REITER, MS; RIDEOUT, SL; FREEMAN, JH. 2012. Nitrogen fertilizer and growth regulator impacts on tuber deformity, rot, and yield for russet potatoes. International Journal of Agronomy 2012: 1-7.), suggesting different cultivar response to N.

There exist little information about national processing cultivars with different fertilizer rates. The objective of this work was to evaluate the tuber yield and quality response of processing potato cultivars subjected to N rates.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Three experiments were conducted on commercial potato fields of a local grower, all located in Guarapuava-PR (25ºS, 52ºW, altitude 996 m). The soil in all fields is very clayey Typic Hapludox (United States Department of Agriculture) (USDA, 1999USDA, United States Department of Agriculture. 1999. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classifications for making and interpreting soil surveys. Washington: USDA.). Black oats were planted in the winter and soybeans or corn in the summer. The climate is classified as Cfb (Köppen, high altitude temperate) (IAPAR, 2000IAPAR - Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. 2000. Cartas climáticas do Paraná. In: CD1. Versão 1.0. Londrina: Formato digital. (CD-ROM).). Average temperature and rainfall data were obtained from the meteorological station located about 10 km from the experimental site (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Data for average temperature (ºC) (A) and rainfall (mm) (B), during the experiments in the years of 2016, 2017 and 2018. Source: SIMEPAR weather station, campus Cedeteg. Guarapuava, UNICENTRO, 2022.

The periods of the researches were from December 2015 to April 2016 (2016), from January to May 2017 (2017), and from December 2017 to April 2018 (2018). In each research there were eight treatments: two cultivars (Atlantic and BRSIPR Bel), four N rates at planting (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg/ha), and four replications (blocks). These rates represent 0, 47, 94 and 141% of the recommended dose by the Fertilization and Liming Manual for the State of Parana (SBCS/NEPAR, 2017SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE CIÊNCIA DO SOLO. NÚCLEO ESTADUAL DO PARANÁ - SBCS/NEPAR. 2017. Manual de adubação e calagem para o Estado do Paraná. Curitiba: SBCS: NEPAR, 482p.). The experimental design of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme was adopted: 2 cultivars (Atlantic and BRSIPR Bel), 4 N rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg/ha) and 3 years (2016, 2017 and 2018).

Soil chemical analysis was performed in all three years (0-20 cm), in which the following values were found for 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively: pH (CaCl2): 4.7; 4.1 and 5.1; P available (mg/dm3): 5.62; 3.76 and 2.40; exchangeable K (cmolc/dm3): 0.48; 0.5 and 0.60; exchangeable Ca (cmolc/dm3): 3.22; 2.18 and 3.99; exchangeable Mg (cmolc/dm3): 1.39; 0.89 and 1.35; Organic matter (%): 4.17; 3.61 and 4.05 and base saturation (V%): 47.8; 26.4 and 57.6. For liming, a target saturation of 60% was adopted (SBCS/NEPAR, 2017SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE CIÊNCIA DO SOLO. NÚCLEO ESTADUAL DO PARANÁ - SBCS/NEPAR. 2017. Manual de adubação e calagem para o Estado do Paraná. Curitiba: SBCS: NEPAR, 482p.), and calcitic limestone was used.

The soil was previously prepared by plowing, harrowing, and chisel plowing. Type III seed tubers (30-40 mm diameter) were used as planting material for Atlantic, provided by a certified producer, and BRSIPR Bel, provided by the Embrapa Experimental Station in Canoinhas-SC, and by the “União Castrense Ltda” agricultural cooperative (Unicastro). Tubers were planted at 0.80 m between rows and 0.25 m between plants (50,000 plants/ha), with one outer border line, and at least one plant at the beginning and end of the lines. In 2016 and 2017, each experimental plot had 6 rows with 7 plants per row with a plot size of 4.8 m by 1.75 m (8.4 m2). In 2018 each plot consisted of 6 rows with 15 plants per row with a plot size of 4.8 m by 3.75 m (18 m2).

Nitrogen was supplied in the form of urea (45% N) in all experiments. Fertilization with phosphorus and potassium followed the standard adopted by local growers: 560 kg/ha of P2O5 (single super phosphate) and 320 kg/ha of K2O (potassium chloride). These rates of P2O5 and K2O are above the rate recommended by the Fertilization and Liming Manual for the State of Parana (SBCS/NEPAR, 2017SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE CIÊNCIA DO SOLO. NÚCLEO ESTADUAL DO PARANÁ - SBCS/NEPAR. 2017. Manual de adubação e calagem para o Estado do Paraná. Curitiba: SBCS: NEPAR, 482p.). All fertilizers were applied in full rate on the day of planting, directly in the furrow.

Hilling was performed around 28 days after planting (DAP). Both planting and hilling were done manually. The phytosanitary management (weeds, pests, and diseases) adopted was the same as that used by the grower.

Plants were harvested after physiological maturity, about 120 DAP. For the years 2016 and 2017, tubers were manually collected from 10 plants per plot, and in the year 2018, from 12 plants per plot. The collected tubers were taken from central plants of the plot.

Morphological variables were assessed from 4 plants per plot, in 2018 only: number of main stems, number of secondary stems, leaf area index (LAI), number and fresh weight of tubers. To estimate LAI, leaf sample (2,000 cm2) of 4 plants in each plot was measured using leaf area meter (LI3100C, Li-Cor USA). This leaf sample and the rest of the leaves of the 4 plants were dried (70°C). To estimate the total leaf area of the 4 plants and the LAI, the following equation was used:

LAI= [(Sample leaf area x Total leaf dry weight / Sample leaf dry weight)/10,000] x 5 / 4

Tubers were washed and, after drying, the yield (number and weight) of total and commercial tubers were assessed. Commercial tubers were defined as those with a diameter larger than 45 mm. The dry weight percentage of tubers was estimated by taking 250 to 300 g samples of slices from several tubers, which were placed in a forced air heater for drying at 70ºC until reaching constant weight. After drying, the slices were weighed and with the fresh and dry weight of the sample the dry weight percentage was calculated.

To calculate the percentage of oil absorption by the chips, the following equation was used:

Y=59,10894-(0,96768*X)

Where Y = percentage of oil absorbed by the chips and X = percentage of tuber dry weight (Gould, 1999GOULD, WA. 1999. Potato production, processing and technology. Arlington: CTI Publications, p.51-72.).

Data were subjected to homogeneity (Shapiro Wilk) and variance and regression (linear and quadratic) analysis using the SISVAR statistical package. A joint analysis of the three experiments was performed (Moore & Dixon, 2015MOORE, KJ; DIXON, PM. 2015. Analysis of combined experiments revisited. Agronomy Journal 107: 763-771.). For some variables there were not significant effects in anova but they were analyzed via polynomial regressions (Finkelman et al., 1977FINKELMAN, JM; WOLF, EH; FRIEND, MA. 1977. Polynomial regression analysis as an alternative to ANOVA for data characterized by lower-order trends. Human Factors 3: 279-281.). When regression was significant, the one with the highest coefficient of determination (R2) was chosen. Non-normal data (total yield, commercial yield, tuber dry mass percentage and oil content) were transformed (x+0.5 ).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The temperature in 2018 was lower from the 1st to the 60th DAP, whereas from the 61st to the 120th DAP, the lowest temperatures were observed in 2017 (Figure 1). We observed that from the 46th to the 105th DAP, 2017, occurred the lowest rainfall, especially between the 61st to the 75th DAP, the period in which rainfall was only 1.5 mm. In total, 717, 441, and 557 mm of total precipitation was recorded during the crop cycle in 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively.

None of the assessed variables showed a three-way interaction among year x cultivar x rate (YxCxR) (Table 1). Similarly, none of the variables showed an interaction between cultivar x N rate (CxR). This result rules out the hypothesis that the studied cultivars due to their different origins respond differently in yield to different N rates, that is, the USA cultivar (Atlantic) and the Brazilian cultivar (BRSIPR Bel) respond in a similar manner to rates of N between 0 and 225 kg/ha.

For the morphological variables, an effect of cultivar was observed in all variables. There was an increase in the number of secondary stems in the plants according to the increase in the N rate, both at 42 and 63 DAP (Figure 2A). This increase was also observed for leaf area index (LAI, Figure 2B), the number of formed tubers (Figure 2C) and fresh tuber weight (Figure 2D). Nitrogen is an important element for plant development, and, when in low quantities, it inhibits plant growth (Taiz et al., 2017TAIZ, L; ZEIGER, E; MOLLER, I; MURPHY, A. 2017. Fisiologia e desenvolvimento vegetal. 6.ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 888p.). Except the number of formed tubers, in every other assessed morphological variables the effect of N rate was greater at 63 DAP than at 42 DAP (higher angular coefficient of the regression at 63 DAP). This result corroborates the information that the effect of increasing N rate is more pronounced in the intermediate and final stages (after 54 DAP) compared to the early stages (up to 40 DAP) of potato plant growth (Wen et al., 2019WEN, G; CAMBOURIS, NA; ZIADI, N; BERTRAND, A; KHELIFI, M. 2019. Nitrogen fertilization effects on the composition of foliar amino acids of Russet Burbank potato. American Journal of Potato Research 96: 541-51.). Total plant dry weight showed a similar trend to the other morphological variables at 42 DAP, i.e., it increased with increasing N rates. However, at 63 DAP, the trend was quadratic (Figure 2E).

Table 1
Significance level for the quantified variables and regression analysis in plants of two potato cultivars submitted to four nitrogen rates. Guarapuava, UNICENTRO, 2022.

Figure 2
Number of secondary stems per plant (A), leaf area index (B), number of tubers (C), fresh weight of tubers (D) and total dry weight (E) in plants of two potato cultivars submitted to four nitrogen rates at 42 and 63 DAP, in 2018. Guarapuava, UNICENTRO, 2022.

The year x cultivar interaction (YxC) was significant for all yield variables except for total yield (TY, Table 1). All years differed in total yield, in the descending order of 2018 > 2016 > 2017; the year 2018 resulted in a 40% higher yield than that observed in the year 2017 (Figure 3A). The lower yield observed in 2017 probably occurred because in that year the precipitation from 46 DAP to 105 DAP, as well as the average temperature from 61 DAP, were lower compared to the other years (Figure 1).

Figure 3
Total yield (TY) for each year (A) and cultivars (B), quadratic regression for the total (TY) and commercial (CY) yields (C), and the result of the regression analysis for the number of total (NTT) and commercial (NCT) tubers (D), from plants of two potato cultivars submitted to four rates of nitrogen. ¹Means followed by the same letter do not differ by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. ** = p<0.01. * = p<0.05. Guarapuava, UNICENTRO, 2022.

The national cultivar BRSIPR Bel showed a higher total yield (36 t/ha) than the control cultivar, Atlantic (30 t/ha) (Figure 3B), corroborating research that reports that this cultivar has a high yield potential (Pereira et al., 2015PEREIRA, AS; NAZARENO, NRC; SILVA, GO; BERTONCINI, O; CASTRO, CM; HIRANO, E; BORTOLETTO, AC; TREPTOW, RO; DUTRA, LF; LIMA, MF; GOMES, CB; KROLOW, AC; MEDEIROS, CA; CASTRO, LA; SUINAGA, FA; LOPES, CA; MELO, PE. 2015. BRSIPR Bel: Cultivar de batata para chips com tubérculos de boa aparência. Horticultura Brasileira 33: 135-139.). BRSIPR Bel is a Brazilian cultivar released in 2012 (Pereira et al., 2015PEREIRA, AS; NAZARENO, NRC; SILVA, GO; BERTONCINI, O; CASTRO, CM; HIRANO, E; BORTOLETTO, AC; TREPTOW, RO; DUTRA, LF; LIMA, MF; GOMES, CB; KROLOW, AC; MEDEIROS, CA; CASTRO, LA; SUINAGA, FA; LOPES, CA; MELO, PE. 2015. BRSIPR Bel: Cultivar de batata para chips com tubérculos de boa aparência. Horticultura Brasileira 33: 135-139.; Oliveira et al., 2018OLIVEIRA, TF; GENTIL, TG; CLEMENTE, JM; REIS, MR. 2018. Use efficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus moores and potassium by potato cultivars. Revista Cultura Agronômica 27: 251-261.), selected for the soil and climate conditions of Brazil. ‘BRSIPR Bel’ formed a higher total tuber number compared to Atlantic, in all three years (data not shown), making this the probably responsible factor for the higher total yield of this cultivar.

Nitrogen rates had a quadratic effect on both total and commercial yield. The estimated rate that resulted in the highest yield was 147.5 and 151.7 kg/ha of N, which resulted in yields of 35.7 and 34.0 t/ha for total and commercial yield, respectively (Figure 3C). The maximum total yield rate observed in the present study is corroborated by other studies that also observed quadratic response of yield to N rates and observed higher yields with 136-160 (Souza et al., 2019SOUZA, EFC; SORATTO, RP; FERNANDES, AM; ROSEN, CJ. 2019. Nitrogen source and rate effects on irrigated potato in tropical sandy soils. Agronomy Journal111: 378-389.), 168 (Zaeen et al., 2020ZAEEN, AA; SHARMA, LK; JASIM, A; BALI, S; BUZZA, A; ALYOKHIN, A. 2020. Yield and quality of three potato cultivars under series of nitrogen rates. Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment 3: e20062.) and 224 kg/ha of N (Makani et al., 2020MAKANI, MN; ZOTARELLI, L; SARGENT, AS; HUBER, DJ; SIMS, CA. 2020. Nitrogen fertilizer rate affects yield and tuber quality of drip-irrigated tablestock potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under subtropical conditions. American Journal of Potato Research 97: 605-614.).

Regarding the YxC interaction, in 2017 the cultivars did not differ in commercial yield, and in the other two years, the cultivar BRSIPR Bel showed higher commercial yield (2016 and 2018: 35.9 and 38.9 t/ha, respectively). Atlantic had higher total tuber number in 2018 (4.8 tubers/plant) compared to the other years (2016 and 2017: 4.2 and 3.9 tubers/plant, respectively), whereas BRSIPR Bel did not differ between years (2016, 2017 and 2018: 5.6; 5.8 and 5.3 tubers/plant, respectively). In two years, BRSIPR Bel showed a higher number of commercial tubers (2016 and 2017: 4.5 and 3.7 tubers/plant, respectively), however, in 2018 the cultivars Atlantic (4.2 tubers/plant) and BRSIPR Bel (4.5 tubers/plant) did not differ in this variable. The year 2017 was when the cultivars produced the least number of commercial tubers, and this fact is probably responsible for the lower commercial yield observed in that year. Nitrogen rates influenced total and commercial tuber number (Figure 3D). The effect was quadratic and the estimated N rates that resulted in the highest total (5.15 tubers/plant) and commercial (4.08 tubers/plant) tuber numbers were 145.0 kg/ha of N and 121.3 kg/ha of N, respectively.

The variables related to processing quality (tuber dry weight, DW, and oil absorption, OA) showed no three-way interaction or cultivar x rate (CxR) interaction, as well as no N rate effect was observed on these variables (Table 1). The cultivars differed in all years, with Atlantic producing tubers with a dry weight percentage on average 2% higher than BRSIPR Bel. The percentage of dry weight is a quality parameter of potatoes for frying, the higher this content, the less oil is absorbed during the frying process. Atlantic absorbed on average 2% less oil than BRSIPR Bel. Nitrogen rates did not affect the percentage of dry weight in the years 2016 and 2017, but in 2018 the rate that resulted in higher percentage of dry weight and lower oil absorption was of 127.73 kg/ha of N.

In conclusion, the two studied cultivars, Atlantic (USA cultivar) and BRSIPR Bel (Brazilian cultivar), responded similarly to N rates in relation to yield components. BRSIPR Bel showed higher total and commercial yields because it had a greater number of tubers. Atlantic produced tubers with a higher percentage of dry weight and lower oil absorption, i.e., better industrial quality.

The estimated N rate of 151.2 kg/ha resulted in the highest commercial yield: 34.0 t/ha, for both cultivars.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To the farmer and Agronomist Rene M. Bandeira Filho for making the area available and to Agronomists Jonas G. Zandonai and Antônio R. Camacho for their help in conducting the experiments. To colleagues Inglerton J. Moss and Dioni Stroparo for their help in data collection. To Embrapa and Unicastro for supplying the seed potatoes. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brasil (CAPES), Finance Code 001.

REFERENCES

  • ARAÚJO, TH; PÁDUA, JG; SPOTO, MH; ORTIZ, VD; MARGOSSIAN, PL; DIAS, CT; MELO, PC. 2016. Productivity and quality of potato cultivars for processing as shoestrings and chips. Horticultura Brasileira 34: 554-560.
  • ASSUNÇÃO, NS; FERNANDES, AM; SORATTO, RP; MOTA, LHSO; RIBEIRO, NP; LEONEL, M. 2021. Tuber yield and quality of two potato cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilizer management. Potato Research 64: 147-166.
  • BURGOS, G; ZUM FELDE, T; ANDRE, C; KUBOW, S. 2020. The potato and its contribution to the human diet and health. In: CAMPOS, H; ORTIZ, O (eds). The potato crop: its agricultural, nutritional and social contribution to humankind Cham: Springer, p.37-74.
  • DELEO, JPB; INÁCIO, HAC; BOTEON, M. 2018. Especial batata: gestão sustentável. Hortifruti Brasil 17: 10-24.
  • EVANGELISTA, RM; NARDIN, I; FERNANDES, AM; SORATTO, RP. 2011. Qualidade nutricional e esverdeamento pós-colheita de tubérculos de cultivares de batata. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 46: 953-960.
  • FERNANDES, AM; SORATTO, RP; SILVA, BL. 2011. Extração e exportação de nutrientes em cultivares de batata: I - macronutrientes. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 35: 2039-2056.
  • FINKELMAN, JM; WOLF, EH; FRIEND, MA. 1977. Polynomial regression analysis as an alternative to ANOVA for data characterized by lower-order trends. Human Factors 3: 279-281.
  • GOULD, WA. 1999. Potato production, processing and technology Arlington: CTI Publications, p.51-72.
  • IAPAR - Instituto Agronômico do Paraná. 2000. Cartas climáticas do Paraná In: CD1. Versão 1.0. Londrina: Formato digital. (CD-ROM).
  • IMARC. 2022. Potato chips market: global industry trends, share, size, growth, opportunity and forecast 2022-2027. Available at: <Available at: https://www.imarcgroup.com/potato-chips-manufacturing-plant >. AcessedJanuary 9, 2022.
    » https://www.imarcgroup.com/potato-chips-manufacturing-plant
  • KAWAKAMI, J. 2015. Redução da adubação e doses e parcelamento de nitrogênio no crescimento e produtividade de batata. Horticultura Brasileira 33: 168-173.
  • MAKANI, MN; ZOTARELLI, L; SARGENT, AS; HUBER, DJ; SIMS, CA. 2020. Nitrogen fertilizer rate affects yield and tuber quality of drip-irrigated tablestock potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under subtropical conditions. American Journal of Potato Research 97: 605-614.
  • MOORE, KJ; DIXON, PM. 2015. Analysis of combined experiments revisited. Agronomy Journal 107: 763-771.
  • OLIVEIRA, TF; GENTIL, TG; CLEMENTE, JM; REIS, MR. 2018. Use efficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus moores and potassium by potato cultivars. Revista Cultura Agronômica 27: 251-261.
  • OLIVEIRA, VR; ANDRIOLO, JL; BISOGNIN, DA; PAULA, AL; TREVISAN, AP; ANTES, RB. 2006. Qualidade de processamento de tubérculos de batata produzidos sob diferentes disponibilidades de nitrogênio. Ciência Rural 36: 660-663.
  • PEREIRA, AS; NAZARENO, NRC; SILVA, GO; BERTONCINI, O; CASTRO, CM; HIRANO, E; BORTOLETTO, AC; TREPTOW, RO; DUTRA, LF; LIMA, MF; GOMES, CB; KROLOW, AC; MEDEIROS, CA; CASTRO, LA; SUINAGA, FA; LOPES, CA; MELO, PE. 2015. BRSIPR Bel: Cultivar de batata para chips com tubérculos de boa aparência. Horticultura Brasileira 33: 135-139.
  • REITER, MS; RIDEOUT, SL; FREEMAN, JH. 2012. Nitrogen fertilizer and growth regulator impacts on tuber deformity, rot, and yield for russet potatoes. International Journal of Agronomy 2012: 1-7.
  • SILVA, GO; PEREIRA, AS; AZEVEDO, FQ; CARVALHO, AD; PINHEIRO, JB. 2018. Selection of potato clones for tuber yield, vine maturity and frying quality. Horticultura Brasileira 36: 276-281.
  • SILVA, PNL; R, JUNIOR RF; SANTOS, EF. 2016. Conhecimento do consumidor e forma de apresentação da batata no mercado no Estado de São Paulo. Revista IPecege 2: 46-55.
  • SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE CIÊNCIA DO SOLO. NÚCLEO ESTADUAL DO PARANÁ - SBCS/NEPAR. 2017. Manual de adubação e calagem para o Estado do Paraná Curitiba: SBCS: NEPAR, 482p.
  • SOUZA, EFC; SORATTO, RP; FERNANDES, AM; ROSEN, CJ. 2019. Nitrogen source and rate effects on irrigated potato in tropical sandy soils. Agronomy Journal111: 378-389.
  • TAIZ, L; ZEIGER, E; MOLLER, I; MURPHY, A. 2017. Fisiologia e desenvolvimento vegetal 6.ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 888p.
  • USDA, United States Department of Agriculture. 1999. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classifications for making and interpreting soil surveys Washington: USDA.
  • WANG, C; ZANG, H; LIU, J; SHI, X; LI, S; CHEN, F; CHU, Q. 2020. Optimum nitrogen rate to maintain sustainable potato production and improve nitrogen use efficiency at a regional scale in China. A meta-analysis. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 40: 1-14.
  • WEN, G; CAMBOURIS, NA; ZIADI, N; BERTRAND, A; KHELIFI, M. 2019. Nitrogen fertilization effects on the composition of foliar amino acids of Russet Burbank potato. American Journal of Potato Research 96: 541-51.
  • ZAEEN, AA; SHARMA, LK; JASIM, A; BALI, S; BUZZA, A; ALYOKHIN, A. 2020. Yield and quality of three potato cultivars under series of nitrogen rates. Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment 3: e20062.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    29 May 2023
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    24 Oct 2022
  • Accepted
    27 Mar 2023
Associação Brasileira de Horticultura Embrapa Hortaliças, C. Postal 218, 70275-970 Brasília-DF, Tel. (61) 3385 9099, Tel. (81) 3320 6064, www.abhorticultura.com.br - Vitoria da Conquista - BA - Brazil
E-mail: associacaohorticultura@gmail.com