The paper attempts to illustrate how refusing an interpretation can lead to very different consequences within Freudian, Jungian, and other psychotherapeutic models. In some cases, a “no” may refute the model of reference, while in others it may have less radical meanings. Refusing an interpretation (if it is consistent with the model and the patient’s history) within a Freudian environment can also challenge the validity of the model. From a Jungian perspective, a refusal may simply lead the therapist to change the model of reference, since no single model is considered universally valid. Other examples are also provided from the psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavior, and family therapy research traditions.
psychotherapy; psychoanalysis; analytical psychology; negation