International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences, Volume: 34, Issue: 2, Published: 2021
  • Physical Activity, Exercise and Sports and Covid-19: What Really Matters Editorial

    Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de
  • Atrial Fibrillation and Use of Rivaroxaban: Performance of the Prothrombin Time / INR as a Function of Time After Blood Collection Original Article

    Duarte, Rita Carolina Figueiredo; Moreira, Priscila Samara Sérgio; Ferreira, Cláudia Natália; Figueiredo, Estevão Lanna; Sternick, Eduardo; Silveira, Francisco Rezende; Alves, Luan Carlos Vieira; Mota, Ana Paula Lucas; Reis, Edna Afonso; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Reis, Helton José dos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Traditionally, the most effective therapy in the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been oral anticoagulation with vitamin K inhibitors, particularly warfarin, whose disadvantages and adverse effects have led to their replacement by "direct oral anticoagulants", as factor X inhibitor. Objectives This study aimed to conduct a brief approach on atrial fibrillation (AF) and use of Rivaroxaban, and to comparatively evaluate the prothrombin time / International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) in patients with AF in use of this oral anticoagulant, depending on the time elapsed between the last administration of the drug and the time of blood sample venipuncture. Methods We evaluated 34 patients with AF in use of Rivaroxaban by using PT / INR, distributed into a subgroup with blood collection time ≤ 12 hours (n = 7) and > 12 hours after the last drug intake (n = 27). Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results An analysis as a function of time between the Rivaroxaban intake and blood collection, revealed that PT / INR suffers the greatest effect up to 12 hours after ingestion of the drug, dropping to levels close to normal in subsequent hours before the next dose. Conclusion We concluded that, in contrast to warfarin, the knowledge of the time interval between drug intake and blood collection from patients taking Rivaroxaban is essential to properly interpret a laboratory test to assess hemostasis, particularly PT and its derivatives. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
  • Rivaroxaban: is it Really Need to Monitor its Anticoagulant Effect in Clinical Practice? Editorial

    Camanho, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Santos, Gustavo Vignoli dos
  • Maternal Intake of Flaxseed During Lactation and Exercise Training Protect Against Salt Overload-Induced Aortic Remodeling in Adult Offspring Original Article

    Silva-Couto, Simoni; Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Castro, Caroline Luiza Codonho; Barreto, Vanessa de Lana Melo; Martins, Joyce Eduarda Campos; Lenzi, Queila; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; Chagas, Maurício Alves

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background High dietary sodium intake can induce endothelial stiffness even without changes in blood pressure. Objectives To evaluate the effects of exercise training and chronic intake of sodium chloride solution on aortic morphology of male offspring of rat dams who consumed flaxseed during lactation. Methods Female rats were fed with a control diet or a flaxseed diet during lactation. At weaning, two male offspring of each rat dam were allocated into eight groups for 180 days: four groups received a control diet e four received a flaxseed diet, with /without exercise and with/without NaCl solution supply. Aorta was collected for histomorphometric analysis. The one-way analysis of variance was used and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The chronic use of 1% NaCl solution led to changes in aortic histoarchitecture in the control group: increase in aortic intima-media thickness (10,4%, p<0.0001) and reduced number of elastic lamellae (-8,1%, p<0.0001). Groups of offspring of mother that consumed flaxseed during lactation, the chronic use of 1% NaCl alone did not lead to an increase in the aortic intima-media thickness. Exercise training of adult offspring increased aortic intima-media thickness (13.3%, p<0.0001), with preservation of elastic components and aortic flexibility. Conclusion Chronic salt overload caused adverse effects on the aorta of rats, and maternal consumption of the flaxseed diet during lactation protected against aortic remodeling. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
  • Can the Impact of the Excessive Use of Salt and its Chronic Consequences be Atenuated by Functional Foods? Editorial

    Latini, Juliana Tomaz Pacheco; Almeida, Kátia Calvi Lenzi de
  • Correlation between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Clinical and Anthropometric Variables in an Elderly Population Original Article

    Castanheira, Joaquim; Nunes, Cristiana; Pereira, Telmo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Epicardial fat (EF) thickness is a marker of visceral adiposity and consequently considered an important predictive marker of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Objective To describe echocardiographic features of the heart in an elderly population and to study the correlation between EF thickness and clinical and anthropometric variables. Methods A sample of 34 individuals (25 women) aged between 65 and 92 years, who attended a private institution in the central region of Continental Portugal, was analyzed. A standardized sociodemographic questionnaire was applied, and anthropometric assessment, echocardiography and blood pressure measurement were performed in all subjects. A correlational analysis of EF thickness with anthropometric and clinical parameters was performed. The association between variables was tested by Pearson's correlation and point-biserial correlation. A value of p < 0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Results EF thickness was higher in males (6.0 ± 1.4 mm vs 5.2 ± 0.9 mm in females), and ranged from 4 to 9 mm. There were statistically significant correlations between EF thickness and weight (r = 0.4; p = 0.02), body surface area (r = 0.4; p = 0.02), lean mass (r = 0.4; p = 0.03), calf circumference (r = 0.5; p = 0.01) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (r = 0.3; p = 0.04). Conclusion EF thickness was higher in males and was significantly correlated with anthropometric parameters of adiposity and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
  • Epicardial Fat Thickness: a Promising Cardiovascular Risk Factor that Requires in-Depth Studies Editorial

    Saraiva, Roberto M.; Costa, Andréa Rodrigues da
  • Short-Term Effects of a Resistance Training Program Using Elastic Tubing in Patients with Heart Disease Original Article

    Silva, João Pedro Lucas Neves; Ferreira, Tamara Iasmin de Sá; Cavalleri, Gabriela Côrtes; Cruz, Mayara Moura Alves da; Galindo, Bianca Pinhal; Silva, Natália Turri da; Silva, Bruna Spolador de Alencar; Leite, Marceli Rocha; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Resistance training is effective in cardiac rehabilitation; however, it is conventionally performed using free weights or machines, which can pose logistic challenges to patients with restricted mobility. For its ease of access and cost-effectiveness, elastic tubing is a particularly appealing alternative, but it remains underutilized for this purpose. Objective To evaluate muscle strength, functional capacity, aerobic capacity, and quality of life in patients with heart disease in phase II of cardiovascular rehabilitation after a resistance training intervention based solely on elastic tubing. Methods Thirteen patients with heart disease (age 63.33±10.80 years) trained with elastic tubing twice weekly for 6 weeks, with progressive load increase every 15 days. The following muscle groups were evaluated and trained: shoulder abductors and flexors, elbow flexors, and knee flexors and extensors. Muscle strength was evaluated using a dynamometer; functional capacity, with a 6-minute walk test and cardiopulmonary exercise test; and quality of life, using the SF-36 questionnaire. Data normality was assessed using the Shapiro–Wilk test. The paired Student’s t-test was used for comparisons before and after training, at a significance level of <5%. Results There were significant differences in muscle strength (except for elbow flexion) and functional capacity (485.5 ± 123.3 vs 578.7 ± 110.5; p=0.0399) after the intervention. No statistical differences were found in cardiorespiratory fitness or quality of life. Conclusions Short-term resistance training with elastic tubing improved peripheral muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with heart disease, and should be encouraged for this population. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; xx(x):xxx-xxx)
  • Home-Based Resistance Training in Heart Diseases: Don't Stop the Music, your Muscles are still Listening Editorial

    Rodrigues, Gabriel Dias; Soares, Pedro Paulo da Silva
  • Elderly Mortality from Cerebrovascular Disease in Alagoas, 2000-2016: Spatial-Temporal Analysis Original Article

    Silva Junior, Luiz Carlos Francelino; Cunha, Euclides José Oliveira Da; Souza, Carlos Dornels Freire de; Duarte, Alysson Wagner Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) are the second leading cause of death in Brazil. Objective This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile and to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of mortality from cerebrovascular disease in the elderly in Alagoas from 2000-2016. Methods This is a multilevel ecological study of all deaths from CVD in individuals aged 60 years or older. Data were collected from the Mortality Information System. The variables were submitted to descriptive analysis, trend analysis by Joinpoint Regression method and spatial analysis with Global Moran’s and local statistics; 95% confidence interval and significance of 5% were considered in the analysis. Results There were 21,440 deaths in the study period, 50.4% (n=10,797) male, 40.5% (n=8,670) aged ≥ 80 years, 44.5% (n=9,465) of “brown” race, 30.1% (n=6,448) married and 36.5% (n=7,828) with less than four years of schooling. Female and male mortality rates were 460.24/100,000 and 602.23 / 100,000, respectively. An annual decreasing trend of -1.4% (p<0.001) in overall and male mortality was observed from 2007 on. The highest mortality rates were concentrated in the eastern region of Alagoas (Moran’s I =0.766288; p=0.01). Twenty-two municipalities were in quadrant Q1 of Moran’s scattering diagram and considered priorities. Conclusion Death from CVD in Alagoas occurred equally in men and women in the study period, mostly in individuals of mixed race, married, and with low education attainment. The highest rates were observed in the eastern region of the state . The results highlight the need for public policies aimed at healthy aging in the state. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
  • Mortality in the Elderly Due to Cerebrovascular Disease Editorial

    Gomes, Marco Antônio Mota; Paiva, Annelise Machado Gomes de
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Under Conservative Treatment Original Article

    Oliveira, Cássia; Pereira, Priscila Moreira de Lima; Soares, Iris Teixeira; Monteiro, Melina Gabriela; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is commonly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These diseases have a significant impact on life expectancy. Individuals with CKD are more likely to die from CVD than to progress to end-stage kidney disease. Objective To assess cardiovascular risk factors of patients with CKD under conservative treatment. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, biochemical, and physical inactivity data were assessed, and 10-year risk for CVD were estimated using the Framingham Score in patients with CKD under conservative treatment. For statistical analysis, the Student’s t-test and Pearson’s chi-square test were performed. Results A total of 172 individuals were evaluated, 57% of whom were male, with an average age of 68.85 ± 11.41 years. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were 87.2% and 53.5%, respectively; 62.2% were physically inactive; 9.9% of men were smokers and 12.8% consumed alcohol. According to BMI, 82.4% of adults <60 years old and 60.6% of those older than 60 years were overweight. High waist circumference and a high waist-hip ratio were highly prevalent in females (91.9% and 83.8%, respectively) and males (64.3% and 39.8%, respectively); 92.4% had a high body fat percentage and 73.3% high uric acid levels. According to the Framingham score, 57% have a medium or high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the population studied. The assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CKD makes it possible to guide the conduct of health professionals to prevent mortality from cardiovascular causes. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
  • The Association between Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT , and Tp-e/QTc Ratios and Coronary Artery Disease Spectrum and Syntax Score Original Article

    Kahraman, Serkan; Dogan, Ali; Demirci, Gokhan; Guler, Arda; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Uzun, Fatih; Kurtoglu, Nuri; Erturk, Mehmet; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) causes electrical heterogeneity on ventricular myocardium and ventricular arrhythmia due to myocardial ischemia linked to ventricular repolarization abnormalities. Objective Our aim is to investigate the impact of increased level of CAD spectrum and severity on ventricular repolarization via Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios. Methods 127 patients with normal coronary artery (group 1), 129 patients with stable CAD (group 2) and 121 patients with acute coronary syndrome (group 3) were enrolled. Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were evaluated as well as baseline demographic and clinical parameters. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test was used for comparing quantitative variables with abnormal distribution while One-Way ANOVA test was used for comparing the means between groups with normal distribution. Tukey HSD and Welch tests were used for subgroups analyses with normal distribution. Spearman analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between clinical variables and repolarization markers. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Tp-e interval [66(50-83), 71(59-82) and 76(64-86); group 1,2 and 3 respectively, p<0.001], Tp-e/QT (0.170.02, 0.180.01 and 0,190.01; group 1,2 and 3 respectively, p<0.001) and Tp-e/QTc (0.150.02, 0.160.02 and 0.170.02; group 1,2 and 3 respectively, p<0.001) ratios were found to be associated with increased level of CAD spectrum. Syntax score was positively correlated with Tp-e interval (r=0.514, p<0.001), Tp-e/QT (r=0.407, p<0.001), and Tp-e/QTc ratios (r=0.240, p<0.001). Conclusion Prolonged Tp-e interval and increased Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were detected in the presence of CAD and especially in patients with acute ischemic syndromes. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
  • The Effect of Psychotherapy on Anxiety, Depression, and Quality of Life of Patients with Heart Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial Original Article

    Rocha, Isaura; Cavalcanti, Ana Dantas; Figueiredo, Lyvia; Pereira, Juliana; Oliveira, Samara de; Cruz, Danilo da; Freitas, Rodrigo de; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Patients with heart failure often experience depression, anxiety, and impacts on quality of life. Psychotherapeutic interventions have been used for chronic conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, showing improvement in mental health. However, no studies have assessed the effects of a psychological intervention using psychoanalysis on patients with heart failure. Objective To assess the effect of short-term psychotherapy on depressive symptoms, anxiety, and quality of life of patients seen at a specialty clinic. Method A randomized clinical trial with scales to assess outcomes before and after psychotherapy, under the perspective of psychoanalysis, with 12 weekly sessions. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were used. The mean initial and final scores for quality of life, anxiety, and depression were compared using Student’s t-test for independent samples when distribution was normal, or Mann-Whitney test when distribution was non-normal. A bivariate p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results This study involved 32 patients, 50% were female, mean age was 64.3±11.6, and most participants were New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I (56.3%). For anxiety (p = 0.196), there was no statistically significant difference between groups. For quality of life and depression, there was a statistical difference (p = 0.009 and 0.035, respectively), with a medium effect (Cohen’s d = 0.593) on quality of life. Conclusion Short-term psychotherapy in outpatients with heart failure showed an impact on depression and quality of life but did not improve anxiety. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
  • Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases: Programming and Reprogramming Review Article

    Marques, Emiliana Barbosa; Souza, Karyne Pollo de; Alvim-Silva, Thaís; Martins, Ivis Levy Fernandes; Pedro, Samuel; Scaramello, Christianne Bretas Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) is an area of science dedicated to studying the processes by which insults during critical periods of mammals development leading to physiological changes resultig in diseases throughout life. Studies point to a complex interaction between nutritional status in early life and cardiovascular system homeostasis in which maternal malnutrition during gestation and/or lactation, as well as early weaning, are associated with development of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. In this context, epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and change in microRNA expression have been considered molecular bases of cellular plasticity, which can also be gender-dependent. Experimental studies have demonstrated that interventions encompassing the consumption of functional food/bioactive compounds, as well as energetic and nutrients adjustments on the diet, may attenuate or even prevent consequences associated with plasticity of development, improving cardiovascular health. This review aimed to gather and discuss the findings within this context, published over the last ten years.
  • Effects of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine on the Cardiovascular System - Limitations for Use in the Treatment of COVID-19 Review Article

    Brazão, Stephani Correia; Autran, Lis Jappour; Lopes, Rosane de Oliveira; Scaramello, Christianne Brêtas Vieira; Brito, Fernanda Carla Ferreira de; Motta, Nadia Alice Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Chloroquine (CQ) and Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are antimalarial drugs, with anti-inflammatory properties that justify their use in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatic diseases. A pandemic caused by the new coronavirus led the entire world’s scientific community to look for drugs already available on the market, capable of exercising beneficial actions in the fight against the disease. Preliminary studies in patients, as well as in vitro studies, suggested possible therapeutic effects associated with the use of HCQ and CQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Despite controversies over the effects of these drugs in combating the “cytokine storm” associated with COVID and the dismal of results in different clinical trials in Brazil, their use has been encouraged and several ongoing investigative studies are underway. In addition to the possible beneficial effects on the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2, such drugs include varied effects on the cardiovascular system, ranging from positive developments related to their vasodilator properties to potential negative effects, such as cardiotoxicity. This work presents the main effects exerted by these drugs on the cardiovascular system, in order to contribute to a scientific discussion about the repurposing of these drugs in the context of COVID-19.
  • Acute Effect of Resistance Exercise on Mucociliary Clearance in Active Smokers Brief Communication

    Masuda, Alessandra Mayumi Marques; Trevisan, Iara Buriola; Gouveia, Tamara dos Santos; Tacao, Guilherme Yassuyuki; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Ramos, Dionei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) responds to autonomic activity through exercise. However, there is a gap in the literature on how NMC responds to resistance exercise. Objective: To evaluate the acute effects of resistance tube exercise on NMC and the autonomic nervous system in smokers. Methods: Clinical trial was performed with 18 individuals. Personal, anthropometric, and smoking history data were collected, and a pulmonary function test was performed by spirometry. The fatigue resistance test was performed in order to obtain the number of repetitions for the prescription of exercise. Heart rate variability was captured using a monitor. Subsequently, the exhaled carbon monoxide (exCO) was measured and a saccharin transit test (STT) was performed for NMC. Results: The non-smoking group presented a significant decrease of 4.0±3.2 minutes in STT after P1 (p=0.021). Regarding HRV, the smoking group presented a significant decrease of mean RR (−90.3±53.0; p=0.011), SDNN (−560.0±1333.2; p=0.008), RMSSD (−13.6±10.5; p=0.011), LFms² (−567.3±836.1; p=0.008), HFms² (−223.8±231.8; p=0.008), SD1 (−9.7±7.4; p=0.011) and SD2 (−20.7±17.0; p=0.008), and an increase of mean HR (10.2±5.9; p=0.011) after P2. In the non-smoking group, a significant decrease was observed in the mean RR (−67.1±70.7; p=0.038), SDNN (−16.8±15.0; p=0.015), RMSSD (−12.3±14.7; p=0.011), LFms² (−831.2±1347.5; p=0.015), SD1 (−8.7±10.4; p=0.011), and SD2 (−22.0±19.1; p=0.015), while an increase in HR (7.1±7.3; p=0.028) was found after P1. Conclusions: The intensity of the resistance exercise applied to the patient was not enough to promote changes in smokers. By contrast, in non-smokers, the same intensity of exercise was effective in promoting alterations in the NMC and autonomic activity. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; 34(2):223-230)
  • Research and Publication in Brazil: Where we are and Where we Head to Viewpoint

    Lopes, Marcelo Antônio Cartaxo Queiroga; Brasil, David; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de
  • Acute Myocardial Infarction as the Initial Clinical Manifestation of Pernicious Anemia Case Report

    Silva, Leonardo Marostica Alves; Barros Junior, Assis Xavier da Silva; Galina, João Antonio de Toledo; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Bienert, Igor Ribeiro de Castro; Andrade, Pedro Beraldo de
  • Double-lumen Aortic Arch: Persistence of the Fifth Aortic Arch? Case Report

    Monteze, Nathalia Mussi; Guimarães, Adriana Furletti Machado; Araujo, Fatima Derlene da Rocha

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Double-lumen aortic arch is a rare congenital anomaly related to persistence of the fifth aortic arch. It may be found alone or in association with other anatomical changes of the heart. We report a case of double-lumen aortic arch associated with coarctation of the aorta and patent ductus arteriosus in a child with a congenital malformation known as the VACTERL association (vertebral defects, imperforate anus, cardiopathy, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal abnormalities and limb anomalies).
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