Abstract in English:Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets) whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST) appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a) a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats); (b) a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle) and egg viability (up to 80//). At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.
Abstract in English:Parasites may employ particular strategies of eluding an immune response by taking advantage of those mechanisms that normally guarantee immunological self-tolerance. Much in the way as it occurs during the establishment of self-tolerance, live pathogens may induce clonal deletion, functional inactivation(anergy) and immunosupression. At this latter level, it appears that certain pathogens produce immunosupresive cytokine-like mediators or provoke like host the secrete cytokines that will compromise the anti-parasite immune response. It appears that immune responses that preferentially involve T helper l cells (secretors of interleukin-2-and interferon-y) tend to be protective, whereas T helper 2 cells (secretors of IL-4, IL5, IL-6, and IL-10), a population that antagonizes T helper cells, mediate disease susceptibility and are immunopathological reactions. Cytokines produced by T helper 2 cells mediate many symptoms of infection, including eosinophilia, mastocytosis, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and elevated IgE levels. Administration of IL-2 and IFN-y has beneficial effects in many infections mediated by viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. The use of live vaccinia virus might be an avenue for the treatment of or vaccination against infection. We have found that a vaccinia virus expressing the gene for human IL-2, though attenuated, precipitates autoimmune disease in immunodeficient athymic mice. Thus, although T helper l cytokines may have desired immunostimulatory properties, they also may lead to unwarranted autoaggressive responses.
Abstract in English:This paper is written in the context of our changing preception of the immunological system as a system with possible biological roles exceding the prevailung view of a system concerned principally with the defense against external pathogens. The view discussed here relates the immunological system inextricably to the metabolism of iron, the circulation of the blood and the resolution of the evolutionary paradox created by oxygen and iron. Indirect evidence for this inextricable relationship between the two systems can be derived from the discrepancy between the theoretical quasi-impossibility of the existence of an iron deficiency state in the adult and the reality of the WHO numbers of people in the world with iron deficiency anemia. With mounting evidence that TNF, IL-1, and T lymphocyte cytokines affect hemopoieisis and iron metabolism it is possible that the reported discrepancy is a reflection of that inextricable interdependence between the two systems in the face of infection. Further direct evidence for a relationship between T cell subset numbers and iron metabolism is presented from the results of a study of T cell populations in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. The recent finding of a correlation between low CD8+ lymphocite numbers, liver demage associated with HCVpositivity and severity of iron overload in B-thalassemia major patients (umpublished data of RW Grandy; P. Giardina, M. Hilgartner) concludes this review.
Abstract in English:This paper discusses current evidence for the relationship between polyclonal lymphocyte activation, specific immunossupression with decreased resistance, and autoimmune pathology, that are all often found associated with infections by a variety of virus, bacteria and parasites . The central question of class determination of immune effector activities is considered in the context of the cellular targets for nonspecific mitogenic activities associated with infection. A model is presented to integrate these findings: mitogenens produced by the microorganism or the infected cells are preferentially active on CD5 B cells, the resulting over-production of IL-10 will tend to bias all immune activities in to a Th-2mode of effector functions, with high titers of polyclonal antibodies and litle or no production of gamma IFN and other "inflamatory"lymphokines that often mediate resistance. In turn these conditions allow for parasite persistence and the corresponding long-term disregulation of self-directed immune reactivities, resulting in autoimmunity in the chronic phase. This model would predict that selective immunization with the mitogenic principles involved in desregulation, could stand better chances than strategies of vaccination based on immunopotentiation against othere, functionally neutral antigenic epitopes. It is argued, however, that the complexity of immune responses and their regulation together with our ignorance on the genetic controls of class-determination, offer poor prospects for a scientifically-based, rational development of vaccines in the near future. It is suggested that empirically-based and technologically developed vaccines might suceed, while basic scientific approaches are reinforced and given the time provide a better understanding of those process.
Abstract in English:Macrophages and muscle cells are the main targets for invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi. Ultrastructural studies of this phenomenon in vitro showed that invasion occurs by endocytosis, with attachment and internalization being mediated by different components capable of recognizing epi-or trypomastigotes (TRY). A parasitophorus vacuole was formed in both cell types, thereafter fusing with lysosomes. Then, the mechanism of T. cruzi invasion of host cells (HC) is essentially similar (during a primary infection in the abscence of a specific immune response), regardless of wether the target cell is a professional or a non-professional phagocytic cell. Using sugars, lectins, glycosidases, proteinases and proteinase inhibitors, we observed that the relative balance between exposed sialic acid and galactose/N-acetyl galactosamine (GAL) residues on the TRY surface, determines the parasite's capacity to invade HC, and that lectin-mediated phagocytosis with GAL specificity is important for internalization of T. cruzi into macrophages. On the other hand, GAL on the surface to heart muscle cells participate on TRY adhesion. TRY need to process proteolytically both the HC and their own surface, to expose the necessary ligands and receptors that allow binding to, and internalization in the host cell. The diverse range of molecular mechanisms which the parasite could use to invade the host cell may correspond to differences in the available "receptors"on the surface of each specific cell type. Acute phase components, with lectin or proteinase inhibitory activities (a-macroglobulins), may also be involved in T. cruzi-host cell interaction.
Abstract in English:Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite causing human amoebisis, has recently been found to comprise two genetically distinct forms, potentially pathogenic and constitutively nonpathogenic ones. Host tissue destruction by pathogenic forms is belived to result from cell functions mediaed by a lectin-type adherence receptor, a pore-forming peptide involved in host cell lysis, and abundant expression of cysteine proteinase(s). Isolation and molecular cloning of these amoeba products have provided the tools for structural analyses and manipulations of cell functions including comparisons between pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms.
Abstract in English:Human nasal polyps outgrowth culture were used to study the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to respiratory cells. By transmission electron microscopy, bacteria associated with ciliated cells were identified trapped at the extremities of cilia, usually as aggregates of several bacterial cells. They were never seen at the interciliary spaces or attached along cilia. Bacteria were also seen to adhere to migrating cells of the periphery of the outgrowth culture. Using a model of repair of wounded respiratory epithelial cells in culture, we observed that the adhesion of P. aeruginosa to migrating cells of the edges of the repairing wounds was significantly higher than the adhesion to non-migrating cells and that adherent bacteria were surrounded by a fibrocnectin-containing fibrillar material The secretion of extracellular matrix components is involved in the process of epithelium repair following injury. To investigate the molecular basis of P. aeruginosa adhesion to migrating cells, bacteria were treated with a fibronectin solution before their incubation with the respiratory cells. P. aeruginosa treatment by fibronectin significantly increased their adhesion to migrating cells. Accordingly, we hypothesize that during cell migration, fibronectin secreted by epithelial cells may favour P. aeruginosa adhesion by establishing a bridge between the bacteria and the epithelial cell receptors. Such a mechanism may represent a critical step for P. aeruginosa infection of healing injured epithelium.
Abstract in English:The effects of azadirachtin, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree Aradirachta indica J. on both immunity and Trypanosoma cruzi interaction within Rhodniusprolixus and other triatomines, were presented Given through a blood meal, azadirachtin affected the immune reactivity as shown by a significant reduction in numbers of hemocytes and consequently nodule formation follwing challenge with Enterobacter cloacae ß12, reduction in ability to produce antibacterial activities in the hemolymph when injected with bacteria, and decreased ability to destroy the infection caused by inoculation of E. cloacae cells. A single dose of azadirachtin was able to block the development of T. cruzi in R. prolixus if given through the meal at different intervals, together with, before or after parasite infection. Similary, these results were observed with different triatomine species and different strains of T. cruzi. Azadirachtin induced a permanent resistance of the vector against reinfection with T. cruzi. The significance of these data is discussed in relation to the general mode of azadirachtin action in insects.
Abstract in English:The thymus is a central lymphoid organ, in wich T cell precursors differentiale and generate most of the so-called T cell reprtoire. Along with a variety of acute infectious diseases, we and others determined important changes in both microenvironmental and lymphoid compartments of the organ. For example, one major and common feature observed in acute viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, is a depletion of cortical thymocytes, mostly those bearing the CD4-CD8 double positive phenotype. This occurs simmultaneously to the relative enrichment in medullary CD4 or CD8 single positive cells, expressing high densities of the CD3 complex. Additionally we noticed a variety of changes in the thymic microenvironment (and particularly is epithelial component), comprising abnormal location of thymic epithelial cell subsets as well has a denser Ia-bearing cellular network. Moreover, the extracellular matrix network was altered with an intralobular increase of basement membrane proteins that positively correlated with the degree of thymocyte death. Lastly, anti-thymic cell antibodies were detected in both human and animal models of infectious diseases, and in some of them a phenomenon of molecular mimicry could be evidenced. Taken together, the data receiwed herein clearly show that the thymus should be regarded as a target in infectious diseases.
Abstract in English:Infection with Schistosoma mansoni induces humoral and T cell mediated responses and leads to delayed hipersensitivity that results in granulomatous inflamatory disease around the parasite eggs. Regulation of these responses resulting in a reduction in this anti-egg inflamatory disease is appsrently determined by idiotypic repertoires of the patient, associated with genetic background and multiple external factors. We have previously reported on idiotype/anti-idiotype-receptor transactions in clinical human schistosomiasis. These findings support a hypothesis that anti-SEA cross-reactive idiotypes develop in some patients during the course of a chronic infection and participate in regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses. We repport here on experiments wich extend those observations to the regulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity measured by an in vitro granuloma model. T cells from chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients were stimulated in vitro with anti-SEA idiotypes and assayed in an autologous in vitro granuloma assay for modulation of granuloma formation. These anti-SEA idiotype reactive T cells were capable of regulating autologous in vitro granuloma formation. This regulatory activity, initiated with stimulatory anti-SEA idiotypic antibodies, was antigenically specific and was dependent on the present of intact (F(ab')2 immunoglobulin molecules. The ability to elicit this regulatory activity appears to be dose dependent and is more easily demonstrated in chronically infected intestinal patients or SEA sensitized individuals. These data support the hypothesis that anti-SEA cross reactive idiotypes are important in regulating granulomatous hypersensitivy in chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients and these cross-reactive idiotypes appear to play a major role in cell-cell interactions which result in the regulation of anti-SEA cellular immune responses.
Abstract in English:The functional duality of eosinophils, involved in a protective response or in pathogenesis is illustrated in various parasitic infections. In schistosomiasis, eosinophils have been shown to mediate schistosomula killing, in the presence of antibodies. The association of eosinophil-dependent cytotoxic antibody isotypes with resistance of reinfection (IgE and IgA antibodies), whereas in vitro blocking antibody isotypes (IgG4, IgM) were detected in susceptible subjects, suggested a participation of eosinophils in antibody-dependent protective response. However eosinophils could participate to granuloma formation and consequently to the pathological reactions during schistosomiasis. Activation of eosinophils by antibodies, leading to release of granule proteins have been studied in patients with filariasis. Eosinophil peroxidase, EPO was released safter IgE-dependent activation whereas Eosinophil Cationic Protein, ECP, was released after IgG- and IgA-dependent activation of eosinophils, results suggesting a process of differential release mediators. Interactions between eosinophils and interleukins, and specially IL-5 are discussed. Whereas a receptor for IL-5 has been characterized on human eosinophils, recent studies have shown that eosinophils, expressed the messenger RNA encoding IL-5. These results associated to data showing the synthesis of other cytokines indicate that eosinophils are not only the source of cytotoxic mediators involved in the effector phase of immunity but also of growth and regualtory factors, participating to immunoregulation.
Abstract in English:Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/beta)T cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.
Abstract in English:During the course of experimental Chagas' disease, several immune disorders occur. In the acute phase, T and B cell plyclonal activation is associated to immunossupression. At the chronic stage. T cells - of the TH2 subset - participate to the pathology characteristic of Chagas'disease. Data obtained after infection of BALB/Xid mice suggest that polyclonal activation may be dependent on B1 (CD5) cell activation. Moreover, these mice fail to develop the pathological features of the chronic infection. Control of lymphokine secretion might play a key role in the clinical status of Chagas'disease.
Abstract in English:American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a granulomatous disease clinically characterized by ulcerated skin lesions that can regress spontaneously. A small percentage of the affected individuals can however develop a severe destruction of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal and/or laryngeal mucous membranes many years after the healing of the primary lesion. The human immune response to the infection and the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the disease, determining either the self-healing or the development of chronic and destructive mucosal lesions, are discussed.
Abstract in English:Milky spots (MS), considered by the authors as a Coelomatic Lympho-myelopoietic Organ (CLMO), present a strong reactivity during experimental schistosomal mansoni infection, characterized by an increase of lymphocytes, macrophages, plasmocytes, mast cells, neutrophils and expression of eosinophil metaplasia. Intraperitoneal injection of purified Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) eggs provoked a rise in the number and size of MS, which developed the sessile marginal and pedunculated types. The authors conclude that egg antigens are, at least partially, responsible for MS reactivity during Sm infection.
Abstract in English:The present paper reviews our recent data concerning the use of immunological methods employing monoclonal antibodies and synthetic peptides to study malaria transmission and immunity and to diagnose plasmodial infection. As concerns malaria transmission, we studied the main vectors of human malaria and the plasmodial species transmitted in endemic areas of Rondônia state, Brazil. The natural infection on anopheline was evaluated by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant sporozoite surface antigen (CS protein) demonstrated to be species specific. Our results showed that among six species of Anopheles found infected, An. darlingi was the main vector transmitting Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria in the immediate vicinity of houses. In order to assess the level of anti-CS antibodies we studied, by IRMA using the synthetic peptide corresponding to the repetitive epitope of the sporozoite CS protein, sera of individuals living in the same areas where the entomological survey has been performed. In this assay the prevalence of anti-CS antibodies was very low and did not reflect the malaria transmission rate in the studied areas. In relation to malaria diagnosis, a monoclonal antibody specific to an epitope of a 50 kDa exoantigen, the major component of supernatant collected at the time of schizont rupture, was used as a probe for the detection of P. falciparum antigens. This assay seemed to be more sensitive than parasitological examination for malaria diagnosis since it was able to detect plasmodial antigens in both symptomatic and asymtomatic individuals with negative thick blood smear at different intervals after a last parasitologically confirmed confirmed attack of malaria.
Abstract in English:In the present paper a brief overview will be given of the recent progress and trends in assaying diagnostic markers in schistosomiasis; only markers of the humoral immunological system and biochemical markers will be discussed, as markers for cellular immunological reactivity will be discussed by other authors. The following diagnostic markers will be reviewed: markers for infection, markers for immunity and markers for morbidity.
Abstract in English:B19 infection offers some general lessons about human viruses and their possible effects on the human host, as follows: (1) Ubiquitous apparently benign viruses may have severe effects on a compromissed host. The virus may be invariable but the host can have diverse susceptibilities. (2) B19 and some other human viruses (through for none is the evidence so clear as for B19) have narrowly targetted effects. The host cell of B19 is a specialised progenitor of mature red cells: impairment of the function of this cell by B19 may cause profound anaemia. (3) The 'normal'host response to B19 may also cause disease, though this is slef limiting. (4) The effects of malfunction of the virus'target cell are exacerbated when the immune response is impaired by congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, immunosupressive therapy or, in the case of the fetus, developmental immaturity that allows the virus to persist.
Abstract in English:The determination of amino acid changes in the envelop protein by direct sequencing of either genomic RNA or PCR-amplified cDNA fragments provides useful informations for assessing the genetic variability and the geographic distribution of the actually most widespread dengue-2 serotype. The possible link of variations in the envelope protein-gene and virus virulence is discussed.
Abstract in English:Many factors determine the virulence of a malaria infection. These include host innate resistance mechanisms and, with Plasmodium falciparum, the ability to cytoadhere to endothelial cells, form rosetts, and induce release of cytokines. The effect on virulence of acquired immune responses can be determined by Class I and Class II MHC-antigens; levels of immunological responsiveness may be determined too in other ways. The structure of parasite surface antigens and their great diversity modulate the immune response and influence parasite survival and hence virulence, and transmission to the vector.
Abstract in English:Mechanisms of immune protection against the asexual blood stage infection by Plasmodium falciparum are reviewed. Recent studies of two independent lines of research developed at the Institute Pasteur, in humans and primate infections clearly indicate an obligatory interaction of antibodies and effector cells to express the anti-parasitic effect.