Abstract in English:Approximately 50 publications have become available in the international literature on ultrasonography in schistosomiasis in Africa. Geographically these cover Congo, Egypt, Kenya, Mali, Mauritius, Niger, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania and East African Islands as well as Zimbabwe. Further studies are ongoing in many countries, such as Burundi, Ghana, Madagaskar and Uganda. It was shown that ultrasonography is useful in the detection of morbidity induced by schistosomiasis on an individual basis and on the community level. There is indication for varying morbidity patterns in different African foci. Post-treatment monitoring has provided evidence for reversibility of pathological lesions induced by Schistosoma (S.) haematobium and S. mansoni, even though evidence for reversibility of periportal fibrosis in adults is not yet satisfactorily substantiated. A standardized set of criteria for ultrasonographical observations has been worked out and is presently in the process of being refined. It is thus hoped that standardization will contribute to render studies in different endemic settings comparable on a global basis.
Abstract in English:The objective of this population-based study was to estimate the liver morbidity attributable to Schistosoma mansoni infection by ultrasonography adopting the proposed standard protocols of the Cairo Meeting on Ultrasonography, 1991. We examined 2384 individuals representing 20 of the households of the rural population of the Ismailia Governorate, East of Delta, Egypt. Prevalence of S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections were 40.3 and 1.7 respectively. Portal tract thickening (PTT) grade 1, 2 and 3 considered diagnostic of schistosomal liver morbidity was detected in 35.1, 1.3 and 0.2 individuals respectively. Generally, ultrasonographically-detected pathological changes increased with age, but correlated with intensity of infection only in age group 20-59 years. Comparing individuals with and without S. mansoni infections in an endemic and a non-endemic community indicated no significant difference between the former and the latter in either case. In conclusion: ultrasonography had a limited value in estimating schistosomal liver morbidity in our population-based study where early grades of liver morbidly were prevalent. The criteria of diagnosing grade I portal fibrosis need to be revised as well as the staging system proposed by the Cairo Meeting on ultrasonography in schistosomiasis.
Abstract in English:The subject of this conference reflects the scientific community's interest in seeking to understand the complex causal web whose various social, economic, and biological components interact in the production and reproduction of schistosomiasis and its control in relation to community participation. From the onset, the author stresses the impossibility of dealing separately with community participation, as if social components were just one more "weapon" in the arsenal for schistosomiasis control. This study begins with a brief historical review of the 71 years of control activities with this endemic disease, stressing the enormous efforts and huge expenditures in this field vis-à-vis the limited results, despite the extraordinary technological development of specific, classical control inputs such as new treatment drugs and molluscicides. The article then discusses the various strategies used in control programs, emphasizing ideological consistencies and contradictions. Interactions at the macro and micro levels are discussed, as are the determinants and risk factors involved in producing the disease's endemicity. Unequal occupation of space leaves the segregated portion of the population exposed to extremely favorable conditions for transmission of the disease. This raises the issue of how to control an endemic disease which is so closely linked to the way of life imposed on the population. The study challenges the classical control model and suggests an alternative model now undergoing medium-term investigation in the States of Espirito Santo, and Pernambuco, Brazil. The author concludes that we do not need new strategies, but a new control model, contrary to the prevailing classical model in both concept and practice. From the conceptual point of view, the new model mentioned above is different from others in that schistosomiasis control is seen from a social perspective stressing the population's accumulated knowledge in addition to the building of shared knowledge. The model's praxis has the following characteristics: (1) it is integrated with and financed by research agencies and health services; (2) it operates at the local health services level; (3) use of molluscicides has been eliminated; (4) emphasis is given to individual medical treatment and improvement of sanitary conditions.
Abstract in English:In this paper the treatment of schistosomiasis is examined under the following headings: cercarial dermatitis, Katayama fever, schistosomiasis in the immunosuppressed host and treatment of therapeutic failures.
Abstract in English:A review of the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization for the use of molluscicides for the control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis is presented. Discussion of the principle molluscicides used, their advantages and disadvantages, the techniques and equipment required for their application and evaluation of effect as well as the biological control of snails is included.
Abstract in English:During Schistosoma mansoni infection, there is morphological evidence of involvement of various hematopoietic growth factors, which cause eosinophil, neutrophil, megakaryocytic and erythroid extramedullary foci in the liver, lymph nodes and omental and mesenteric milky spots. While the eosinophil metaplasia in the periphery of hepatic granulomas roughly reproduced the intensity of the medullary eosinopoiesis, the neutrophil metaplasia, on the contrary, was more intense during the period of neutrophil depression in the bone marrow. This fact suggests that extramedullary hematopoietic foci are locally regulated, and amplify and/or compensate the systemic hematopoietic response during the infection.
Abstract in English:Incubation of total protein extracts of Schistosoma mansoni with 3H 17-beta-estradiol and 20-hydroxyecdysone, revealed steroid binding proteins in both, male and female worms. The interaction of nuclear proteins with restriction fragments of the gender and stage-specific gene F-10 was investigated using the "Band-Shift" technique. Distinct male and female nuclear proteins bound to the fragments of this gene. Among the nuclear proteins, only those rich in cysteine residues bound to DNA. In vitro incubation of live worms with the estrogen antagonist Tamoxifen, altered the pattern of the DNA binding proteins, producing in females, a band profile similar to that obtained with male worm protein extracts. When Tamoxifen was injected into schistosome infected mice, the eggs produced by females presented an abnormal morphology, compatible with non-viable eggs. These results suggest that the regulation of transcription of the F-10 gene might involve steroid receptors.
Abstract in English:We have established an in vitro culture system for adult schistosomes that allows monitoring gene expression for up to more than ten days. Comparing female worms that are paired with those that have been separated, we find distinct differences, clearly documenting an influence of the male in female gene expression. In perfect coincidence with classical observations that were based on histological techniques, we find that the male particularly regulates gene expression in those tissues that are characterized by cell proliferation, e.g. the vitellaria. From these results, we hypothesize that the key target for the inductive signal that is transferred from the male to the female during pairing is the activation of a growth factor that stimulates mitotic proliferation.
Abstract in English:The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70 (R)), Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10, 6.22 and 6.44 respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.
Abstract in English:Despite opportunities for radiation provided by spatio-temporal isolation, the basic morphological plan of pulmonate snails has remained conservative. In consequence of the resulting dearth of morphological characters and their plasticity, there is a case for using biochemical characters such as exogenous chemicals released by the snails (e.g. amino acids) and their chemoreception niche as taxonomic aids to classify snails of medical importance. As these same chemicals are used by snails to distinguish conspecifics they could also be used as "environmental antibodies" in controlled release formulations (CRF's) designed to remove target snails in a specific, cost-effective and ecologically acceptable manner. The snails, surface-living bacteria, algae and macrophytic plants are considered as co-evolved, interactive modular systems with strong mutualistic elements. Recently, anthropogenic perturbations such as deforestation, and damming of flowing waters, have benefited these modules whereas others such as river canalization, acid deposition, accumulation of pesticide residues and eutrophication have harmed them. Research is needed to elucidate the factors which limit the growth of snails in primitive habitats, uninfluenced by man, as well as in those subject to harmful anthropogenic factors. The understanding thus gained could be applied to develop cost-effective primary health care strategies to reduce or prevent transmission of schistosomiasis and other water related diseases.
Abstract in English:The current status of research on use of earth observing satellite sensors and geographic ifnormation systems for control program management of schistosomiais and fascioliasis is reviewed.
Abstract in English:Analysis of the genomes of schistosomes and one of their intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria glabrata, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) demonstrated that intraspecific genetic polymorphism in the parasite is limited but in the snail is highly pronounced. This suggests an important role for the snail in the determination of the epidemiology of the disease. In addition to their intraspecific stability, schistosome derived RAPDs exhibit a high level of interspecific polymorphism and are thus ideal for the construction of phylogenetic trees. For the detection of intraspecific polymorphisms extensive variation in the mitochondrial DNA is being exploited for the development of a PCR based test for Schistosoma mansoni. Gene level polymorphisms are being analyzed by Low Stringency Single Specific Primer PCR.
Abstract in English:We have initiated a gene discovery program in Schistosoma mansoni based on the technique of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), i.e. partial sequences of cDNAs obtained from single passes in automatic DNA sequencers. ESTs can be used to identify genese onf the basis of their homology whith sequences from other species deposited in DNA or protein databases. Trasncripts with sequences without matches in teh databases may represent novel parasite-specific genes. This approach has shown to be very efficient and in less than two years a broad range of novel genes has already been ascertained, more than doubling the number of known S. mansoni genes.
Abstract in English:The notes provided in this article relate to two components of the development of vaccines against schistosomiasis: (1) The characteristics of schistosome infections (eg. features of the schistosome life cycle), and the parasite itself, that have implications for vaccination strategies; (2) The characteristics of the biopharmaceutical industry that have implications for product development. As will be seen, these two topic areas are not vastly disparate.
Abstract in English:Mounting evidence for acquired immunity to schistosomiasis in humans supports the case for immunological intervention. On the other hand, rapid reinfection poses a threat to younger age groups due to the slow maturation of natural resistance. However, rational approaches, based on advances in immunology and molecular biology, have substantially increased the odds of producing an effective vaccine. Since the parasite cannot replicate in the human host and serious morbidity generally occurs only after a relatively long period of heavy worm burden, complete protection against infection is not essential. The chances of success would increase if more than one of the various host/parasite interphases were targeted, for example reducing morbidity through decreased worm loads as well as through suppression of egg production. Several promising schistosome antigens have now reached an advanced phase of development and are currently undergoing independent confirmatory testing according to a standardized protocol. A few molecules are being contemplated for scaled-up production but, so far, only one has reached the stage of industrial manufacture and safety testing. Since schistosomiasis cannot realistically be controlled by a single approach, vaccination is envisaged to be implemented in conjunction with other means of control, notably chemotherapy.
Abstract in English:In recent years, the strategy for the control of schistosomiasis has placed increased emphasis on the role of health education, public information, and communication. This should, not only bring about specific changes in behavior aiming at disease prevention, but also stimulate participation of the community in health programs. Beyond this, it is desirable that both community members and researchers should seek better life conditions through a transformative social action. The present paper addresses these concerns; first, by critically reviewing some health education programs that were developed in Brazil, and, secondly, by analyzing and suggesting ways to improve this area.
Abstract in English:Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people throughout the world and causes about 500,000 deaths annually. Two specific characteristics of schistosome infection are of primordial importance to the development of a vaccine: schistosomes do not multiply within the tissues of their definitive hosts (unlike protozoan parasites) and a partial non-sterilizing immunity can have a marked effect on the incidence of pathology and on disease transmission. Since viable eggs are the cause of disease pathology, a reduction in worm fecundity whether or not accompanied by a reduction in parasite burden is a sufficient goal for vaccine induced immunity. We originally showed that IgE antibodies played in experimental models a pivotal role for the development of protective immunity. These laboratory findings have been now confirmed in human populations. Following the molecular cloning and expression of a protein 28 kDa protein of Schistosoma mansoni and its identification as a glutathion S-transferase, immunization experiments have been undertaken in several animal species (rats, mice, baboons). Together with a significant reduction in parasite burden, vaccination with Sm28 GST was recently shown to reduce significantly parasite fecundity and egg viability leading to a decrease in liver pathology. Whereas IgE antibodies were shown to be correlated with protection against infection, IgA antibodies have been identified as one of the factors affecting egg laying and viability. In human populations, a close association was found between IgA antibody production to Sm28 GST and the decrease of egg output. The use of appropriate monoclonal antibody probes has allowed the demonstration that the inhibition of parasite fecundity following immunization was related to the inhibition of enzymatic activity of the molecule. Epitope mapping of Sm28 GST has indicated the prominent role of the N and C terminal domains. Immunization with the corresponding synthetic peptides was followed by a decrease of 70% of parasite fecundity and egg viability. As a preliminary step towards phase I human trials, vaccination experiments have been performed in cattle, a natural model for Schistosoma bovis. Vaccination of calves with the S. bovis GST has led to a reduction of ever 80% of egg output and tissue egg count. Significant levels of protection were also observed in goats after immunization with the recombinant S. bovis GST. Increasing evidence of the participation of IgA antibodies in protective immunity has prompted us toward the development of mucosal immunization. Preliminary results indicate that significant levels of protection can be achieved following oral immunization with live attenuated vectors or liposomes. These studies seem to represent a promising approach towards the future development of a vaccine strategy against one of major human parasitic diseases.
Abstract in English:Schistosomiasis control was impossible without effective tools. Synthetic molluscicides developed in the 1950s spearheaded community level control. Snail eradication proved impossible but repeated mollusciciding to manage natural snail populations could eliminate transmission. Escalating costs, logistical complexity, its labour-intensive nature and possible environmental effects caused some concern. The arrival of safe, effective, single-dose drugs in the 1970s offered an apparently better alternative but experience revealed the need for repeated treatments to minimise reinfection in programmes relying on drugs alone. Combining treatment with mollusciciding was more successful, but broke down if mollusciciding was withdrawn to save money. The provision of sanitation and safe water to prevent transmission is too expensive in poor rural areas where schistosomiasis is endemic; rendering ineffective public health education linked to primary health care. In the tropics, moreover, children (the key group in maintaining transmission) will always play in water. Large scale destruction of natural snail habitats remains impossibly expensive (although proper design could render many new man-made habitats unsuitable for snails). Neither biological control agents nor plant molluscicides have proved satisfactory alternatives to synthetic molluscicides. Biologists can develop effective strategies for using synthetic molluscicides in different epidemiological situations if only, like drugs, their price can be reduced.
Abstract in English:Vaccines in schistosomiasis using homologous antigens have been studied extensively in experimentally infected mammalian hosts. Vaccines using heterologous antigens have received comparatively less attention. This review summarizes recent work on a heterologous 12 kDa Fasciola hepatica antigenic polypeptide which cross reacts with Schistosoma mansoni. A cDNA has been cloned and sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence of the recombinant protein has been shown to have significant (44) identity with a 14 kDa S. mansoni fatty acid binding protein. Thus in the parasitic trematodes fatty acid binding proteins may be potential vaccine candidates. The F. hepatica recombinant protein has been overexpressed and purified and denoted rFh15. Preliminary rFh15 migrates more slowly (i.e. may be slightly larger) than nFh12 on SDS-PAGE and has a predicted pI of 6.01 vs. observed pI of 5.45. Mice infected with F. hepatica develop antibodies to nFh12 by 2 weeks of infection vs. 6 weeks of infection to rFh15; on the other hand, mice with schistosomiasis mansoni develop antibodies to both nFh12 and rFh15 by 6 weeks of infection. Both the F. hepatica and S. mansoni cross-reactive antigens may be cross-protective antigens with the protection inducing capability against both species.
Abstract in English:Molecular cloning of components of protective antigenic preparations have suggested that related parasite fatty acid binding proteins could form the basis of the well documented protective, immune cross reactivity between the parasitic trematode worms Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni. We have now confirmed the cross protective potential of parasite fatty acid binding proteins and suggest that it may be possible to produce a single vaccine that would be effective against at least two parasites, F. hepatica and S. mansoni of veterinary and human importance respectively.
Abstract in English:Attempts to control schistosomiasis have hitherto involved the use of one or more of the following methods, either in isolation or in combination: (1) control of the intermediate host using molluscicides or biological methods; (2) basic sanitation and clean water supply; (3) health education; (4) individual or mass treatment; (5) protection of individuals in such a way as to prevent cercariae from penetrating the skin; (6) vaccine-based strategies against schistosomiasis. None of these methods is capable, on its own, of bringing about effective control of schistosomiasis, except in populations of a very limited size or under very special conditions. Molluscicides, besides expensive and toxic, have only a temporary effect. As for biological control, there is no effective method yet. Basic sanitation and clean water supply combined with health education potentially constitute the most effective approach, but only in the mid-to-long term. Mass treatment reduces morbidity, but does not control transmission. Protection of individuals has proved to be impracticable on a large scale. Vaccine-based strategies against schistosomiasis are still in the experimental stage. Experiments carried out in Brazil in the last 20 years have shown that mass treatment with single doses of oxamniquine or praziquantel can rapidly reduce levels of Shistosoma mansoni infection and morbidity in endemic areas. They have also shown that subsequent transmission and reinfection frequently occur in defined foci or "clusters", due to human contact with water, and in inverse proportion to the number and frequency of treatments carried out. On the basis of these experiments, the author suggests a multidisciplinary strategy for schistosomiasis control.
Abstract in English:Field work research on population dynamic of snails from the regions of Belo Horizonte and Lagoa Santa give much information about interactions among two or more species of mollusks: Pomacea haustrum, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, B. straminea and Melanoides tuberculata. Data ranging from two years to several decades ago suggest that the Pampulha reservoir is like a cemetery of B. glabrata and B. straminea, species that coexist for more than 14 years in a small part of a stream, whereas only B. glabrata lives in all the streams of the basin. In the last ten to twenty years B. tenagophila has coexisted with P. haustrum and M. tuberculata in the Serra Verde ponds and in the Pampulha dam. However these species have not settled in any of the brooks, except temporarily. The data suggest that the kind of biotope and the habitat conditions are decisive factors for the permanence of each species in its preferencial biotope. B. glabrata, natural from streams and riverheads, quickly disappears from the reservoirs and ponds where it coexists with other species for a short time, independently of the competitive process. Competition needs to be better studied, since in Central America and Caribean islands this kind of study has favored the biological control of planorbid species.
Abstract in English:The levels of IgE and IgG4 increased strongly between cohorts, indicating a dynamic immunological situation, but no immediate impact on infection levels. Morbidity was little specific abdominal discomfort was reported by 61%, diarrhoea by 33% of the subjects; mild hepatomegaly was found in 16%, splenomegaly in 0.5%. No relation to egg counts was observed for any symptom. This mild morbidity may be due to the recent nature of the focus. In the first cohort, the percentage of people with negative egg counts ten weeks after treatment was only 18%, though egg counts declined strongly. Antigen detection confirmed these results. Praziquantel treatment provoked transient but impressive side effects (colics, vomiting, urticaria, aedema), the occurrence of which correlated with intensity of infection. Cure rates in subsequent cohorts were followed up shorter after treatment but remained low. Reinfection nevertheless oppears limited. This lower drug efficacy may be due to very rapid reinfection and/or to the lack of immunity in the population, but also reduced susceptibility of the local parasite strain must be considered and studied.
Abstract in English:The acute schistosomiasis is the toxemic disease that follow the Schistosoma cercariae active penetration trough screen in the immunologicaly naive vertebrate host. The clinical picture starts two to eight weeks after the first contact with the contaminated water. Susceptible patients present a syndrome comprising fever, diarrhea, toxemia and hepatosplenomegaly. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological and clinical features, presence of Schistosoma eggs in the feces, enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes by ultrasonography and by detection of high antibodies levels against the antigen keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Different rates of cure have been observed with specific medication and for the most severe clinical presentations the use of steroids reduces the systemic and allergic manifestations.
Abstract in English:During their complex life cycle schistosomes alternate between the use of stored glycogen and reliance on host glucose to provide for their energy needs. In addition, there is dramatic variation between the relative contribution of aerobic versus anaerobic glucose metabolism during development. We have cloned a set of representative cDNAs that encode proteins involved in glucose uptake, glycolysis, Kreb's cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The different cDNAs were used as probes to examine the expression of glucose metabolism genes during the schistosome life cycle. Steady state mRNA levels from whole cercariae, isolated cercarial tails, schistosomula and adult worms were analysed on Northern blots and dot blots which were quantified using storage phosphor technology. These studies reveal: (1) Transcripts encoding glycogen metabolic enzymes are expressed to much higher levels in cercarial tails than whole cercariae or schistosomula while the opposite pattern is found for glucose transporters and hexokinase transcripts; (2) Schistosomula contain low levels of transcripts encoding respiratory enzymes but regain the capacity for aerobic glucose metabolism as they mature to adulthood; (3) Male and female adults contain similar levels of the different transcripts involved in glucose metabolism.
Abstract in English:Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.
Abstract in English:The interaction of Schistosoma mansoni with its host's immune system is largely affected by multiple specific and non-specific evasion mechanisms employed by the parasite to reduce the host's immune reactivity. Only little is known about these mechanisms on the molecular level. The four molecules described below are intrinsic parasitic proteins recently identified and studied in our laboratory. 1. m28-A 28kDa membrane serine protease. m28 cleaves iC3b and can thus restrict attack by effector cells utilizing complement receptors (especially CR3). Treatment with protease inhibitors potentiates killing of schistosomula by complement plus neutrophils. 2. Smpi56-A 56kDa serine protease inhibitor. Smpi56 binds covalently to m28 and to neutrophil's elastase and blocks their proteolytic activity. 3. P70-A 70kDa C3b binding protein. The postulated activity of P70 includes binding to C3b and blocking of complement activation of the C3 step. 4. SCIP-1-A 94kDa schistosome complement inhibitor. SCIP-1 shows antigenic and functional similarities to the human 18kDa complement inhibitor CD59. Like CD59, SCIP-1 binds to C8 and C9 and blocks formation of the complement membrane attack complex. Antibodies directed to human CD59 bind to schistosomula and potentiate their killing by complement. The structure and function of these four proteins as well as their capacity to induce protection from infection with S. mansoni are under investigation.
Abstract in English:The hypothesis that granuloma modulation and disease abatement in chronic infection with Schistosoma japonicum could be ascribed to antibody-mediated effects on egg maturation and egg viability, arose from studies performed with mice in the Philippines. This novel hypothesis has not yet been integrated into the schistosomiasis literature despite being formulated more than a decade ago. One reason for this is that the phenomenon might be confined to S. japonicum, even S. japonicum (Philippines).
Abstract in English:After three decades' efforts, schistosomiasis japonica were controlled in one-third (4/12) of endemic provinces and 68.2 (259/380) of endemic counties throughout the country. The remaining 121 endemic counties are located primarily in the lake and mountainous regions. The epidemiological and ecological features of the lake and mountainous areas are different from the other endemic areas. The major schistosomiasis control efforts in China can be characterized as follows: (1) Application of centralized leadership and management, since schistosomiasis control is a task not only of the Ministry of Public Health, but also of all local governments in the endemic areas; (2) Integration of actions taken by various departments or bureaus, such as agriculture, water conservation and public health; (3) Promotion of mass participation; (4) Organization of strong professional teams; (5) Raising sufficient funds. Strategies on schistosomiasis control applied in different areas are divided into three levels: (1) In the areas where the schistosomiasis has been successfully controlled, surveillance must be maintained and immediate action should be taken where new infections occur and/or vector snails are found, so that control can be reestablished quickly; (2) In the areas where schistosomiasis has been partially controlled, any residents and/or live-stock infected should be examined and treated promptly with due care, and environment modifying and/or mollusciding must be used to eliminate the remaining snails; (3) In the areas where transmission has not been controlled, the main strategy is to control morbidity. Mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental should be applied to both infected persosns and the live-stock, and environment modification for the snail-ridden areas should be taken but should be coordinated with agriculture where possible. Advance cases must be treated; and epidemics of Katayama fever prevented; water supply and sanitation shoud be improved and health education emphasized. Annual mass or selective chemotherapy with praziquental both reduces the prevalence rate and decreases the intensity of the infection for inhabitants and live-stock. As a consequence of the therapy a low prevalence rate can be obtained in a short time. The length of such arrangement period can be decided in accordance with the prevalence of the infection before the drug program is begun. Therefore,a maintenance phase is urgently needed. As China's ecomony expands and people's living standard rises, schistosomiasis will be controlled more effectively and successfully.
Abstract in English:The successful implementation of a Primary Health Care System (PHC) in any country depends primarily on the ability to adapt its concepts and principles to the country's culture and development stage. Thus, the PHC system should reflect a balanced interaction between available resources, such as health manpower capabilities, and the nature and magnitude of the health problems. In addition, PHC should be viewed as the inlet to a multi-level pyramidal health system which caters to both community and individual needs in a balanced way. The adage that Ministries of Health should "work with and for the people" in health development, is especially true in the area of PHC, and hence, the health policy should aim to integrate health services in community development and involve people in its planning, implementation and evaluation.
Abstract in English:The program of schistosomiasis control for the State of São Paulo, where only low endemicity areas occur, is discussed in this paper. Inclusion of schistosomiasis among the diseases due to obligatory notification is considered as a measure of great importance. Accordingly the search for passive cases conducted by the public health system acquired major importance in the disease surveillance. As from 1981 to 1992 only 11% of the detected cases were considered as autochthonous. The main transmission areas are located at the Litoral and Paraiba Valley regions. In the period of time under analysis, the epidemiological surveillance data suggest a decrease in the morbidity and in the autochthony tendency in the State of São Paulo.
Abstract in English:Twenty Calomys callosus, Rengger, 1830 (Rodentia-Cricetidae) were studied in the early stage of the acute schistosomal mansoni infection (42nd day). The same number of Swiss Webster mice were used as a comparative standard. Liver and intestinal sections, fixed in formalin-Millonig and embedded in paraffin, were stained with hematoxilin and eosin, PAS-Alcian Blue, pH = 1.0 and 2.5, Lennert's Giemsa, Picrosirius plus polarization microscopy, Periodic acid methanamine silver, Gomori's silver reticulin and resorcin-fuchsin. Immunohistological study (indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase labeled extravidin-biotin methods) was done with antibodies specific to pro-collagen III, fibronectin, elastin, condroitin-sulfate, tenascin, alpha smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin. The hepatic granulomas were small, reaching only 27 of the volume of the hepatic Swiss Webster granuloma. They were composed mainly by large immature macrophages, often filled by schistosomal pigment, characterizing an exsudative-macrophage granuloma type. The granulomas were situated in the parenchyma and in the portal space. They were often intravascular, poor of extracellular matrix components, except fibronectin and presented, sometimes alpha smooth muscle actin and vimentin positive cells. The C. callosus intestinal granulomas were similar to Swiss Webster, showing predominance of macrophages. Therefore, the C. callosus acquire very well the Schistosoma mansoni infection, without developing strong hepatic acute granulomatous reaction, suggesting lack of histopathological signs of hypersensitivity.