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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 91, Issue: 6, Published: 1996
  • Control of schistosomiasis mansoni in ravena (Sabará, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil) through Water supply and quadrennial treatments Epidemiology

    Coura-Filho, Pedro; Rocha, Roberto Sena; Lamartine, Simone da Silva; Farah, Márcio William C; Resende, Dilermando Fazito de; Costa, José Oswaldo; Katz, Naftale

    Abstract in English:

    In this study, the results obtained in a control programme of schistosomiasis in Ravena (Sabará, Minas Gerais) between 1980 and 1992 are evaluated. Control measures used in this programme were: specific treatment of the people infected with Schistosoma mansoni at four year-intervals (1980/84/88) and the supply of tap water to 90% of the residences in 1980. A significant reduction of the prevalence (36.7% to 11.5%, p < 0.05) and of the intensity of the infection (228.9 eggs per gram of feces (epg), s = 3.7 to 60.3 epg, s = 3.5, p < 0.05) was observed. No cases of the severe form of the disease were diagnosed in the area. Factors independently associated with the infection were in 1980 daily sand extraction and the lack of tap water in residences and in 1992 daily sand extraction and fishing and weekly swimming. Concluding, the supply of tap water together with quadrennial treatments significantly diminished both the prevalence and intensity of the S. mansoni infection, with the additional gain of persistent low indices even after four-year intervals between the treatments.
  • Isolation of fungi from nature in the region of Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis Epidemiology

    Montenegro, MR; Miyaji, M; Franco, M; Nishimura, K; Coelho, KI; Horie, Y; Mendes, RP; Sano, A; Fukushima, K; Fecchio, D

    Abstract in English:

    In an attempt to isolate Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from nature 887 samples of soil from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, were collected cultured in brain heart infusion agar supplemented with dextrose, in potato dextrose agar and in yeast extract starch dextrose agar, all with antibiotics, at 25º and 37ºC. Five thermo-dependent dimorphic fungi morphologically resembling P. brasiliensis were isolated; two from armadillo holes; further studies of the biology, antigenicity and genetic features of the five dimorphic fungi are necessary to clarify their taxonomy and their possible relation to P. brasiliensis. In addition, 98 dematiaceous fungi and 581 different species of Aspergillus spp. were also isolated. Our findings emphasize that armadillos and their environment are associated with thermo-dimorphic fungi and confirm the ubiquity of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and Aspergillus spp.
  • Ecological interactions of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil Epidemiology

    Sherlock, Italo A

    Abstract in English:

    The laboratory and field observations summarized in this paper on visceral leishmaniasis ecology in the State of Bahia, Brazil are based on the author's observations over the past 35 years in a number of state's foci, public health records and literature citations. The disease is endemic with epidemic outbreaks occurring every ten years and its geographical distribution is expanding rapidly in the last years. Leishmania chagasi is the main ethiologic agent of the visceral leishmaniasis but Le. amazonensis s. lato was the only leishmania isolated by other authors from some visceral leishmaniasis human cases in the state. Lutzomyia longipalpis (with one or two spots on tergites III and IV and two sized different populations) was epidemiologically incriminated as the main vector. It was found naturally infected with promastigotes, and it was infected with four species of leishmanias in the laboratory. Although the experimental transmission of Le. amazonensis by the bite of Lu. longipalpis to hamsters was performed, the author was not successful in transmitting Le. chagasi in the same way. The dog is the most important domestic source for infection of the vector, however it is not a primary reservoir. The opossum Didelphis albiventris was found naturally infected with Le. chagasi but its role as reservoir is unknown. Foxes and rodents were not found infected with leishmanias in Bahia.
  • Intestinal parasites in AIDS and +HIV patients in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil Epidemiology

    Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Ferreira, Marcelo Simão; Rossin, Iris Ricardo
  • Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon - II: Vertical distribution and frequency of anopheline species inside and outside the forest Epidemiology

    Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Luz, Sergio LB

    Abstract in English:

    An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An. shannoni. An. darlingi and An. marajoara were captured essentially in anthropic habitats outside the forest and are unlikely to be involved in the transmission of P. brasilianum among monkeys within the forests and from monkeys to man in their surroundings in the Amazon.
  • Phase I and II open clinical trials of a vaccine against Leishmania chagasi Infections in dogs Epidemiology

    Mayrink, Wilson; Genaro, Odair; Silva, João Carlos França; Costa, Roberto Teodoro da; Tafuri, Wagner Luis; Toledo, Vicente Paulo C Peixoto; Silva, Alexandre Rotondo da; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Williams, Paul; Costa, Carlos Alberto da
  • Wild birds as reservoir of thermophilic enteropathogenic Campylobacter species in southern Chile Epidemiology

    Fernández, H; Gesche, W; Montefusco, A; Schlatter, R
  • Infestation by ticks and detection of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae in wild animals captured in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: A preliminary report Epidemiology

    Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Machado, Raimundo Diogo; Coura, José Rodrigues; Guimarães, Maria Angélica Arpon; Freire, Nicolau Maués Serra
  • On Simulium (Pternaspatha), with description of a new species (Diptera-Simuliidae) Systematics

    Coscarón, S; Coscarón-Arias, CL

    Abstract in English:

    Simulium (Pternaspatha) diamantinum n. sp. is described from females, males, pupae and larvae, collected at Mendoza, San Juan and Neuquén. Some specimens of this species from Laguna del Diamante were included before by Wygodzinsky and Coscarón (1967) in S. strigidorsum Enderlein. The new species is compared with closely related species of the S. (Pternaspatha) "nigristrigatum group". The following synonym is established: Simulium (Pternaspatha) bachmanni Wygodzinsky & Coscarón = Simulium (Pternaspatha) nigristrigatum (Enderlein).
  • Description of Warileya lumbrerasi n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Peru Systematics

    Ogusuku, Elena; Enrique Perez, J; Davies, Clive R; Villaseca, Pablo

    Abstract in English:

    Warileya lumbrerasi n. sp. is described from the northern Peruvian Andes. This species was collected inside houses, and is the seventh species described within the genus Warileya Hertig, 1948.
  • Occurrence of cystacanths of Centrorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in toads of the genus Eupsophus in Chile Systematics

    Torres, Patricio; Puga, Sonia
  • The need for an integrated approach to the taxonomy of neotropical simuliidae, with special reference to larval colour Systematics

    Luz, S; Shelley, AJ; Maia-Herzog, M
  • Spasskyellina mandi n. sp. (Proteocephalidea: Monticelliidae), parasite of Pimelodus ornatus Kner, 1857 (Pisces: Pimelodidae) of the Paraná River, Paraná, Brazil Systematics

    Pavanelli, Gilberto C; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    Abstract in English:

    Spasskyellina mandi n. sp. (Proteocephalidea: Monticelliidae) is described from the Siluriform fish Pimelodus ornatus Kner, 1857, caught in the Paraná River, Paraná, Brazil. The new species differs from other species of the same genus mainly by a fewer number of testes and by a larger osmoregulatory canal. This is the second species of proteocephalidean cestode collected in P. ornatus.
  • External morphology of Triatoma rickmani Zeledón & Ponce, 1972 by scanning electron microscopy

    Carcavallo, Rodolfo U; Zeledón, Rodrigo; Jurberg, José; Galindez, Itamar

    Abstract in English:

    A male of Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón & Ponce, 1972, was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Only few specimens of this species are known. In this paper, some structures from the head, thorax, abdomen and distal region of the second leg are shown. Some of them could have taxonomic importance, as the oculo-ocellar region, the buccula, the anterolateral angle of the collar, the scutellum with the process longer than the main body, the stridulatory sulcus with an unusual backward vermiform area, and the tibia-tarsal articulation, with a spongy fossula. The last structure was absent in specimens previously studied (Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979). Differences between this specimen and others previously described by several authors are dicussed.
  • Dasybasis (Agelanius) cortesi, a new species of horse fly from Chile (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini) Systematics

    González, Christian R; Henry, Abel A

    Abstract in English:

    The female and male of Dasybasis (Agelanius) cortesi, new species, is described and illustrated from specimens collected in the National Reserve of Río Clarillo, Cordillera Province, Central Chile. Its relationships to other Dasybasis species are discussed.
  • A low stringency polymerase chain reaction approach to the identification of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila, intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil Diagnosis

    Vidigal, Teofânia HDA; Dias Neto, Emmanuel; Simpson, Andrew JG; Carvalho, Omar S

    Abstract in English:

    The low stringency-polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR) with a pair of specific primers for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene was evaluated as a means of differentiating between the two Schistosoma mansoni intermediate host species in Brazil: Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila. Individual snails obtained from different states of Brazil were used and the amplification patterns obtained showed a high degree of genetic variability in these species. Nevertheless, 4 and 3 clearly defined specific diagnostic bands was observed in individuals from B. glabrata and B. tenagophila respectively. The detection of snail specific diagnostic bands suggests the possibility of reliable species differentiation at the DNA level using LS-PCR.
  • HIV-1 isolation from plasma specimens Diagnosis

    Costa, CI; Morgado, MG; Santos, VGV; Bongertz, V
  • Reliability of serological methods for detection of leishmaniasis in portuguese domestic and wild reservoirs Diagnosis

    Semião-Santos, SJ; Abranches, P; Silva-Pereira, MCD; Santos-Gomes, GM; Fernandes, JP; Vetter, JCM

    Abstract in English:

    A direct agglutination test (DAT) and an immunofluorescence technique (IFAT) were compared for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in 43 dogs and five foxes from Alto-Douro and Arrábida, two known endemic areas in Portugal. In four dogs with proved canine leishmaniasis, both DAT and IFAT showed positive readings (titres >1:320 and >1:128). Of 34 samples collected from apparently healthy dogs, ten were positive by both serological tests and eight were serologically positive by one test or the other. Three foxes out of five captured in this area, scored titres indicative of leishmaniasis in both DAT and IFAT. The concordance between DAT and IFAT in all collected samples (48) was 81.25%. Considering these and previous studies in the adjacent Mediterranean areas, the seroprevalence of L. infantum infection in the canine and vulpine populations appear to be of high magnitude.
  • The serological differentiation of acute and chronic schistosomiasis japonica using IgA antibody to egg antigen Diagnosis

    Liping, Cen; Viana, LG; Melo Garcia, TC; Rabello, ALT; Katz, N

    Abstract in English:

    Two groups of Schistosoma japonicum infected patients (acute and chronic ) and non-infected individuals were studied using IgA antibody to egg antigen (SEA) and IgG and IgM antibodies to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). The means and standard deviation of the optical density in ELISA of acute, chronic and negative groups for IgA anti-SEA were 583±124.7, 98.2±78.8 and 82.2±39. 3, respectively. There was a statistically significance between acute patients and chronic patients (P<0.01). The means and standard deviation of IgG and IgM antibodies to KLH were 501.5±150.6, 113.0±79.1, 28.8±56.3 and 413.6±148.5, 70.2±14.8, 65.3±45.3, respectively. The detection results of IgA to SEA compared with the IgG and IgM to KLH did not demonstrate a significant difference (P>0.01). The sensitivities of IgA to SEA and IgG and IgM antibodies to KLH for the detection of acute infection were 95.24%, 90.48% and 85.71%, respectively. Therefore, this study showed that the detection of IgA to SEA is also a useful new method for the serological differentiation of acute and chronic schistosomiasis japonica in humans.
  • Detection of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates Diagnosis

    Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth Leal; Lopes, Andréa; Petinate, Simone Dias Gonçalves; Chaia, André Adriano; Branquinha, Marta Helena

    Abstract in English:

    We present herein an improved assay for detecting the presence of extracellular proteases from microorganisms on agar plates. Using different substrates (gelatin, BSA, hemoglobin) incorporated into the agar and varying the culture medium composition, we were able to detect proteolytic activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Serratia marcescens as well as the influence that these components displayed in the expression of these enzymes. For all microorganisms tested we found that in agar-BHI or yeast extract medium containing gelatin the sensitivity of proteinase detection was considerably greater than in BSA-agar or hemoglobin-agar. However, when BSA or hemoglobin were added to the culture medium, there was an increase in growth along with a marked reduction in the amount of proteinase production. In the case of M. luteus the incorporation of glycerol in BHI or yeast extract gelatin-agar induced protease liberation. Our results indicate that the technique described here is of value for detecting extracellular proteases directly in the culture medium, by means of a qualitative assay, simple, inexpensive, straight forward method to assess the presence of the proteolytic activity of a given microorganism colony with great freedom in substrate selection.
  • The carbohydrate-binding specificity and molecular modelling of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora lectins Diagnosis

    Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreira, Renato de Azevedo; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Rougé, Pierre

    Abstract in English:

    The carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins from the seeds of Canavalia maritima and Dioclea grandiflora was studied by hapten-inhibition of haemagglutination using various sugars and sugar derivatives as inhibitors, including N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid. Despite some discrepancies, both lectins exhibited a very similar carbohydrate-binding specificity as previously reported for other lectins from Diocleinae (tribe Phaseoleae, sub-tribe Diocleinae). Accordingly, both lectins exhibited almost identical hydropathic profiles and their three-dimensional models built up from the atomic coordinates of ConA looked very similar. However, docking experiments of glucose and mannose in their monosaccharide-binding sites, by comparison with the ConA-mannose complex used as a model, revealed conformational changes in side chains of the amino acid residues involved in the binding of monosaccharides. These results fully agree with crystallographic data showing that binding of specific ligands to ConA requires conformational chances of its monosaccharide-binding site.
  • Invasion of HeLa cells by Providencia alcalifaciens presumably is plasmid-encoded Pathology

    Magalhães, Vera; Leal, Nilma C; Melo, Vilma M; Sobreira, Marise; Magalhães, Marcelo
  • Influence of the route of administration of pig-serum in the induction of hepatic septal fibrosis in rats Pathology

    Andrade, Zilton A; Godoy, Adriana
  • Characterization and biological activity of a brazilian isolate of Bacillus sphaericus (Neide) highly toxic to mosquito larvae Pathology

    Vilarinhos, Paulo de Tarso Ribeiro; Maruniak, James E; Hall, Donald W

    Abstract in English:

    Primary powders of Bacillus sphaericus strain S2 isolated from soil samples in Brazil, and strain 2362 were produced in a 14 liter fermentor. Growth patterns and sporulation observed in three trials with strains S2 and 2362 in the fermentor were similar. Second-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Aedes aegypti exposed for 48 hr to strain S2 responded with LC50 values of 0.25, 5.95, 12.28 and 140.0 ppb of lyophilized primary powder, respectively. Under the same conditions, strain 2362 resulted in LC50 values of 0.39, 7.16, 16.93 and 307.0 ppb of lyophilized primary powder, respectively, in those mosquito larvae. Statistical analysis of the bioassay data did not show significant differences among LC50 values observed in B. sphaericus strains S2 and 2362, at the 0.05 level. Toxins of strains S2 and 2362 were extracted at pH 12 with NaOH. Electrophoresis of the extracts in polyacrylamide gel under denaturing conditions revealed the 51 and 42 kDa toxins in both S2 and 2362 B. sphaericus strains. The presence of the 42 kDa peptide in the extracts was confirmed by Western blot and Elisa, with anti-42 kDa IgG previously prepared from strain 2362.
  • Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole in a brazilian population Chemoterapy

    Salazar, Marco; Abalém, Isabel; Solari, Claude; Rodriguez, Charisse; Luna, Luiz
  • Chromoblastomycosis murine model and in vitro test to evaluate the sensitivity of Fonsecaea pedrosoi to ketoconazole, itraconazole and saperconazole Chemoterapy

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Restrepo-Molina, Rodrigo

    Abstract in English:

    An experimental model of murine chromoblastomycosis and in vitro tests with Fonsecaea pedrosoi were used to test the sensitivity of this fungus to three different antimycotics. The experimental model was standardized in BALB/c mice inoculated intraperitoneally with a 10(6) CFU/ml suspension of a F. pedrosoi isolate. Clinical infection was evident after 5 days of inoculation. Three groups of 27 mice each were used in the experiment. One group was treated with ketoconazole (KTZ), another with itraconazole (ITZ) and the other with saperconazole (SPZ). Antimycotic therapy was continued for 21 days. The control group consisted of 40 mice which were inoculated, but not treated. Infection was documented by macroscopic and microscopic examination of affected tissue in addition to culture of tissue macerates. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for the F. pedrosoi strain used were done. The in vitro results showed that SPZ was the most active with MIC 0.01 mg/ml and MFC 0.1 mg/ml, followed by ITZ. SPZ was also the most effective in vivo since 63% of the treated animals (p=0.01) showed a curative effect after the observation period. We concluded that SPZ had the best in vitro and in vivo activity against F. pedrosoi.
  • Temperature requirements of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) under laboratory conditions General Biology

    Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    Chrysomya albiceps specimens were obtained from colonies established with larvae and adults collected at the Federal Rural University in Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro. The larval stage of C. albiceps was allowed to develop in climatic chambers at temperatures of 18, 22, 27 and 32ºC, and the pupal stage was allowed to develop at 22, 27 and 32ºC (60 ± 10% RH and 14 hr photoperiod). The duration and viability of the larval stage of C. albiceps at 18, 22, 27 and 32ºC were 21.30, 10.61, 5.0 and 4.0 days and 76.5, 88.5, 98.5 and 99.5%, respectively, with mean mature larval weights of 45.16, 81.86, 84.35 and 70.53 mg, respectively. Mean duration and viability of the pupal stage at 22, 27 and 32ºC were 9.36, 4.7 and 3.0 days and 93.8, 100 and 100%, respectively. The basal temperature for the larval and pupal stage and for the larval and adult phase were 15.04, 17.39 and 15.38ºC, corresponding to 65.67, 44.15 and 114.23 DD.
  • Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae General Biology

    Castillo, Marta C de; Saab, Olga A de; Fernandez, Norma P de; Nader, Olga M de; Holgado, Aída P de Ruiz

    Abstract in English:

    The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC). 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1); 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1), and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1). The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.
  • Characterization of subpopulations (clones and subclones) of the 21 SF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi after long lasting maintenance in the laboratory General Biology

    Campos, Rozalia MF; Andrade, Sonia G

    Abstract in English:

    Several studies have shown a clonal structure of Trypanosoma cruzi and its possible correlation with the behavioral heterogeneity of the parasite strains. In the present study, the 21 SF strain, that have been maintained in laboratory by successive passages in mice, for more than 15 years, showing a stability of biological and isoenzymic characteristics has been cloned, with the objective of establishing the characters of its clones and subclones. With the technique of isolation of a single parasite from the blood of infected mice, 5 clones and 14 subclones have been obtained. After four passages into mice, inoculum of 10(5) was obtained for each clone and subclone and inoculated into mice weighing 10 to 12 g. These were used for the study of the biological behavior of the clones: evolution of parasitemia, morphology of blood forms and host mortality. For isoenzymic characterization, the clones and subclones were analyzed for ALAT, ASAT, GPI and PGM enzymes. Results have shown that the 5 clones and the 14 subclones disclosed a biological behavior similar to the parental strain, with minor variability of the parasitemic profiles and also the same isoenzymic patterns. These results confirm the stability of the 21 SF strain and indicate a clonal homogeneity of its populations. This is compatible with the hypothesis that the T. cruzi strains represent an equilibrium of either homogenous or heterogeneous populations.
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