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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 92, Issue: 1, Published: 1997
  • Chagas Disease Vector Control in Tupiza, Southern Bolivia

    Guillen, G; Diaz, R; Jemio, A; Cassab, J Alfred; Pinto, C Teixeira; Schofield, CJ

    Abstract in English:

    Heavy domestic and peridomestic infestations of Triatoma infestans were controlled in two villages in southern Bolivia by the application of deltamethrin SC25 (2.5% suspension concentrate) at a target dose of 25 mg a.i./m². Actual applied dose was monitored by HPLC analysis of filter papers placed at various heights on the house walls, and was shown to range from 0 to 59.6 about a mean of 28.5 mg a.i./m². Wall bioassays showed high mortality of T. infestans during the first month after the application of deltamethrin. Mortality declined to zero as summer temperatures increased, but reappeared with the onset of the following winter. In contrast, knockdown was apparent throughout the trial, showing no discernible temperature dependence. House infestation rates, measured by manual sampling and use of paper sheets to collect bug faeces, declined from 79% at the beginning of the trial to zero at the 6 month evaluation. All but one of the houses were still free of T. infestans at the final evaluation 12 months after spraying, although a small number of bugs were found at this time in 5 of 355 peridomestic dependencies. Comparative cost studies endorse the recommendation of large-scale application of deltamethrin, or pyrethroid of similar cost-effectiveness, as a means to eliminate domestic T. infestans populations in order to interrupt transmission of Chagas disease
  • Abdominal Angiostrongylosis in Southern Brazil - Prevalence and Parasitic Burden in Mollusc Intermediate Hosts from Eighteen Endemic Foci

    Rambo, Paulo R; Agostini, Aventino A; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Nocturnal collection of molluscs and search for infective third stage larvae of A. costaricensis was carried out in 18 endemic foci identified by the notification of a confirmed diagnosis in human biopsies or surgical specimens. Molluscs were digested in acidic solution and isolation of larvae eventually present was done in a Baermann funnel. Larvae identified by the presence of a delicate groove in the tail were counted to assess the individual parasitic burden. Four species were found infected, with ranges of prevalence in parenthesis: Phyllocaulis variegatus (7% to 33.3%); Bradybaena similaris (11.7% to 24.1%); Belocaulus angustipes (8.3% ) and Phyllocaulis soleiformis (3.3% to 14.2%). Parasitic burden varied from 1 to 75 with P. variegatus, 1 to 98 with B. similaris, 1 to 13 with B. angustipes and 1 larvae in each of two specimens of P. soleiformis. P. variegatus was present in all sites and was found infected with the highest prevalence figures and the highest individual parasitic burdens. These data stress the importance of veronicellid slugs as intermediate hosts for A. costaricensis in the endemic areas in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • Asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi Infection in Relatives and Neighbors of Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    D'Oliveira Júnior, Argemiro; Costa, Sérgio Ricardo M; Bispo Barbosa, Aurinha; Orge Orge, Maria de La Glória; Carvalho, Edgar M

    Abstract in English:

    The frequency of asymptomatic infection among relatives and neighbors of cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was compared and characterization of the immunological response in these subjects was performed. Cases were from a new endemic area, close to the beach and near Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia, Brazil. The characterization of asymptomatic infection was made using a skin reaction test and detection of antibody to Leishmania chagasi by the ELISA test. To characterize the immunological response of these subjects with asymptomatic L. chagasi infection the cytokines profile and the lymphoproliferative response were determined after stimulation of lymphocytes by L. chagasi antigen. There was no difference in the frequency of L. chagasi infection in relatives (45%) and in neighbors (27%) of cases of VL (P>0.05). The immunological response from these subjects was characterized by high production of IFN-g and a low production of IL-10 and a good lymphoproliferative response to L. chagasi antigen
  • Seroepidemiological Studies of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Campeche State of México

    Monroy-Ostria, Amalia; Sosa-Cabrera, Tayde; Rivas -Sanchez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Tuyu, Rosaura; Mendoza-Gonzalez, Ana R; Favila-Castillo, Luis

    Abstract in English:

    Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out on 169 individuals in a rural area of the Campeche state of México. Fifty showed cutaneous lesions suggestive of leishmaniasis, 70% were parasite positive and 96% skin test positive. An overall 40% positivity to skin test with Montenegro's antigen was found. Most of the affected individuals were males from 11 to 30 years-old. Antibodies were determined by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA) and by Western blot. Two antigen preparations were used, one from a Leishmania mexicana strain which produced localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and the other from a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). In the general population from the area of study 19% gave positive IFA tests with DCL antigen and 20% with LCL antigen while for the patients 67% gave positive IFA tests with DCL and 71% with LCL. By Western blot analysis most of the patients recognized more antigens in the DCL than in the LCL strain. In the DCL strain 78% of patients recognized a 105 kDa, 34% a 139 kDa, 28% a 117 kDa and 26% a 205 kDa MW antigen. In the LCL strain 40% of patients recognized a 205 kDa and 22% a 175 kDa antigens
  • Schistosoma mansoni Infections in the First Three Months of Life of Sympatric Intermediate Hosts from Brazil

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon
  • Buruli Ulcer in Ghana

    Montoro, Ernesto; Capó, Virginia; Rodríguez, María E; Ruíz, Aroldo; Llop, Alina
  • A Comparison of Two Brazilian Populations of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) from Endemic and Non-endemic Areas to Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877)

    Brito, Ana C; Williams, Paul; Fontes, Gilberto; Rocha, Eliana MM

    Abstract in English:

    Culex quinquefasciatus is known to be an efficient insect host of Wuchereria bancrofti. In Brazil Cx. quinquefasciatus is widely distributed throughout the country and is often abundant in and around human habitations. In contrast, Bancroftian filariasis is limited to three foci in Brazil. Experiments were undertaken to compare the vector capacities of Cx. quinquefasciatus originating from Maceió (Alagoas), one of the endemic areas of W. bancrofti infection in Brazil, and Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), a non endemic area. Laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were dissected 20 days after blood feeding on microfilaraemic patients. Survival rates and the number of infective larvae that developed did not differ in female mosquitoes of different origins. Thus both populations of Culex were susceptible to infection with W. bancrofti
  • Occurrence of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Disappearance of Biomphalaria straminea in Paracambi, RJ, Brazil

    Coelho da Silva, Cesar LPA; Soares, Marisa S; Barreto, Magali GM
  • The Rio de Janeiro HIV Vaccine Site: I. Recruitment Strategies and Socio-demographic Data of a HIV Negative Homosexual and Bisexual Male Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Sutmoller, Frits; Vieira de Souza, Claudia Teresa; Monteiro, José Carlos; Penna, Therezinha

    Abstract in English:

    The initial effort of the Brazilian Ministry of Health to be an active partner in the world effort in the preparation of future accurate human immune deficiency virus (HIV) efficacy trials was the establishment of a multi-centered cohort of homosexual and bisexual men. An open cohort was established to determine the HIV incidence and the socio-behavioral aspects involved in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 318 potential participants, originated from multiple sources (health units, public information, snowball recruitment), were screened and recruitment became effective through the direct involvement of target communities (with the support of Non Governmental Organizations) and the population. Among this group, seropositivity for sexually transmitted diseases was high with 23, 32 and 46% for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B, respectively. The socio-demographic data from the first 200 participants of this HIV negative cohort suggests that the cohort volunteers are an appropriate sample of the general male population of the State of Rio de Janeiro
  • Description of the Occurrence of Canine Dirofilariasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Labarthe, Norma; Almosny, Nádia; Guerrero, Jorge; Duque-Araújo, Ana Maria

    Abstract in English:

    In order to evaluate the prevalence of canine heartworm in the State of Rio de Janeiro, a multicenter survey was carried out in two phases. The survey involved 1376 dogs from two cities: Rio de Janeiro and Niterói, and its surroundings, including the eastern shore and mountain resorts, which were further divided into sections. In the first phase, 795 dog blood samples were examined by the modified Knott test for the detection of microfilariae. A total of 134 samples (16.85%) were microfilaremic: 8.61% from Rio de Janeiro, 21.76% from Niterói and its surroundings, 33.33% from the eastern shore and 30.43% from the mountain resorts. In the second phase, 595 dog blood samples were examined first by the modified Knott test and the amicrofilaremic samples were subsequently examined by an immunoenzymatic test (ELISA) for antigen detection. In summary, 83 samples (13.95%) were microfilaremic and 44 (7.98%) of the amicrofilaremic samples were positive for heartworm antigen (occult infections). In Rio de Janeiro, 13.68% of the dogs were infected (i.e., antigen-and/or microfilaria-positive) and 8.51% of the dogs had microfilaremic infections. In comparison, Niterói and its surroundings showed values of 24.46% and 17.30% and the eastern shore showed values of 52.46% and 31.15%. In contrast the mountain resorts showed 20% microfilaremic only
  • Slit Cuticular Structure Observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy: Presence on the Walking Legs of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Famadas, Kátia Maria; Lanfredi, Reinalda Marisa; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués da
  • Diagnostic Importance of Female External Genital Structure of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera:Psychodidae) as Observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Mukhopadhyay, J; Ghosh, KN

    Abstract in English:

    Morphological description of sand flies has remained a neglected area. The different organs used in taxonomy have not yet been described adequately with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have examined the external genital structures of females of three Old World phlebotomine sand flies under SEM and recorded the morphological variations of the organs. We have found the female external genital structures of the three species varied considerably in morphology. The importance of the female external genital structures in sand fly identification is indicated
  • Characterization of Endotrypanum Parasites Using Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    Ramos Franco, Antonia Maria; Machado, Gerzia MC; Naiff, Roberto D; Moreira, Celia FS; McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Grimaldi Jr, Gabriel

    Abstract in English:

    A large number of Endotrypanum stocks (representing an heterogeneous population of strains) have been screened against a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived for selected species of Endotrypanum or Leishmania, to see whether this approach could be used to group/differentiate further among these parasites. Using different immunological assay systems, MAbs considered specific for the genus Endotrypanum (E-24, CXXX-3G5-F12) or strain M6159 of E. schaudinni (E-2, CXIV-3C7-F5) reacted variably according to the test used but in the ELISA or immunofluorescence assay both reacted with all the strains tested. Analyses using these MAbs showed antigenic diversity occurring among the Endotrypanum strains, but no qualitative or quantitative reactivity pattern could be consistently related to parasite origin (i.e., host species involved) or geographic area of isolation. Western blot analyses of the parasites showed that these MAbs recognized multiple components. Differences existed either in the epitope density or molecular forms associated with the antigenic determinants and therefore allowed the assignment of the strains to specific antigenic groups. Using immunofluorescence or ELISA assay, clone E-24 produced reaction with L. equatorensis (which is a parasite of sloth and rodent), but not with other trypanosomatids examined. Interestingly, the latter parasite and the Endotrypanum strains cross-reacted with a number of MAbs that were produced against members of the L. major-L. tropica complex
  • Trypanorhynch Cestodes of Commercial Fishes from Northeast Brazilian Coastal Waters

    Palm, Harry W

    Abstract in English:

    A large scale investigation on trypanorhynch cestode infestation of tropical marine fishes was carried out along the Northeast Brazilian coast in the summer of 1991 and 1993. A total of 798 fish specimens belonging to 57 species and 30 families were examined. Metacestodes of 11 different trypanorhynchs were found: Callitetrarhynchus gracilis, Dasyrhynchus giganteus, Grillotia sp., Nybelinia edwinlintoni, N. indica, N. senegalensis, Nybelinia c.f. lingualis, Otobothrium cysticum, Pseudolacistorhynchus noodti, Pseudotobothrium dipsacum and Pterobothrium kingstoni. Scanning electron microscopy was used to clarify details of the tentacular armature of some species. Rose-thorn shaped hooklets, regularly arranged like microtriches, are described from the bothridial surface of N. edwinlintoni. Of the 57 fish species, 15 harboured trypanorhynch cestodes. Of these the mullid Pseudupeneus maculatus was the most heavily infested fish species, harbouring 5 different trypanorhynch species. P. noodti in P. maculatus had the highest prevalence (87%) and intensity (maximum = 63) of infestation. C. gracilis was the parasite with the lowest host-specificity. It could be isolated from 10 fish species. The cestode fauna of the Northeast Brazilian coast appears to be similar to that of the West African coast. Five of the trypanorhynch cestodes found during this study are common to both localities. The two single cases of intra musculature infestation in Citharichthys spilopterus and Haemulon aurolineatum by trypanorhynch cestodes indicate that marketability of the investigated commercially exploited fish species is inconsequential.
  • A New Species of Hexathrombium Cooreman, 1944 Based on Parasitic Larva on Erotylids from Brazil (Acari: Eutrombidiidae)

    Haitlinger, Ryszard

    Abstract in English:

    Hexathrombium abirami n. sp. (Acari: Eutrombidiidae) an ectoparasite larvae of Erotylidae (Coleoptera) from Brazil is described. A key to larval Hexathrombium is given
  • Improvement and Application of a Polymerase Chain Reaction System for Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex quinquefasciatus and Human Blood Samples

    Furtado, André F; Abath, Frederico GC; Regis, Lêda; Gomes, Yara M; Lucena, Wagner A; Furtado, Patricia B; Dhalia, Rafael; Miranda, Janaína C; Nicolas, Luc
  • A Scarifier for Obtaining Specimens for Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis and Other Skin Infections

    Naiff, Roberto Daibes
  • Comparison of Two Enzyme Immunoassays for the Detection of Antibody to Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen

    Souto, FJD; Fontes, CJF; Oliveira, JM; Gaspar, AMC; Lyra, LGC
  • Attempts to Improve Xenodiagnosis: Comparative Test of Sensibility Using Rhodnius neglectus, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma vitticeps and Triatoma infestans in Endemic Areas of Brazil

    Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Perlowagora-Szumlewicz, Alina

    Abstract in English:

    From June 1984 to July 1992, 392 xenodiagnostic tests were applied on 264 patients with chronic Chagas disease from Brazilian endemic areas of Virgem da Lapa and Coronel Murta, situated in the Jequitinhonha Valley, in the State of Minas Gerais. The susceptibilities of Rhodnius neglectus, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma vitticeps and Triatoma infestans were compared. Most of the time 20 nymphs (fourth instar) of each species were applied to 161 women and 103 men aged between 5 and 83 years of age. The tests were prepared to compare the susceptibilities of two species at a time, using the same patients for each test. Results showed a xenopositiveness of 26.28% (103 tests) being 27.98% in women (68 positive in 243 applied tests) and 23.49% in men (35 positive in 149 applied tests). The relative frequency of xenopositiveness displayed a great superiority of P. megistus and T. vitticeps. In tests from type I, for example, P. megistus was the unique responsible for 10.73% of positive xenodiagnosis vs. only 0.98% in T. infestans. Other parameters analized in this work confirm this superiority, and corroborate that T. infestans can be replaced by P. megistus and /or T. vitticeps in order to upgrade the efficacy of xenodiagnosis
  • Detection of Rotavirus in Sewage and Creek Water: Efficiency of the Concentration Method

    Mehnert, DU; Stewien, KE; Hársi, CM; Queiroz, APS; Candeias, JMG; Candeias, JAN

    Abstract in English:

    Simian rotavirus SA-11, experimentally seeded, was recovered from raw domestic sewage by a two-step concentration procedure, using filtration through a positively charged microporous filter (Zeta Plus 60 S) followed by ultracentrifugation, effecting an 8,000-fold concentration. By this method, a mean recovery of 81% ± 7.5 of the SA-11 virus, was achieved
  • Specific Identification of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria occidentalis Populations by the Low Stringency Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Pires, Edina Rodrigues; Vidigal, Teofânia HDA; Teles, Horácio MS; Simpson, Andrew JG; Carvalho, Omar S

    Abstract in English:

    Although Biomphalaria occidentalis and B. tenagophila are indistinguishable on the basis of shell morphology and the majority of their genital organs, only the latter is susceptible to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Thus, the identification of these species is fundamental to epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. Here we describe a simple and rapid method for differentiating B. tenagophila from B. occidentalis based on low stringency polymerase chain reaction and using a pair of primers specific for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Analysis of the low stringency product profiles of populations of these snails from different geographical regions confirmed this approach as being applicable to the identification of B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis in cases where classical morphology is inconclusive
  • Bacillus sphaericus Entomocidal Potential Determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Otsuki, Koko; Guaycurús, Thania V; Vicente, Ana Carolina P
  • Comparison of Some Molecular-genetic Techniques for Identification of Leishmania Circulating in Natural Foci of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Central Asia Region

    Strelkova, Margarita V; Pacheco, Raquel S; Bulat, Sergey A; Rakitskaya, Tatjana A

    Abstract in English:

    Different molecular-genetic methods were used to identify a cohort of Leishmania strains from natural foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis located in Central Asia, on the former USSR territory. The results obtained using isoenzymes, PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphisms of kDNA and molecular hybridization techniques are discussed in terms of their applicability, discrimination power and feasibility for answering questions related to molecular epidemiological research and for detecting mixed Leishmania infections
  • Bacteriocin-like Substance of Aeromonas hydrophila

    Moro, Elisete; Weiss, Rita Denise Niederauer; Friedrich, Rosane Salete; Nunes, Marly Paiva
  • Invasion and Development of Trypanosoma cruzi in Primary Cultures of Mouse Embryo Hepatocytes

    Porrozzi, R; Soares, R; Meuser, M
  • Unusual Histological Findings in Biomphalaria glabrata with High Degree of Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Miracidia

    Godoy, Adriana; Souza, Cecília Pereira de; Guimarães, Carlos Tito; Andrade, Zilton A
  • Establishment and Characterization of a Cell Line from the Mosquito Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Bello, Felio J; Brochero, Helena; Boshell, Jorge; Olano, Victor; Rey, Gloria

    Abstract in English:

    A new cell line designated LSB-AA695BB, was established from embryos of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. The primary culture was initiated in April, 1995, and the first passage was made 48 days later. Serial subcultures of the cells have been carried through 90 passages from Abril 1995 to February 1996. The cells were grown at 28°C in MK/VP12 medium, supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum; the pH tolerance ranged between 6.8 to 7.0. The cells have also been adapted to MM/VP12 medium under the same pH, temperature and serum concentration. The majority of the cells were a fibroblast-type. Isozyme characterization showed a pattern similar to that of An. albimanus pupae and adults but distinct from Ae. taeniorhynchus and Ae. albopictus (C6/36) mosquito cell lines. The culture was shown to be free of mycoplasma, bacteria and fungi. Microsporidia contamination of transovarial transmission was controlled with 6.0 mg/ml of albendazole
  • Morphology and Histology of the Female Reproductive System of Abedus ovatus Stal (Belostomatidae: Hemiptera: Insecta)

    Lalitha, TG; Shyamasundari, K; Rao, K Hanumantha

    Abstract in English:

    In Abedus ovatus Stal, the female reproductive system consists of a pair of ovaries leading to oviduct and opens out by genital aperture. Each ovary is composed of five telotrophic ovarioles, with four different regions, terminal filament, germarium, vitellarium and pedicel. Germarium and vitellarium are the germ tubes in which the development of oocyte occurs. In the germarium, the differentiation of trophocytes into young oocytes was observed in three zones, ZI, ZII and ZIII. Further development of oocytes in the vitellarium could be divided into seven stages, STI STVII. The developed eggs are lodged in the pedicel
  • Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites Using g-irradiation

    Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima; Teva, Antonio; Espindola-Mendes, Erika da Cruz; Santos, Luiz Gonzaga dos; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu
  • International Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Pathogenic Microorganisms

    Momen, Hooman
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