Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 92, Issue: 3, Published: 1997
  • The Changing Face of the Epidemiology of Tuberculosis due to Molecular Strain Typing: A Review

    Suffys, Philip N; Araujo, Marcelo E Ivens de; Degrave, Wim M

    Abstract in English:

    About one third of the world population is infected with tubercle bacilli, causing eight million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and three million deaths each year. After years of lack of interest in the disease, World Health Organization recently declared TB a global emergency and it is clear that there is need for more efficient national TB programs and newly defined research priorities. A more complete epidemiology of tuberculosis will lead to a better identification of index cases and to a more efficient treatment of the disease. Recently, new molecular tools became available for the identification of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), allowing a better recognition of transmission routes of defined strains. Both a standardized restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-based methodology for epidemiological studies on a large scale and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) amplification-based methods that allow rapid detection of outbreaks with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, often characterized by high mortality rates, have been developed. This review comments on the existing methods of DNA-based recognition of M. tuberculosis strains and their peculiarities. It also summarizes literature data on the application of molecular fingerprinting for detection of outbreaks of M. tuberculosis, for identification of index cases, for study of interaction between TB and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, for analysis of the behavior of MDR strains, for a better understanding of risk factors for transmission of TB within communities and for population-based studies of TB transmission within and between countries
  • Chagas Disease in Ecuador: Evidence for Disease Transmission in an Indigenous Population in the Amazon Region

    Chico H, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Guevara E, Angel; Calvopiña H, Manuel; Cooper, Philip J; Reed, Steve G; Guderian, Ronald H

    Abstract in English:

    Two well-defined synthetic peptides TcD and PEP2 were used in a sero-epidemiological study for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in an indigenous group in the Amazon region of Ecuador. Of the 18 communities studied along the Río Napo, province of Napo, 15 (83.3%) were found to be positive for T. cruzi infection. Of the 1,011 individuals examined 61 (6.03%) resulted positive. A prevalence of infection of 4.8% was found in children aged 1-5 years. The prevalence of infection increased with age, with adults 50 years or older showing a maximum prevalence of 18.8%. Autochthonous transmission of T. cruzi is present among this isolated indigenous population
  • Blastocystis hominis Infection in Cuban AIDS Patients

    Escobedo, Angel; Angel Núñez, Fidel
  • Evaluation of Chemical and Physical-morphological Factors as Potential Determinants of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) Distribution

    Utzinger, Jürg; Mayombana, Charles; Mez, Konstanze; Tanner, Marcel

    Abstract in English:

    This study was carried out in five sites along a small perennial river system in south-central Tanzania, which had been identified as the focus for transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the area. Malacological surveys preceding the study showed a focal distribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host snail of Schistosoma mansoni, the snails being present in three sites but absent from the other two sites. The objective of this study was to evaluate to what extent chemical and/or physical-morphological factors determine the distribution of B. pfeifferi between these five sites. It was found that none of the chemical constituents in the waters examined were outside the tolerance range of B. pfeifferi snails. Moreover, the composition of water from B. pfeifferi-free sites was not different from that in those sites where snails occurred. Furthermore, none of the physical-morphological constituents seemed likely to be a determinant for the absence of B. pfeifferi. In view of these findings, and those of previous studies, it is concluded that the focal distribution of B. pfeifferi cannot be associated with a single environmental factor and is rather the result of more complex interactions of habitat factors
  • Notes on the Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera:Psychodidae) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; Falcão, Alda Lima; Silva, João Evangelista da

    Abstract in English:

    The authors report the catching of 13 different species at the Aparados da Serra National Park and at the Turvo State Park in the municipalities of Cambará do Sul and Tenente Portela, respectively, both in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, where those species were practically unknown
  • Persistent Infections by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    Ramírez, José Luis; Guevara, Palmira

    Abstract in English:

    Here we review the phenomenon of persistency in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infections. In other Leishmania species where appropriate animal models exist, considerable advances in the understanding of basic immunologic mechanisms of persistency have been made; for a review see Aebisher (1994). On the contrary, the evidences of persistence in infections with L. braziliensis rest on studies of human clinical cases many of which we summarized and discussed in this work
  • Limnomermis subtropicalis n. sp. (Nematoda:Mermithidae) a Parasite of Larvae of Simulium orbitale Lutz (Diptera:Simuliidae) in Argentina

    Villalobos, L Cristina de; Camino, Nora B

    Abstract in English:

    Limnomermis subtropicalis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) a parasite of Simulium orbitale Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae) found in Argentina is described and illustrated. This species is characterized by having medium sized amphids, pocket-shaped, medium sized vagina, sculptured spicule, and by having 9 preanal, 7 postanal papillae in the ventral row, and 12 papillae in the lateral rows
  • Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi Strains Isolated from Chronic Chagasic Patients, Triatomines and Opossums Naturally Infected from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Fernandes, Cloé Duarte; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; Cerávolo, Isabela Penna; Krug, Luciano Percival; Vidigal, Pedro G; Steindel, Mario; Nardi, Nanci; Romanha, Alvaro José

    Abstract in English:

    Thirty-five Trypanosoma cruzi strains were isolated from chronic chagasic patients, triatomines and opossums from different municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Parasites were characterized by means of mice infectivity, enzyme electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Twenty-nine strains were isolated from chagasic patients, 4 from triatomines (2 from Triatoma infestans and 2 from Panstrongylus megistus) and 2 from opossums Didelphis albiventris. Thirty-three T. cruzi strains were of low and 2 strains of high virulence in mice. Both virulent strains were isolated from P. megistus. Isoenzyme analysis of the strains showed 3 different zymodemes. Eleven strains isolated from chagasic patients and 2 from D. albiventris were Z2. Eighteen strains from patients and 2 from T. infestans were ZB and 2 T. cruzi strains isolated from P. megistus were Z1. RAPD profiles obtained with 4 random primers showed a high genetic heterogeneity of the T. cruzi strains. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were the more polymorphic. A band sharing analysis of the RAPD profiles of Z2 and ZB strains using 3 primers, showed a very low percentage of shared bands, 20% among 13 ZB strains and 14% among 13 Z2 strains. According to the isoenzyme results, 3 T. cruzi populations were present in State of Rio Grande do Sul. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were found infecting man (domiciliar transmission cycle) whereas Z1 strains were found infecting the sylvatic vector P. megistus
  • The Type Specimens of Apoidea (Hymenoptera) Deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Ferraz, Marisa Vianna

    Abstract in English:

    A list of 41 Apoidea (Hymenoptera) type specimens deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. The types previously belonged to the Zikán and Schrottky private collections. A total of 11 holotypes and 30 paratypes are listed with their respective data and literature
  • Morphological and Biometrical Differences among Trypanosoma vivax Isolates from Brazil and Bolivia

    Dávila, AMR; Ramirez, L; Silva, RAMS
  • Paraorientatractis semiannulata n. g., n. sp. (Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae) from the Large Intestine of the SideNecked Turtle, Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 (Testudines: Pelomedusidae) in Brazil

    Gibbons, Lynda M; Khalil, LF; Marinkelle, CJ

    Abstract in English:

    Specimens collected from the large intestine of the sidenecked turtle Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 in the region of Cuminá and Trombetas rivers near Pará, Brazil are assigned to a new genus and new species of the nematode superfamily Cosmocercoidea and family Atractidae and named Paraorientatractis semiannulata. The new genus is separated from the nearest genus Orientatractis by the funnelshaped mouth opening, the presence of 4 distinct lips, 4 papillae in the internal cycle, one on each lip margin, 2 lateral amphids with large amphidial pores and absence of submedian papillae. It is also separated from Orientatractis and Proatractis by the presence of striated lateral alae which curve dorsally extending from mid oesophagus to mid tail, the difference in size of the vulvar opening and the presence of large transverse ridges or semiannules on the dorsal surface. The new species can be separated from the species of the genera Orientatractis and Proatractis by the characters that distinguish the genera and the arrangement of the caudal papillae on the male. A host/parasite list for Podocnemis spp. is included
  • Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Wilkerson, Richard C

    Abstract in English:

    The larval and pupal stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva and Pinto) (Albimanus Section) are fully described and illustrated for the first time. The larval stage is similar to An. (Nys.) strodei Root. It can be recognized by the following combination of characters: clypeal index, 1.6-2.9; single, aciculate setae 2,3-C; seta 3-C 0.5-0.7 the length of 2-C; setae 1,2-P rarely sharing a common tubercle; seta 1-P with narrow leaflets. The pupal stage is distinguished from other Nyssorhynchus by having setae 1-IV-VII and 5-V-VII branched. Only minor variation was found in setal counts between specimens from Peixoto de Azevedo, State of Mato Grosso and Bocaina, State of São Paulo, Brazil
  • Reproductive Aspects of Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris

    Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Leite, Romário Cerqueira

    Abstract in English:

    The adult stage of Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris was studied. Two infestations consisted of male and female ticks on two rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Other two infestations consisted of only female ticks on two O. cuniculus. Females fed without males showed differences in some biological parameters when compared to females fed with males. Parthenogenesis is reported for the first time by one H. leporis-palustris female
  • On Leishmania enriettii and Other Enigmatic Leishmania Species of the Neotropics

    Lainson, Ralph

    Abstract in English:

    There are 20 named species of the genus Leishmania at present recognized in the New World, of which 14 are known to infect man. The present paper discusses the biological, biochemical and ecological features, where known, of six species which have not till now been found to cause human leishmaniasis; namely, Leishmania (Leishmania) enriettii, L. (L.) hertigi, L. (L.) deanei, L. (L.) aristidesi, L. (L.) forattinii and L. (Viannia) equatorensis. A protocol is suggested for attempts to discover the natural mammalian host(s) and sandfly vector of L. (L.) enriettii. Doubt is cast on the validity of the species L. herreri, described in Costa Rican sloths. Following the concensus of opinion that modern trypanosomatids derive from monogenetic intestinal flagellates of arthropods, phlebotomine sandflies are best regarded as the primary hosts of Leishmania species, with mammals acting as secondary hosts providing a source of parasites for these insects. There are probably natural barriers limiting the life-cycle of most leishmanial parasites to specific sandfly vectors
  • Analysis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Clinical Samples by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Mapping

    Valdivia, Angel; Savón, Clara; Chacón, Danay; Sarmiento, Luis; Morier, Luis; Otero, Anselmo; Soto, Yudira; Oropesa, Suset; Goyenechea, Angel

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genomes. The primers were designed from published sequences and selected from conserved regions of the genome encoding for the N protein of subgroups A and B of RSV. PCR was applied to 20 specimens from children admitted to the respiratory ward of "William Soler" Pediatric Hospital in Havana City with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. The PCR was compared with viral isolation and with an indirect immunofluorescence technique that employs monoclonal antibodies of subgroups A and B. Of 20 nasopharyngeal exudates, 10 were found positive by the three assayed methods. In only two cases, samples that yielded positive RNA-PCR were found negative by indirect immunofluorescence and cell culture. Considering viral isolation as the "gold standard" technique, RNA-PCR had 100% sensitivity and 80% specificity. RNA-PCR is a specific and sensitive technique for the detection of the RSV genome. Technical advantages are discussed
  • A Simple Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Dengue Type 2 Virus Identification

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M; Batista, Weber Chelli; Igarashi, Akira

    Abstract in English:

    We show here a simplified reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for identification of dengue type 2 virus. Three dengue type 2 virus strains, isolated from Brazilian patients, and yellow fever vaccine 17DD, as a negative control, were used in this study. C6/36 cells were infected with the virus, and tissue culture fluids were collected after 7 days of infection period. The RT-PCR, a combination of RT and PCR done after a single addition of reagents in a single reaction vessel was carried out following a digestion of virus with 1% Nonidet P-40. The 50ml assay reaction mixture included 50 pmol of a dengue type 2 specific primer pair amplifying a 210 base pair sequence of the envelope protein gene, 0.1 mM of the four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, 7.5U of reverse transcriptase, and 1U of thermostable Taq DNA polymerase. The reagent mixture was incubated for 15 min at 37oC for RT followed by a variable amount of cycles of two-step PCR amplification (92oC for 60 sec, 53oC for 60 sec) with slow temperature increment. The PCR products were subjected to 1.7% agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized with UV light after gel incubation in ethidium bromide solution. DNA bands were observed after 25 and 30 cycles of PCR. Virus amount as low as 102.8 TCID50/ml was detected by RT-PCR. Specific DNA amplification was observed with the three dengue type 2 strains. This assay has advantages compared to other RT-PCRs: it avoids laborious extraction of virus RNA; the combination of RT and PCR reduces assay time, facilitates the performance and reduces risk of contamination; the two-step PCR cycle produces a clear DNA amplification, saves assay time and simplifies the technique
  • Inexpensive Alternative Material for the Isolation of Larvae with the Baermann Method

    Graeff-Teixeira, C; Medeiros, E; Zanini, GM; Brasil, CAA; Cardozo, BL; Dalpiaz, MG; Bisol, LW
  • Genetic Variability and Microdistribution of Triatoma infestans Genotypes and Trypanosoma cruzi Clones in Arequipa Region (Peru)

    Brenière, Simone F; Lopez, Jenny; Vargas, Fernando; Barnabé, Christian

    Abstract in English:

    The genetic variability of Triatoma infestans and Trypanosoma cruzi populations was studied by isoenzyme analysis in two distinct areas of Arequipa province (Peru); one, Santa Rita de Siguas, being an endemic area for Chagas' disease, the second, Arequipa, recently infected. Analysis of T. infestans genetic variability indicates, (i) temporal stability of genotypes found in Santa Rita de Siguas, (ii) high genetic differences between Arequipa and Santa Rita de Siguas populations suggesting minor contact between them, (iii) multiple origin of the T. infestans population in Arequipa, and (iv) poor dispersal capacity of T. infestans: the panmictic unit could be reduce to a house. Parasite isoenzyme analysis was performed in 29 Peruvian stocks of T. cruzi, mainly isolated from bugs taken in a single locality, Santa Rita de Siguas. The results show, (i) a high genetic polymorphism, (ii) nine different multilocus genotypes were detected and clustered in two different clades, (iii) most of the parasite isolates pertained to one of the clade and were genetically similar to those analyzed 12 years before. This sample allowed the study of the mating system of T. cruzi in strict sympatic conditions and gave more strength to the hypothesis of the clonal structure of T. cruzi populations
  • Contrasting Genomic Variability between Clones from Field Isolates and Laboratory Populations of Schistosoma mansoni

    Pinto, Patricia Machado; Brito, Cristiana FA; Passos, Liana K Jannoti; Tendler, Miriam; Simpson, Andrew JG

    Abstract in English:

    The extent of genomic variability of clones of Schistosoma mansoni obtained from field isolates was compared with that of strains that have been laboratory maintained. Analysis was undertaken using randomly amplified polymorphic dNAs (RAPDs) generated with three primers. Phenograms showing the similarity among the clones were constructed. The data showed that while the laboratory strain is highly homogeneous the clones derived from the field populations were highly variable with 43% of RAPDs exhibiting polymorphisms among 23 clones. Clones isolated from the same infected individual were always more closely grouped than clones from different individuals. The data clearly demonstrated that earlier analyses of the genomic variability in S. mansoni have underestimated this phenomenon due to the failure to examine field isolates
  • Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    Correa, Margarita; Yousten, Allan A

    Abstract in English:

    A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer). Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. B. sphaericus 2362 was unable to mobilize pUB110 for transfer to strains that had served as recipients of pAMß1. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that genetically engineered B. sphaericus carrying a recombinant plasmid could pass that plasmid to other bacteria
  • A Comparative Study of the Organic Acid Content of the Hemolymph of Schistosoma mansoni-Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; Becker, Wilhelm; Zelck, Ulrike E

    Abstract in English:

    The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. However, some strains of B. glabrata are resistant to successful infection by S. mansoni larvae. The present work examines the profile of organic acids present in S. mansoni-resistant and -susceptible strains of B. glabrata, in order to determine whether the type of organic acid present is related to susceptibility. The organic acids were extracted from the hemolymph of two susceptible B. glabrata strains (PR, Puerto Rico and Ba, Jacobina-Bahia from Brazil), and from the resistant strains 13-16-R1 and 10R2, using solid phase extraction procedures followed by high performance liquid chromatography. The organic acids obtained were analyzed and identified by comparison with known standards. Pyruvate, lactate, succinate, malate, fumarate, acetate, propionate, ß-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate were detected in all hemolymph samples. Under standard conditions, the concentration of each of these substances varied among the strains tested and appeared to be specific for each strain. An interesting variation was the low concentration of pyruvate in the hemolymph of PR-snails. Only the concentration of fumarate was consistently different (p£ 0.05) between resistant and susceptible strains
  • Effects of Goyazensolide during in Vitro Cultivation of Schistosoma mansoni

    Barth, Léo Roberto; Fernandes, Ana Paula Moraes; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    Abstract in English:

    Goyazensolide, a component extracted of Eremanthus goyazensis showed a significant inhibitory effect on egg-laying of Schistosoma mansoni during in vitro cultivation of this parasite. Motility of the worms was also reduced under treatment with goyazensolide and 90% of mortality was reached with concentrations up to 4mg/ml. It has found that separated worms were more susceptible than worms pairing during drug exposition and female alone was significantly more susceptible than male worm in the same conditions of in vitro cultivation. Natural products isolated from plants represent potential sources for the identification of structures useful for the design of alternative molecules to be used as new drug substances against several infectious diseases
  • Incoordination, Paralysis and Recovery after Pyrethroid Treatment on Nymphs III of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Alzogaray, Raúl A; Zerba, Eduardo N

    Abstract in English:

    Symptoms of poisoning for deltamethrin and cis-permethrin on nymphs III of Triatoma infestans were described. The time required for incoordination and paralysis were determined. Deltamethrin was equal or more rapid in the onset of the first effect (accordingly to dose), and cis-permethrin in the onset of the second one. There were no significant differences between incoordination doses 50% (IncD50s) at different times for the two pyrethroids. They showed equivalent incoordination power, but the nymphs treated with deltamethrin recovered slightly more rapid and in greater amount than the nymphs treated with cis-permethrin. The recovery was inhibited by the simultaneus application of piperonyl butoxide. This result suggests that biotransformation by mixed-function microsomal oxidases are involved in the process of recovery
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