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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 92, Issue: 4, Published: 1997
  • Markers, Cofactors and Staging Systems in the Study of HIV Disease Progression: A Review

    Portela, MC; Simpson, KN

    Abstract in English:

    This paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive review of markers, cofactors and staging systems used for HIV disease, focusing on some aspects that nowadays could even be considered historical, and advancing in current issues such as the prognostic value of viral load measurements, viral genotypic and phenotypic characterization, and new HIV disease treatment protocols. CD4+ cell values, combined with the new viral markers mentioned are promising as a parsimonious predictor set for defining both severity and progression. An adequate predictor of patient resource use for planning purposes still needs to be defined
  • Isoenzymes Detect Variation in Populations of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Costa, Jane; Freitas-Sibajev, Maria Goreti Rosa; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Pires, Marize Quinhones; Pacheco, Raquel S

    Abstract in English:

    Triatoma brasiliensis is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the northeast of Brazil. Intraspecific morphological and behavioural variation has been reported for different populations. Results for four distinct populations using eight isoenzymes are reported here. The literature describes three subspecies: T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent, 1941 and T. brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956. These subspecies differ mainly in their cuticle colour pattern and were regarded as synonyms by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to evaluate whether the chromatic pattern is a morphological variation of different melanic forms within T. brasiliensis or due to interspecific variation, field collections were performed in localities where these three subspecies have been described: Caicó (Rio Grande do Norte), the type-locality for T. b. brasiliensis; Petrolina (Pernambuco) for T. b. macromelasoma and Espinosa (Minas Gerais) for T. b. melanica. A fourth distinct chromatic pattern was found in Juazeiro (Bahia). A total of nine loci were studied. Values of Nei's genetic distance (D) were calculated. T. b. brasiliensis and T. b. macromelasoma are the closest populations with a D=0.295. T. b. melanica had a D ³ 0.537 when compared to the others, a distance in the range of interspecific variation for other triatomine species
  • The Infection Rates of Trypanosomes in Squirrel Monkeys at Two Sites in the Brazilian Amazon

    Ziccardi, Mariangela; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of natural infections by trypanosome species in squirrel monkeys: Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus) and Saimiri ustus (Geoffroy) caught respectively near 2 hydroelectric plants: Balbina, in the State of Amazonas, and Samuel, in the State of Rondônia, Brazil. A total of 165 squirrel monkeys were examined by thick and thin blood smears (BS), haemocultures and xenodiagnosis: 112 monkeys, 67.9%,(being 52.7% with mix infections) were positive to trypanosomes. Four species of trypanosomes were found in monkeys from the 2 areas: Trypanosoma (Tejeraia) rangeli Tejera or T. rangeli-like parasites in 58 squirrel monkeys (35.2%), Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) minasense Chagas in 55 (33.3%), Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) saimirii Rodhain or T. saimirii-like parasites in 53 (32.1%) and Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi Chagas in 17 (10.3%). As T. saimirii resembles T. minasense in blood-stream trypomastigotes and T. rangeli in cultural forms and in this survey almost all monkeys presenting trypanosomes morphologically indistinguishable from T. saimirii and/or T. minasense in BS were found through xenodiagnosis and/or haemoculture to be infected by T. rangeli, we suggest that the validity of T. saimirii needs to be evaluated
  • Analysis of Mycobacterium avium Complex Serovars Isolated from AIDS Patients from Southeast Brazil

    Saad, Maria Helena Féres; Vincent, Veronique; Dawson, David J; Palaci, Moisés; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Fonseca, Leila de S

    Abstract in English:

    The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of Mycobacterium avium serovars isolated from AIDS patients in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Ninety single site or multiple site isolates from 75 patients were examined. The most frequent serovars found were 8 (39.2%), 4 (21.4%) and 1 (10.7%). The frequency of mixed infections with serovar 8 or 4 was 37.8%. Among the 90 strains examined, M. intracellulare serovars (7 strains) and M. scrofulaceum (4 strains) were found in 11 isolates (12%) indicating that M. avium (88%) was the major opportunistic species in the M. avium complex isolates in Brazilian AIDS patients
  • Rickettsiae-infected Ticks in an Endemic Area of Spotted Fever in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Machado, Raimundo Diogo; Pires, Fernando Dias de Ávila; Machado, Sérgio Lisboa; Costa, Lígia Maria Cantarino da; Coura, José Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    A study on tick-borne rickettsiosis was developed in the county of Santa Cruz do Escalvado, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where a clinical case of the disease, confirmed by necropsy, had been reported. Of the 1,254 ticks collected, 1,061 belonged to the Amblyomma genus, 57 to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus species, 81 to Boophilus microplus, and 46 to Anocentor nitens. The hemolymph test associated with Giménez staining showed that 18 of the 221 A. cajennense specimens, 1 of the 16 R. sanguineus, 1 of the 22 B. microplus, 3 of the A. nitens, and 1 of the A. ovale contained rickettsia-like microorganisms. Only 3 A. cajennense ticks were positive under direct immunofluorescence. A. cajennense was the only species found on humans
  • Measurements of Trypanosoma evansi from the Pantanal

    Ramirez, L; Dávila, AMR; Victório, AM; Silva, RAMS; Trajano, V; Jansen, AM
  • Geographical Distribution by Biomes of some Marsupial Siphonaptera from the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Arzua, Marcia
  • Anopheles aquasalis Eggs from Two Venezuelan Localities Compared by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Maldonado, V; Finol, HJ; Navarro, JC

    Abstract in English:

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis, is the main coastal vector of malaria from northeastern Venezuela to southeastern Brazil. Several authors have argued that An. aquasalis is a highly polymorphic species while others indicated that it is a complex of closely related species. This investigation compared the morphology of An. aquasalis eggs from Sinamaica (Zulia State) and Yaguaraparo (Sucre State), the west and east of Venezuela, respectively. We were able to separate eggs from the two localities using discriminant analyses based on ratios and percentages of anterior and posterior tubercles measured by scanning electron microscopy. The results of this work suggest that An. aquasalis has high intraspecific variation
  • Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

    Costa, Jane; Barth, Ortrud Monika; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Freitas-Sibajev, Maria Goreti Rosa; Panzera, Francisco

    Abstract in English:

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm) while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm).
  • First Case of Natural Infection in Pigs: Review of Trypanosoma cruzi Reservoirs in Mexico

    Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Bucio, Martha Irene; Cabrera, Margarita; Bautista, Jacobo

    Abstract in English:

    An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa), the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris). This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi
  • Immune Response to Trypanosoma cruzi Shed Acute Phase Antigen in Children from an Endemic Area for Chagas' Disease in Bolivia

    Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Yaksic, Nina; Telleria, Jenny; Bosseno, Marie-France; Noireau, François; Wincker, Patrick; Sanchez, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    A field study of the immune response to the shed acute phase antigen (SAPA) of Trypanosoma cruzi was carried out in the locality of Mizque, Cochabamba department, Bolivia. Schoolchildren (266), with an average of 8.6 ± 3.6 years, were surveyed for parasitological and serological diagnosis, as well as antibodies directed against SAPA using the corresponding recombinant protein in ELISA. The antibodies against SAPA were shown in 82% of patients presenting positive serological diagnosis (IgG specific antibodies). The positive and negative predictive values were 0.88. Antibodies anti-SAPA were shown in 80.8% of the chagasic patients in the initial stage of the infection (positive IgM serology and/or positive buffy coat (BC) test) and in 81.4% of the patients in the indeterminate stage of the infection (positive IgG serology with negative BC and IgM tests). These results show that the anti-SAPA response is not only present during the initial stage of the infection (few months) but extends some years after infection
  • Detection of Campylobacter jejuni Invasion of HEp-2 Cells by Acridine Orange-Crystal Violet Staining

    Fernández, H; Eller, G; Freymuller, E; Vivanco, T
  • Ultrastructural Alterations Induced by Lithium Chloride in DNA-Containing Organelles of a Bat Trypanosome

    Oliveira, Adriana G; Soares, Maurilio J; Pinto, Artur S
  • Comparative Histopathology of Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea with Variable Degrees of Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Miracidia

    Souza, Cecilia Pereira de; Borges, Claudia Cunha; Santana, Andréa Guimarães; Andrade, Zilton A

    Abstract in English:

    A comparative histopathological study of three snails species - Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea - which had been infected with Schistosoma mansoni miracidia revealed similar qualitative features, consisting of areas of sporocyst proliferation and differentiation associated with reactive host reaction, at the time they were actively eliminating great number of cercariae. However, in specimens that were exposed to miracidia but failed to eliminate cercariae later on, different histopathological pictures were observed in different snail species. While B. glabrata exhibited frequent focal (granulomatous) proliferation of amebocytes in several organs, B. tenagophila and B. straminea only rarely showed such reactive changes, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance to miracidial infection probably follows different pathways in the snail species studied
  • Characterization of a Trypanosoma rangeli Strain of Colombian Origin

    Zuñiga, C; Palau, T; Penin, P; Gamallo, C; Diego, JA de

    Abstract in English:

    A Colombian strain of Trypanosoma rangeli was characterized by analyzing its behaviour in different axenic and cellular culture, its infection rate and the histopathological lesions produced in experimental animals. Although slight inflammatory infiltrations were shown in different histopathological sections, no pseudocysts could be observed. Grace's insect medium is better than liver infusion tryptose or artificial triatomine urine supplemented with proline when studying T. rangeli metacyclogenesis, with a peak of 32% trypomastigotes. High infection rates were found in VERO and J774 cells. Because of its 100% infectivity rates and adequacy of parasitemia levels, C23 strain is a suitable model of T. rangeli biology study
  • Evaluation of Popular Stains for the Diagnosis of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Castillo, Carmen Manuela; Rojas, Carlos
  • Ultrastructure of Endogenous Stages of Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 Emend. Levine, 1961 in Experimentally Infected Goat

    Vieira, Luiz S; Lima, José D; Ribeiro, Múcio FB; Bozzi, Ivete A; Camargos, Elizabeth RS

    Abstract in English:

    The ultrastructure of endogenous stages of Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae was observed in epithelial cells of cecum and colon crypts from a goat experimentally infected with 2.0 x 105 oocysts/kg. The secondary meronts developed above the nucleus of the host cell. The nucleus first divides and merozoites then form on the surface of multinucleated meronts. Free merozoites in the parasitophorous vacuole present a conoid, double membrane, one pair of rhoptries, micronemes, micropore, anterior and posterior polar ring, a nucleus with a nucleolus and peripheral chromatin. The microgamonts are located below the nucleus of the host cell and contain several nuclei at the periphery of the parasite. The microgametes consist of a body, a nucleus, three flagella and mitochondria. The macrogamonts develop below the nucleus of the host cell and have a large nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. The macrogametes contain a nucleus, wall-forming bodies of type I and type II. The young oocysts present a wall containing two layers and a sporont
  • Estudo morfológico de Triatoma guazu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

    Galindez-Girón, Itamar; Carcavallo, Rodolfo U; Jurberg, José; Lent, Herman; Barth, Ortrud Monika

    Abstract in English:

    A female of Triatoma guazu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979, a rare species from which the allotype was recently described, was studied by scanning electronic microscopy and videomicroscope. Some structures of the head and the thorax are shown. Some of them could have taxonomic importance, as the oculo-ocellar region, the buccula, the anterolateral angle of the collar, the scutellum, wings and the stridulatory sulcus, which has an unusual lateral high rim
  • Artificial Feeding of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae) through Silicone Membrane

    Moura, Saulo Teixeira de; Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique da; Fernandes, Claudia Gorgulho Nogueira; Butler, Jerry F

    Abstract in English:

    An artificial feeding system was used where citrated bovine blood was offerred to male and female Amblyomma cajennense. Vestiges of blood, sweat, hair and exfoliated skin were used as phago-stimulants placed on the surface of the silicone membrane. The ticks were collected, as engorged nymphs, from naturally infested equines, with the ecdysis occurring in the laboratory. Four hundred ticks were used, 50% being female, at three to four weeks post-ecdysis. Vestiges of blood on the silicone membrane were the most efficient phago-stimulant and the association of vestiges of blood and sweat residue smears yielded better results compared to the other phago-stimulants used
  • Ultrastructure of the Adhesion of Crithidia guilhermei (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) to Plastic Coverslips: Formation of a Fibrous Matrix Around the Cells

    Oliveira, Leila MF; Soares, Maurilio J; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Souza, Wanderley de
  • Desenvolvimento de Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 alimentado através de membrana de silicone e em camundongos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

    Rocha, Dayse da Silva; Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique da; Costa, Francisco Ademar; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber

    Abstract in English:

    Rhodnius pictipes (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) from Serra Norte, State of Pará, Brazil, aclimatized in an insectary at the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, were fed through a silicone membrane. In order to know the viability and the efficiency of this membrane compared with insects fed on mice, the number of bloodmeals taken, period of development of the five nymphal instars, longevity of adults, average amount of blood intake in each meal and percent of mortality were observed. A total of 310 insects, were used, comprising 50 nymphs of each instar, as well as 30 male and 30 female adults. Insects fed artificially had reduced minimal and maximal periods of development than the group fed on mice. The largest relative increase of body weight was observed in the 2nd instar followed by the 1st, and the amount of blood ingested increased during the development, to the 5th instar for both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups fed artificially and in vivo according to Tukey's test for p>0.05. The percent of mortality in the 1st instar was 18% for artificially fed and 16% for the group fed on mice; these percentages decreased as insects developed until the 4th instar, without mortality, returning to increase in the 5th instar. R. pictipes was shown to be easily adaptable to artificial feeding, and could be considered as an important and viable experimental model.
  • Fecundity Changes Induced by Low-Doses of Gamma Radiation on Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848)

    Motta, Mauricy A da; Melo, Ana MMA

    Abstract in English:

    A population of 420 snails Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, received gamma-rays obtained from a 60Co source in low-doses (0/2,5/5/7,5/10/15/20 and 25 Gy); half population was kept in colonies (allowing cross fertilization) and the other half was mantained in sexual isolation (allowing self fertilization). Results showed that 15 Gy stimulates the fertility of both groups but the colonies were more sensitive and at this dose its fertility overpasses the control group dose. The possible hormonal role played in the observed phenomena is under investigation
  • Comportamento reprodutivo de Synthesiomyia nudiseta van der Wulp (Diptera: Muscidae) sob condições de laboratório

    Almeida, José Mario d; Piana, Maria Lúcia Garcia; Selem, Cristiane Tebaldi

    Abstract in English:

    Observations were carried out on the reproductive behavior of Synthesiomyia nudiseta females. The results of the biological parameters were: pre-oviposition period (15.5 ± 4.7 days), oviposition period (25.4 ± 14.7 days), number of eggs per oviposition (95.9 ± 18.4) rate of ovipositant females (97.5%), number of ovipositions (5.31 ± 3.2), number of eggs per females (509.7 ± 324.9), rate of hatching (68.0 ± 19.0), female longevity (53.2 ± 14.7 days), reproductive potential (67.4%) and reproductive investiment (4.1).
  • Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Macêdo, Maria E; Consoli, Rotraut AGB; Grandi, Telma SM; Anjos, Antônio MG dos; Oliveira, Alaíde B de; Mendes, Nelymar M; Queiróz, Rogério O; Zani, Carlos L

    Abstract in English:

    Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae). The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l).
  • Efficacy of a New Formulation of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Consoli, Rotraut AGB; Santos, Bernadete de S; Lamounier, Marlúcia A; Secundino, Nágila FC; Rabinovitch, Leon; Silva, Cláudia MB; Alves, Regina SA; Carneiro, Nídia FF
  • The 50th Anniversary Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution and the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution and the Society of Systematic Biologists

    Shaw, Jeffrey Jon
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