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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 94, Issue: 4, Published: 1999
  • Density of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Domestic and Wild Animal Shelters in an Area of Visceral Leishmaniasis in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Epidemiology

    Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo; Souza, Maria de Fátima de; Guilhermo Castellón, Eloy

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to determine the association of sand flies with the presence of domestic and wild animals in the peridomiciliary area. The sand flies were collected using direct aspiration and CDC light traps placed in animal shelters. The results suggest that different sand flies species have different behavioral characteristics in an apparent preference for animal baits and that Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. evandroi were the most eclectic species regarding their biotope choice. Lu. longipalpis showed a distinct preference for horses and Lu. evandroi for armadillos.
  • The Epidemiological Impact of Antimeningococcal B Vaccination in Cuba Epidemiology

    Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez; Dickinson, Félix; Baly, Alberto; Martinez, Ramón

    Abstract in English:

    The incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) before (1984-1988) and after (1989-1994), a nationwide intervention with VA-MENGOC-BC vaccination started in 1989, was compared. The prevaccination period incidence density (ID> 8.8/ 105 year-person) was higher than the postvaccination ID (ID< 6.5/ 105 year-person). The percentage proportional differences from the start to the end of each period of ID in the vaccinal period was higher (87%) than the prevaccinal (37%) with significant differences among vaccinated groups (< 25 years old). A break-point (Chow test) was confirmed by the decrease in the ID between 1989 and 1990 in children under 1 year old, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 50-54 years. Comparison of ID using maps showed a decrease in IMD in all municipalities during the postvaccination period. These findings support the epidemiological impact of VA-MENGOC-BC vaccination in the reduction of IMD morbidity.
  • Wild Rodents as Experimental Intermediate Hosts of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 Epidemiology

    Paçô, Julieta Machado; Campos, Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa; Oliveira, Jayrson Araújo de

    Abstract in English:

    A total of 25 specimens of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig), 5 Dasyprocta agouti (agouti), and 22 Calomys callosus (vesper mice) were inoculated with infective eggs of Lagochilascaris minor. The inoculum was prepared with embryonated eggs and orally administered to each individual animal through an esophagus probe. In parallel, 100 specimens of Felis catus domesticus were individually fed with 55-70 nodules containing 3rd-stage larvae encysted in tissues of infected rodents. Animals were examined and necropsied at different time intervals. The migration and encystment of L3 larva was observed in viscera, skeletal muscle, adipose and subcutaneous tissues from all rodents. Adult worms localized at abscesses in the cervical region, rhino, and oropharynx were recovered from domestic cats inoculated with infected rodent tissues. Through this study we can conclude that: (1) wild rodents act as intermediate hosts, characterizing this ascarid heteroxenic cycle; (2) in natural conditions rodents could possibly act as either intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts of Lagochilascaris minor; (3) despite the occurrence of an auto-infecting cycle, in prime-infection of felines (definite hosts) the cycle is only completed when intermediate hosts are provided; and (4) in the wild, rodents could serve as a source of infection for humans as they are frequently used as food in regions with the highest incidence of human lagochilascariasis.
  • Ecogenetics of Triatoma sordida and Triatoma guasayana (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in the Bolivian Chaco Epidemiology

    Noireau, François; Gutierrez, Teresa; Flores, Rosmary; Brenière, Frédérique; Bosseno, Marie France; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    Abstract in English:

    Triatoma guasayana and two putative cryptic species pertaining to T. sordida complex (named groups 1 and 2) occur in sympatry in the Bolivian Chaco. Using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis, our work assesses their population distribution and dispersal capacity in domestic, peridomestic, and silvatic environments. Our collections by light trap in the silvatic environment indicated a predominance of T. guasayana and T. sordida group 2 and a lesser abundance of T. sordida group 1 (£ 10% of the total of captures). Their similar distribution in two silvatic areas 80 km apart supports the hypothesis of their homogeneous dispersal through the Bolivian Chaco. The distribution of T. guasayana and T. sordida groups 1 and 2 was similar between silvatic environment and peridomestic ecotopes where 25% of positive places was occupied by two or three species. Bromeliads were confirmed as favorable shelter for T. guasayana but were free of T. sordida. T. sordida group 1 and to a lesser extent T. guasayana would be more invasive vectors for houses than T. sordida group 2. The spatial partition in the three species sampled in two distant sites suggested a reduced dispersive capacity.
  • Re-descriptions of Isospora ameivae Carini, 1932 in the Teiid Lizard Ameiva ameiva and Isospora hemidactyli Carini, 1936 in the Gecko Hemidactylus mabouia, with Particular Reference to their Endogenous Stages Epidemiology

    Lainson, R; Paperna, I

    Abstract in English:

    Redescriptions are given of the mature oocysts of Isospora ameivae Carini, 1932, from the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva, and Isospora hemidactyli Carini,1936 from the gecko Hemidactylus mabouia, in north Brazil. The endogenous stages of the two parasites in the small intestine are described. Those of I. ameivae are intracytoplasmic, whereas those of I. hemidactyli are intranuclear.
  • Outbreak of Acute Haemorrhagic Conjunctivitis in Cuba Epidemiology

    Avalos Redón, Ivonne; Más Lago, Pedro José; Sarmiento Pérez, Luis Raymond; Palomera Puentes, Rosa Esther; Bello Corredor, Marité
  • Antigenic and Genetic Characterization of Twenty-six Strains of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Subgroup A) Isolated During Three Consecutive Outbreaks in Havana City, Cuba Systematics

    Valdivia, Angel; González, Grehete; Chacón, Danay; Savón, Clara; Otero, Anselmo; Váldes, Odalys; Cancio, Reynel; Oropesa, Suset; Melero, José A; García-Barreno, Blanca; Goyenechea, Angel

    Abstract in English:

    Twenty-six human respiratory syncytial virus strains (subgroup A) isolated from three outbreaks in Havana City during the period 1994/95, 1995/96 and 1996/97 were analyzed to determine their antigenic and genetic relationships. Analyses were performed by monoclonal antibodies and restriction mapping (N gene) following amplification of the select region of the virus genome by polymerase chain reaction. All isolated strains were classified as subgroup A by monoclonal antibodies and they showed a restriction pattern NP4 that belonged to subgroup A. Thus the results obtained in this work, showed a close relation (100%) between antigenic and genetic characterization of the isolated strains in our laboratory. These methods permit the examination of large numbers of isolates by molecular techniques, simplifying the researchs into the molecular epidemiology of the virus.
  • Characterization of Haemophilus influenzae Obtained from Invasive Diseases in Cuban Children under Five Years of Age Systematics

    Tamargo, Isis; Toraño, Gilda; Rodriguez, Oxandra; Perez, Miriam; Llop, Alina
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seroprevalence among Inmates of the Penitentiary Complex of the Region of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Immunobiology

    Osti, Neusa Maria; Castro, Antonio Fernando Pestana de; Ricci, Lucila Costallat

    Abstract in English:

    Six hundred and ninety three male inmates from three penitentiaries, two (A and B) maximum-security systems and one (C) minimum-security facility, located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil were studied for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies, using a cross-sectional design. The search for anti-HIV antibodies in 693 samples of sera collected was carried out by two serological tests: (a) the Microparticle enzyme immunoassay-HIV-1 and HIV-2 (MEIA) (Abbott Laboratories) and (b) the Western Blot-HIV-1 (WB) (Cambridge Biotech Corporation) to confirm positive results with MEIA. Sera reactivity for HIV antibodies was 14.4%. The highest frequency of anti-HIV antibodies was found in the A and B maximum-security prisons: 17% and 21.5%, respectively. In prison C, the frequency of reagents was 10.9%. Seventy three inmates, initially negative in the MEIA test, were checked again five and seven months later. Three of them, all from the maximum-security facilities, became reactive in the MEIA test, with confirmation in the WB, suggesting that serological conversion had occurred after imprisonment.
  • Protection against Toxoplasmosis in Mice Immunized with Different Antigens of Toxoplasma gondii Incorporated into Liposomes Immunobiology

    Elsaid, Mohamed MA; Vitor, Ricardo WA; Frézard, Frederic JG; Martins, Maria S

    Abstract in English:

    Different toxoplasma antigens were entrapped within liposomes and evaluated, in this form, for their ability to protect Swiss mice against toxoplasma infection: soluble tachyzoite antigen (L/TAg), tissue cyst (L/CAg), tachyzoite plus tissue cyst (L/TCAg) or purified antigen of tachyzoite (L/pTAg). The protein used in L/pTAg was purified from tachyzoites using a stage-specific monoclonal antibody which reacted at a molecular weight of 32 kD in SDS PAGE and silver stain using reduced condition. To compare the immuno-adjuvant action of liposomes and of Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA), another group of mice was immunized with soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAg) emulsified in FCA (FCA/TAg). Control groups were inoculated with (STAg) alone, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), FCA with PBS (FCA/PBS) and empty liposomes (L/PBS). Mice were inoculated subcutaneously with these antigens six, four and two weeks before a challenge with 80 tissue cysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii orally. All mice immunized with or without adjuvant showed a humoral response, as measured by Elisa. However, no correlation was found between antibody titer and protection against the challenge. All mice immunized with L/pTAg or L/TCAg survived (100), whereas 80% and 90% of mice from groups which received respectively PBS or FCA/PBS and L/PBS died. All mice immunized with antigens entrapped within liposomes (L/TAg, L/CAg, L/TCAg and L/pTAg) showed low numbers of intracerebral cysts.
  • A dhfr-ts- Leishmania major Knockout Mutant Cross-protects against Leishmania amazonensis Immunobiology

    Veras, PST; Brodskyn, CI; Balestieri, FMP; Freitas, LAR de; Ramos, APS; Queiroz, ARP; Barral, A; Beverley, SM; Barral-Netto, M

    Abstract in English:

    E10-5A3 is a dhfr-ts- Leishmania major double knockout auxotrophic shown previously to induce substantial protection against virulent L. major infection in both genetically susceptible and resistant mice. We investigated the capacity of dhfr-ts- to protect against heterologous infection by L. amazonensis. The degree of protection was evaluated by immunization of BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice with E10-5A3, followed by L. amazonensis challenge. Whether immunized by subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) inoculation, susceptible and resistant mice displayed a partial degree of protection against challenge with virulent L. amazonensis. SC-immunized BALB/c mice developed lesions 40 to 65% smaller than non immunized mice, while IV immunization led to protection ranging from 40 to 75% in four out of six experiments compared to non immunized animals. The resistant C57BL/6 mice displayed comparable degrees of protection, 57% by SC and 49% by IV immunization. Results are encouraging as it has been previously difficult to obtain protection by SC vaccination against Leishmania, the preferred route for human immunization.
  • Virulent and Avirulent Strains of Group B Streptococci from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Relationship between Differences in Surface Hydrophobicity, Sialic Acid Content and Macrophage Interaction Immunobiology

    Nagao, Prescilla E; Benchetrit, Leslie C
  • Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia Immunobiology

    Palacios, Ricardo; Osorio, Lyda E; Giraldo, Luis E; Torres, Antonio J; Philipp, Mario T; Ochoa, Maria Teresa

    Abstract in English:

    In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma), the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.
  • Sensitivity of a Vacuum Aspiratory Culture Technique for Diagnosis of Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Transmission Immunobiology

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira; Marsden, Philip Davis

    Abstract in English:

    Sixty eight patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis from an area with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis transmission had cultures performed with a modified Marzochi´s vacuum aspiratory puncture technique to establish sensitivity and contamination rate with this new method. Overall sensitivity of three aspirates was 47.1%; (CI95% 39.4; 59.4) significantly greater than the sensitivity of a single one aspirate. Fungal contamination was observed in 6/204 (2.9%) inoculated culture tubes. We recommend that this useful technique should be adopted as routine for primary isolation of L. (V.) braziliensis from localized cutaneous ulcers.
  • Sensitivity of Lymph Node Aspiration in Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Immunobiology

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira; Marsden, Philip Davis

    Abstract in English:

    Twenty nine patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis had lymph node and skin ulcer aspirations for culture of Leishmania with the modified Marzochi´s vacuum aspiratory technique. Sensitivity of lymph node aspiration was 58.6% and 34.5% for skin ulcer aspiration (P=0.06). Combined sensitivity of the two methods was 79.3%. There was no agreement between methods (Kappa Index = -0.084; CI95% -0,45; 0,28) showing the potential complementary roles in diagnostic approach.
  • A Preliminary Investigation on the Chemical Composition of the Cell Surface of Five Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Mangia, Adriana Hamond Regua; Bergter, Eliana Barreto; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins; Silva Filho, Fernando Costa e

    Abstract in English:

    The cell surfaces of five enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes (O111:H2; O111:H12; O125:H9; O119:H6; O26:H11) were assayed by chemical methods, lectin agglutination tests and spectroscopy associated to transmission electron microscopy. Results of lectin agglutination assays showed that all strains reacted with mannosebinding lectins. Strains belonging to serotype O125:H9 also agglutinated with lectins which recognize galactose and Nacetylgalactosamine residues. The bacterial cells were treated with 0.01M phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.0) at 100oC for 2 hr and the extracts were submitted to precipitation and fractionated by Cetavlon. Phosphate, total sugar and protein contents were determined. Gas liquid chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis of alditol acetates showed the presence of galactose, mannose, fucose, glucose and traces of ribose. Spectroscopic analysis of intact cells showed the presence of a capsule-like structure which was not totally preserved after extraction. Some cells were still surrounded by an amorphous capsular-like material after polysaccharide extraction.
  • Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Waldow, Luciana; Pelegrinello, Sandra Regina; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Abreu Filho, Benício Alves de; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

    Abstract in English:

    Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.
  • Heterologous Expression of a Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Glycoprotein (gp82) Indicates that Requirements for Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchoring are Different in Mammalian Cells and this Trypanosome Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Ramirez, Marcel I; Boscardin, Silvia B; Ruiz, Rita C; Han, Sang W; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia S; Yoshida, Nobuko; Mortara, Renato A; Silveira, José Franco da
  • Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts Therapy

    Betancur-Galvis, LA; Saez, J; Granados, H; Salazar, A; Ossa, JE

    Abstract in English:

    Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity) and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue) and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50) for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x103mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50). These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.
  • Atypical Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in an Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient: T-cell Responses and Remission of Lesions Associated with Antigen Immunotherapy Therapy

    Da-Cruz, Alda M; Filgueiras, Danilo V; Coutinho, Ziadir; Mayrink, Wilson; Grimaldi Jr, Gabriel; De Luca, Paula M; Mendonça, Sergio CF; Coutinho, Sergio G

    Abstract in English:

    An atypical case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated mucocutaneous lesions due to Leishmania braziliensis is described. Many vacuolated macrophages laden with amastigote forms of the parasite were found in the lesions. Leishmanin skin test and serology for leishmaniasis were both negative. The patient was resistant to therapy with conventional drugs (antimonial and amphotericin B). Interestingly, remission of lesions was achieved after an alternative combined therapy of antimonial associated with immunotherapy (whole promastigote antigens). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and stimulated in vitro with Leishmania antigens to test the lymphoproliferative responses (LPR). Before the combined immunochemotherapy, the LPR to leishmanial antigens was negligible (stimulation index - SI=1.4). After the first course of combined therapy it became positive (SI=4.17). The antigen responding cells were predominantly T-cells (47.5%) most of them with CD8+ phenotype (33%). Very low CD4+ cells (2.2%) percentages were detected. The increased T-cell responsiveness to leishmanial antigens after combined therapy was accompanied by interferon-g (IFN-g) production as observed in the cell culture supernatants. In this patient, healing of the leishmaniasis lesions was associated with the induction of a specific T-cell immune response, characterized by the production of IFN-g and the predominance of the CD8+ phenotype among the Leishmania-reactive T-cells.
  • Drug Resistance Patterns among Hospitalized Tuberculous Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1993-1994 Therapy

    Fandinho, FCO; Kritski, AL; Hofer, C; Conde Jr, H; Ferreira, RMC; Silva, MG; Fonseca, LS

    Abstract in English:

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors for drug resistance among hospitalized patients in two tertiary care centers, an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) reference center and a sanatorium, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1993-1994, 389 patients were diagnosed as having tuberculosis (TB). Isolates from 265 patients were tested for in vitro susceptibility to rifampin and isoniazid. Resistance to one or more drugs was detected in 44 patients (16.6%) and was significantly more common among recurrent cases in both hospitals (p=0.03 in the AIDS center and p=0.001 in the sanatorium). Twenty seven patients (10.2%) had isolates resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Multi-drug resistance was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among patients who had never been treated for TB. In conclusion, drug-resistant TB is high in hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, especially among HIV infected patients. Therefore, measures to control TB and prevent nosocomial transmission need urgently to be set up in the Brazilian hospitals.
  • Penetration Sites and Migratory Routes of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in the Experimental Intermediate Host (Sarasinula marginata) General Biology

    Mendonça, Cristiane LGF; Carvalho, Omar S; Mota, Ester M; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Caputo, Luzia FG; Lenzi, Henrique L

    Abstract in English:

    The intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis are terrestrian molluscs, mostly of the family Veronicellidae. The present work aimed at clarifying more accurately the sites of penetration and the migratory routes of A. costaricensis in the tissue slugs and at verifying the pattern of the perilarval reaction at different times of infection. Slugs were individually infected with 5,000 L1, and killed from 30 min to 30 days after infection. From 30 min up to 2 hr after infection, L1 were found within the lumen of different segments of the digestive tube having their number diminished in more advanced times after exposition until complete disappearance. After 30 min of exposition, percutaneous infection occurred, simultaneously to oral infection. Perilarval reaction was observed from 2 hr of infection around larvae in fibromuscular layer, appearing later (after 6 hr) around larvae located in the viscera. A pre-granulomatous reaction was characterized by gradative concentration of amebocytes around larvae, evolving two well-organized granulomas. In this work we confirmed the simultaneous occurrence of oral and percutaneous infections. Perilarval reaction, when very well developed, defined typical granulomatous structure, including epithelioid cell transformation. The infection also caused a systemic mobilization of amebocytes and provoked amebocyte-endothelium interactions.
  • Anatomy and Histology of Salivary Glands of Triatomine Bugs

    Lacombe, Dyrce

    Abstract in English:

    Histological studies upon the salivary glands of ten species of triatomine bugs were performed looking for their number and structural organization in different genera. It was possible to evaluate the celular epithelium type of each gland, as well as the merocrine and apocrine secretions of the glands. Secretion run until the hilo and after to salivary pump and hypofaringe. The glandular components, D1, D2 and D3 are always present in the Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Diptelogaster but in Rhodnius there are only the first two pairs of glands. The salivary channels and the hilo are analyzed by histology. The whole pair D3 has a clear valve that regularizes the exit of the secretions to the hilo. According to the genus the valves appear in different locations. They have low and dense epithelium, and their nucleus are rich in chromatin. The secondary channels leaving these valves, are very different, with clear chitinous ringer, low level of chromatin in the nucleus and homogeneous cytoplasm.
  • Changes in the Sexual Dimorphism of Triatominae in the Transition from Natural to Artificial Habitats General Biology

    Dujardin, JP; Steindel, M; Chavez, T; Machane, M; Schofield, CJ

    Abstract in English:

    A shift from large to small average sizes was observed in Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius domesticus between field and domestic (or laboratory) conditions of life. It was more pronounced in the female specimens, leading to a subsequent reduction of sexual size dimorphism. This feature is discussed in terms of genetic and populational changes occurring from natural to artificial habitats, in particular those related to population densities. Sexual size dimorphism is then recommended as a new character to be used in the study of species of Triatominae adapting to domestic ecotopes.
  • Influence of Refrigeration and Formalin on the Floatability of Giardia duodenalis Cysts General Biology

    Moitinho, Maria da Luz Ribeiro; Bértoli, Marta; Guedes, Terezinha Aparecida; Ferreira, Cláudio Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Giardia duodenalis cysts obtained from fresh fecal samples, fecal samples kept under refrigeration and fecal samples treated with formalin were studied as to their floatability on sucrose solutions with the following specific gravities: 1,040 kg/m3; 1,050 kg/m3; 1,060 kg/m3; 1,070 kg/m3; 1,080 kg/m3; 1,090 kg/m3; 1,100 kgm3; 1,150 kg/m3; 1,200 kg/m3; and 1,250 kg/m3, contained within counting-chambers 0.17 mm high. Cysts that floated on and those settled down as sediments were counted, and had their percentages estimated. Sucrose solutions of 1,200 kg/m3 specific gravity (the average specific gravity of diluting liquids employed in floatation techniques) caused to float 77.7%, 78.4% and 6.6% of the G. duodenalis cysts obtained, respectively, from fresh fecal samples, fecal samples kept under refrigeration, and fecal samples treated with formalin. Cysts obtained both from fresh fecal samples and fecal samples kept under refrigeration presented similar results concerning floatability. It was observed, however, that the treatment of feces with formalin diminished the cysts floatability under the various specific gravities studied. This results should influence, the recommendations for transport and storage of fecal samples used for parasitological coproscopy.
  • Development of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) from Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil General Biology

    Brito, Ana C; Fontes, Gilberto; Rocha, Eliana MM da; Rocha, Deisy AM; Regis, Lêda
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Av. Brasil, 4365 - Pavilhão Mourisco, Manguinhos, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel.: (55 21) 2562-1222, Fax: (55 21) 2562 1220 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
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