Abstract in English:This is the first report of adult and nymphs (20 nymphs of all stages and 4 adults) of Microtriatoma trinidadensis (Lent 1951) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) collected in peridomestic environment, in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. These specimens were associated to Rhodnius stali Lent, Jurberg & Galvão 1993. The exceptional finding of M. trinidadensis in peridomestic environment, illustrates the general tendency of triatominae to adapt to human dwellings and dependences.
Abstract in English:Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90%) Butia yatay (Mart.) Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2%) were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2). T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina.
Abstract in English:An increase in the incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) has been detected in recent years on Margarita Island, located off the NE coast of Venezuela. Recent studies have revealed reactivity to rK39 antigen (Leishmania chagasi) in 20% of 541 sera from domestic dogs in endemic communities; PCR reactions were positive using primers for the L. donovani complex. Here we report that isolates from human and canine infection, identified by isoenzyme analysis, correspond to L. infantum, zymodeme MON-1. This appears to be the first isolation and identification of an isolate from HVL on Margarita Island and demonstrates the presence of this zymodeme in the canine population.
Abstract in English:Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5%) of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.
Abstract in English:From August 1999 to January 2000, samples of house dust were collected from 160 domiciles in the city of Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In 36 of these domiciles kitchen samples were obtained. Prevalence rate was 77.5%, varying according to the geographical sector. There were found 2,278 specimens of mites, with 1,530 (67.2%) in the adult stage and 748 (32.8%) in immature forms. The main species found were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, Blomia tropicalis and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. In a minor incidence we found Lepidoglyphus destructor, Suidasia pontificiae, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Cheyletus malaccensis, C. fortis, Ker bakeri, Cheletonella vespertilionis, C. caucasica and others. C. vespertilionis and C. caucasica were identified for the first time in the domiciliary ecosystem and in Brazil. The abundance rate and the infestation intensity were analyzed. There was a varied correlation between climatic conditions and positive domiciles and number of mites. The difference between the number of positive domiciles in the urban area and in the expanding urban area was significant and so was the difference between samples from the domiciles compared to those from the kitchens.
Abstract in English:Once a month, from June 1992 to May 1993, collections of tabanids on horse were conducted in the Nhecolândia, Pantanal State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tabanid catches using hand nets were conducted from sunrise to sunset at grassland and cerradão (dense savanna) habitats. A total of 3,442 tabanids from 21 species,12 genera, and 3 subfamilies were collected. Although species abundance varied seasonally depending on habitat, no habitat specificity was observed for the most abundant species. In the grassland, 1,625 (47.2%) tabanids belonging to 19 species were collected, while 1,817 (52.8%) tabanids from 17 species were caught in the cerradão. The number of tabanid species varied from 7 during winter (July/August) to 15 in the spring (October). Tabanus importunus (56%) was the most abundant species, followed by T. occidentalis (8.2%), and T. claripennis (8.1%). The tabanid peak, in October, coincided with the beginning of the rainy season. The population peak of most species, including those with higher vector potential, suggests that the rainy season can be considered as the period of potentially higher risk of mechanical transmission of pathogens by tabanids to horses in the region.
Abstract in English:Dengue virus type 3 was isolated for the first time in the country as an indigenous case from a 40 year-old woman presenting signs and symptoms of a classical dengue fever in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro. This serotype has been associated with dengue haemorrhagic epidemics and the information could be used to implement appropriate prevention and control measures. Virological surveillance was essential in order to detected this new serotype.
Abstract in English:The larva and pupa of Culex (Melanoconion) ocossa Dyar & Knab are redescribed and those of Culex (Melanoconion) delpontei Duret and Culex (Melanoconion) pereyrai Duret are described from specimens collected in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, Brazil. The pupa of Cx. ocossa differs from those of the other two species in having seta 5-IV-VI dark with strongly aciculated branches, and caudolateral angle of segment VIII produced into sharp point, and seta 1-P present; Cx. delpontei can be distinguished from Cx. pereyrai in possessing paddle lightly tanned, trumpet flared, and wing and leg cases lightly tanned, without pattern of dark spots; Cx. pereyrai can be recognized by having wing case with pattern of dark, discontinuously pigmented, longitudinal lines, and trumpet cylindrical, not flared. The larvae of the three species share the presence of seta 2-C placed medially to seta 1-C.
Abstract in English:A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi was identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent).
Abstract in English:Wings of a Rhodnius specimen from Alto Beni (Bolivia) was examined for identification and compared with R. stali, R. robustus, (certified Bolivian species), R. pictipes and R. prolixus (suspected Bolivian species). A projection of the unidentified wings as supplementary data into a discriminant analysis of shape revealed clear cut differences with R. stali and R. pictipes, less differences with R. prolixus, and none with R. robustus. Combining global size and shape of the wings, the unknown specimen was identified as R. robustus. Thus, this study confirmed the presence of R. robustus in Bolivia. It also highlighted the possibility of morphometrics to taxonomically interpret one individual, or even one piece of an individual, when related species data are available for comparison.
Abstract in English:Didymocystis wedli a parasite from the gills of Thunnus albacares from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, is described by use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first report of this species in Brazil and South America. New data are presented on the surface topography as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy.
Abstract in English:The objectives of the present study were to broaden the survey of simuliid species in French Guiana and to cytologically analyze the species in the Simulium perflavum species group. Twelve species of Simulium were collected from which S. goeldii, S. quadrifidum, S. trombetense, S. near incrustatum, S. metallicum (s.l.) sp1, S. metallicum (s.l.) sp2 and S. ochraceum (s.l.) are reported for the first time for this region. The only species collected in the S. perflavum group was S. rorotaense; 34 larvae of this species were cytologically analyzed, all of which had the standard sequence. S. metallicum (s.l.), S. ochraceum (s.l.), S. guianense (s.l.) and S. oyapockense (s.l.) are involved with transmission of onchocerciasis in Central and South America, however, in French Guiana these species were not found biting humans during the sampling period. With the few collections made during this study, we increase the number of simulid species known in French Guiana from 6 to 13. It is clear that more simuliid species can be expected to be found when more sampling is done, including collections in other ecoregions in French Guiana.
Abstract in English:In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds.
Abstract in English:"Mal de Cadeiras", an enzootic disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is one of the most important trypanosomiases in the Brazilian Pantanal region. The disease affects mainly horses, which are widely used in extensive cattle production, an activity of greatest economical significance for the region. The parasite also infects sylvan (coatis and capybaras) and domestic (dogs) animals, respectively considered wild and domestic reservoirs of T. evansi. For a better understanding of the interaction of T. evansi with its rodent host, we evaluated the differences in the specific antibody level patterns and in the parasitic peptides recognition patterns of experimentally infected Wistar rats. The rats experimentally infected with T. evansi isolates obtained from coatis, dogs and horses were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence test (IgM e IgG) and Western blotting. The serological titers for IgM and IgG ranged between 1:40 and 1:160. The most recognized polypeptide profiles were in a range of 17 and 74 kDa. Our data suggest that the humoral immune response in Wistar rats is not sufficient for granting an effective control of T. evansi infections.
Abstract in English:In this study, we compared the level of TNF-alpha secretion induced in monocytic THP-1 cells after phagocytosis of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, and M. bovis BCG, an attenuated strain used as a vaccine against leprosy and tuberculosis. The presence of M. leprae and BCG was observed in more than 80% of the cells after 24 h of exposure. However, BCG but not M. leprae was able to induce TNF-alpha secretion in these cells. Moreover, THP-1 cells treated simultaneously with BCG and M. leprae secreted lower levels of TNF-alpha compared to cells incubated with BCG alone. M. leprae was able, however, to induce TNF-alpha secretion both in blood-derived monocytes as well as in THP-1 cells pretreated with phorbol myristate acetate. The inclusion of streptomycin in our cultures, together with the fact that the use of both gamma-irradiated M. leprae and heat-killed BCG gave similar results, indicate that the differences observed were not due to differences in viability but in intrinsic properties between M. leprae and BCG. These data suggest that the capacity of M. leprae to induce TNF-alpha is dependent on the stage of cell maturation and emphasize the potential of this model to explore differences in the effects triggered by vaccine strain versus pathogenic species of mycobacteria on the host cell physiology and metabolism.
Abstract in English:We investigated the interleukin (IL-4) levels in BALB/c mice immunized with Anisakis extract in single or multiple doses and in mice orally infected with a larva. From animals immunized maximum responses were obtained with the multiple doses with an only IL-4 peak. Conversely, in the mice inoculated with a larva per os, the IL-4 levels showed two peaks of different rates.
Abstract in English:A recently developed technique, namely multiple beam interference microscopy, has been applied to investigate the morphology of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii for the first time. The interference pattern obtained from the multiple internal reflection of a T. gondii, sandwiched between a glass plate and a cover plate, was focused on the objective of a conventional microscope. Because of the enhance contrast, several details of sub cellular structure and separating compartments are clearly visible. Details reveal the presence of a nucleus, lipid body, dense granule, rhoptry and amylopectin. The wall thickness of the membrane of the lipid body and the amylopectin is of the order of 0.02 µm and can be clearly distinguished with the help of the present technique. The same parasite has also been examined with the help of atomic force microscopy, and because of its thick membrane, the inner structural details were not observed at all. Sub cellular details of T. gondii observed with the present technique have been reported earlier only by low amplification transmission electron microscopy and not by any optical microscopic technique.
Abstract in English:Cutaneous biopsies (n = 94) obtained from 88 patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis were studied by conventional and immunohistochemical techniques. Specimens were distributed as active lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 53) (Group I), cicatricial lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 35) (Group II) and suggestive scars of healed mucosal leishmaniasis patients (n = 6) (Group III). In addition, active cutaneous lesions of other etiology (n = 24) (Group C1) and cutaneous scars not related to leishmaniasis (n = 10) (Group C2) were also included in the protocol. Amastigotes in Group I biopsies were detected by routine histopathological exam (30.2%), imprint (28.2%), culture (43.4%), immunofluorescence (41.4%) and immunoperoxidase (58.5%) techniques; and by the five methods together (79.3%). In Group II, 5.7% of cultures were positive. Leishmanial antigen was also seen in the cytoplasm of macrophages and giant cells (cellular pattern), vessel walls (vascular pattern) and dermal nerves (neural pattern). Positive reaction was detected in 49 (92.5%), 20 (57%) and 4 (67%) biopsies of Groups I, II and III, respectively. Antigen persistency in cicatricial tissue may be related to immunoprotection or, on the contrary, to the development of late lesions. We suggest that the cellular, vascular and neural patterns could be applied in the immunodiagnosis of active and cicatricial lesions in which leishmaniasis is suspected.
Abstract in English:In this study, the ability of maxadilan and Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland lysate to enhance the infection of CBA mice by Leishmania major and of BALB/c mice by L. braziliensis was tested. No difference was observed between sizes of lesion in CBA mice infected with L. major and treated or not with salivary gland lysate or maxadilan, although they were injected in concentrations that induced cutaneous vasodilation. Although parasites were more frequently observed in foot pads and spleens of animals treated with maxadilan than in the animals treated with salivary gland lysate or saline, the differences were small and not statistically significant. The lesions in BALB/c mice infected with L. braziliensis and treated with maxadilan were slightly larger than in animals that received Leishmania alone. Such differences disappeared 14 weeks after infection, and were statistically significant only in one of two experiments.
Abstract in English:Inocula, varying from 15 to 1,000 embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs, were administered to young adult rats by gastric tube, in an attempt to investigate the influence of worm load in the production of septal fibrosis of the liver. Low doses of 15, 30 or 50 eggs were sufficient to produce septal fibrosis, but it appeared with variable degrees of intensity and always with focal distribution. Septal fibrosis became diffuse, progressive with time, and already well developed 40 days after infection, when 100 eggs or more were administered. However, higher inocula (200, 500 and 1,000 eggs) did not intensify septal fibrosis, although the number of parasitic focal lesions proportionally augmented.
Abstract in English:In this work, the susceptibility to benznidazole of two parental Trypanosoma cruzi strains, Colombian and Berenice-78, was compared to isolates obtained from dogs infected with these strains for several years. In order to evaluate the susceptibility to benznidazole two groups of mice were infected with one of five distinct populations isolated from dogs as well as the two parental strains of T. cruzi. The first group was treated with benznidazole during the acute phase and the second remained untreated controls. The animals were considered cured when parasitological and serological tests remained persistently negative. Mice infected with the Colombian strain and its isolates Colombian (A and B) did not cure after treatment. On the other hand, all animals infected with Berenice-78 were cured by benznidazole treatment. However, 100%, 50% and 70% of cure rates were observed in animals infected with the isolates Berenice-78 B, C and D, respectively. No significant differences were observed in serological profile of infected control groups, with all animals presenting high antibody levels. However, the ELISA test showed differences in serological patterns between mice inoculated with the different T. cruzi isolates and treated with benznidazole. This variability was dependent on the T. cruzi population used and seemed to be associated with the level of resistance to benznidazole.
Abstract in English:Malnutrition hampers the course of schistosomiasis mansoni infection just as normal growth of adult worms. A comparative morphometric study on adult specimens (male and female) recovered from undernourished (fed with a low protein diet - regional basic diet) and nourished (rodent commercial laboratory food, NUVILAB) white mice was performed. Tomographic images and morphometric analysis of the oral and ventral suckers, reproductive system and tegument were obtained by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Undernourished male specimens presented smaller morphometric values (length and width) of the reproductive system (first, third and last testicular lobes) and thickness of the tegument than controls. Besides that, it was demonstrated that the dorsal surface of the male worms bears large tubercles unevenly distributed, but kept grouped and flat. At the subtegumental region, vacuolated areas were detected. It was concluded that the inadequate nutritional status of the vertebrate host has a negative influence mainly in the reproductive system and topographical somatic development of male adult Schistosoma mansoni, inducing some alterations on the structure of the parasite.
Abstract in English:Entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Simulium larvae and adults from breeding sites in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as 18 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and one of B. sphaericus. Most of these strains were serotyped according to their flagellar antigens. However, nine of the B. thuringiensis samples, could not be serotyped and were designated as "autoagglutinating"; they were also shown to be toxic in preliminary tests against Aedes aegypti larvae. Additionally, B. sphaericus was also shown to be toxic towards Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.
Abstract in English:Two species of blood protozoans were identified from blood smears collected from 15 specimens of the Chimango caracara (Milvago chimango) on Isla Grande de Chiloé in southern Chile. These included Leucocytozoon toddi in 13 birds, including all 5 of the 4-6 week old nestlings examined, and 8 of the subadults or adults. One of the nestlings also had a dual infection of L. toddi and Haemoproteus tinnunculi. These are the first reports of blood parasites from M. chimango.