Energy expenditure and intensity of HIIT bodywork® session

Alexandre Fernandes Machado Victor Machado Reis Roberta Luksevicius Rica Julien S. Baker Aylton Jose Figueira Junior Danilo Sales Bocalini About the authors

Abstract

Aim:

Several programs using total body weight exercise methods have been applied in several populations especially using HIIT. The present study assessed the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and energy expenditure of a HIIT body work® session.

Methods:

Twelve male participants performed 20 minutes of a HIIT body work, consisting of 20 sets of 30 seconds of stimulation in all-out intensity, followed by 30 seconds of passive recovery. Five cycles were performed for each exercise (jumping jack, burpee, mountain climb, and squat jump).

Results:

The mean VO2 of the session was 34 ± 7 ml.kg.min-1 (80.35% of the VO2 peak obtained in the session). The energy expenditure of the session was 251±27 kcal (13±1 kcal.min-1) and 39 ± 8 kcal (75±1 kcal.min-1) during the recovery time. The heart rate values were 160±18 bpm (91% of the peak HR of the session) and 125±22 bpm (71%) in recovery. In addition, significant differences (p<0.05) in maximal VO2 were found between jumping jack, mountain climber, burpee and squat jump.

Conclusion:

Based on the present data, a HIIT bodywork® session presented energy expenditure as a typical high-intensity exercise profile.

Keywords:
bodyweight exercise; energy expenditure; training; oxygen

Introduction

The practice of body weight exercises first appeared on the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) trend list in 2013, occupying the third position11. Thompson WR. Worldwide survey of fitness trends for 2013. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal. 2012; 16(6): 8-17.. Between 2014 and 2017, it remained in the 1st or 2nd position, falling to 4th place in 2018 and 5th place in the 201922. Thompson WR. Worldwide survey of fitness trends for 2019. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal. 2018; 22(6): 10-17.. While high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has only emerged in 2014 in 1st place and until the list of trends of 2019, it remains in the top 3 positions22. Thompson WR. Worldwide survey of fitness trends for 2019. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal. 2018; 22(6): 10-17.. The practice of body weight exercises and HIIT are among the top 5 positions in the trend survey since 2014, showing that training with body weight and HIIT methods are directly related to the fitness world.

Additionally, the combination of whole-body exercise and high-intensity interval training methods have been investigated in the literature in acute33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516

4. Machado AF. Evangelista AL, Miranda JMQ, et al. Sweat rate measurements after high intensity interval training based on whole body single bout exercise. Braz J Sport Med. 2018b; 24: 197-201.

5. Rica R. Miranda J. Machado A, et al. Body-image and -size perception after a single session of HIIT body work in healthy adult men. Motricidade. 2018; 14(4):66-73.
-66. Evangelista AL, Evangelista RAGT, Machado AF, et al. Effects of high-intensity calisthenic training on mood and affective responses. JEPonline. 2017; 20 (6): 15-23. or chronic77. McRae G, Payne A, Zelt JGE, et al. Extremely low volume. whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females. Applied Physiology. Nutrition. and Metabolism. 2012; 37(6): 1124-1131.

8. Gist NH, Freese EC, Ryan TE, Cureton KJ. Effects of low-volume, high-intensity whole-body calisthenics on army ROTC cadets. Military Medicine. 2015; 180:5; 492-499.

9. Machado AF, Doro M, Rocha ALC, et al. Frequência de treinamento no HIIT BODY WORK e redução da massa corporal: um estudo piloto. Motricidade. 2018c; 14: 179-183.

10. Evangelista AL, Teixeira CLS, Machado AF, et al. Effects of a short-term of whole-body. high intensity. intermittent training program on morpho-functional parameters. J Bodywork Mov Therap. 2019; 23(3):456-460.
-1111. Schaun. GZ, Pinto SS, Brasil B, Nunes GN, Alberton CL. Neuromuscular adaptations to sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training compared to ergometer-based interval and continuous training. J Sport Science. 2019; 37(14):1561-1569. study designs. Methodologically, the sessions of HIIT bodywork® consist of performing exercises only with body weight at high intensity for a predetermined time, followed by a fixed time rest interval. Although different session designs have been previously addressed33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516

4. Machado AF. Evangelista AL, Miranda JMQ, et al. Sweat rate measurements after high intensity interval training based on whole body single bout exercise. Braz J Sport Med. 2018b; 24: 197-201.

5. Rica R. Miranda J. Machado A, et al. Body-image and -size perception after a single session of HIIT body work in healthy adult men. Motricidade. 2018; 14(4):66-73.
-66. Evangelista AL, Evangelista RAGT, Machado AF, et al. Effects of high-intensity calisthenic training on mood and affective responses. JEPonline. 2017; 20 (6): 15-23.,1212. Machado AF. Baker JS. Junior F. Aylton J. Bocalini DS. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2019;39; 378-383., there still lacks information about elaboration, monitoring, progression, and characterization of the training session.

Currently, several programs using high-intensity methods have been applied in sports centers, fitness clubs, and outdoors; and have moved toward programs of group-based exercise classes. These offer a greater variety of activities and have been considered a popular strategy, due to the potential to increment fitness or weight management. Considering that energy expenditure and traditional HIIT had been the focus of several studies1313. Skelly LE, Andrews PC, Gillen JB, et al. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2014; 39: 1-4.

14. Falcone PH, Tai C-Y, Carson LR, et al. Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(3): 779-785

15. Ahlert M, Matzenbacher F, Albarello JCS, et al. Comparison of EPOC and recovery energy expenditure between hiit and continuous aerobic exercise training. Braz J Sport Med. 2019; 25(1): 20-23.
-1616. Astorino TA, Schubert MM. Changes in fat oxidation in response to various regimes of high intensity interval training (HIIT). Eur J Appl Physiol. 2018; 118: 51- 63., however, information on the session’s energy cost using body weight exercise still unclear. In 2015, Ratames, et al.1717. Ratamess NA, Rosemberg JG, Klei S, et al. Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance. bodyweight. and battling rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(1):47-57. analysis showed the caloric cost of the squat (8.2 kcal.min-1) and burpee (9.6 kcal.min-1) however experiment design did not reflect a training session characterization that is realized in sports centers and fitness clubs.

Thus, considering the lack of information on energy expenditure and intensity of HIIT based on whole-body exercise, this study aimed to assess the energy expenditure and the intensity of a HIIT body work® session in healthy adult individuals.

Methods

After approval by the research ethics committee of the Federal University of Espirito Santo (N°3.733.252/2019), 12 physically active men (age 33 ± 12 years, body mass 72.83 ± 7.52 kg, height 172.83 ± 6.01 cm) voluntarily participated in the study. The Adapted International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short form (IPAQ) was used to determine the physical activity level of subjects according to a previous study by our group1818. Suzuki FS, Paulo AC, Paunksnis MRR, et al. Multivariate linear regression analysis to evaluate multiple-set performance in active and inactive individuals. Motriz. 2019, 25(2): e101919.. The following exclusion criteria were adopted: positive clinical diagnosis of cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal diseases, smoking, and physical inactivity. The sample size was calculated to be 12 participants, by a priori analysis G * Power software (v. 3.1.9.4), for power (1 - ) of 0.95 and  = 0.05 and effect size = 0.45.

Exercise protocol

All participants performed a single HIIT bodywork session consisting of 20 sets of 30 seconds stimulus (TE) with all-out intensity (as many times as possible and at a high as possible intensity), followed by 30 seconds of passive recovery (TR). Five cycles were performed for each exercise, and four exercises were performed in the following order: jumping jack, burpee, mountain climber, and squat jump. Five consecutive sets were performed for each exercise. The exercise selection and distribution were established following the criteria of alternating between an exercise considering the previous publications33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516,55. Rica R. Miranda J. Machado A, et al. Body-image and -size perception after a single session of HIIT body work in healthy adult men. Motricidade. 2018; 14(4):66-73.,66. Evangelista AL, Evangelista RAGT, Machado AF, et al. Effects of high-intensity calisthenic training on mood and affective responses. JEPonline. 2017; 20 (6): 15-23.,1212. Machado AF. Baker JS. Junior F. Aylton J. Bocalini DS. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2019;39; 378-383..

The participants were advised not to exercise or consume alcohol for 24 hours before testing. Each participant was instructed to consume 500 mL of water per hour in the 2 hours before the session, and not to consume any type of food in that period1212. Machado AF. Baker JS. Junior F. Aylton J. Bocalini DS. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2019;39; 378-383.. Before the start of the session, participants had measurements of their body mass, height, and resting heart rate33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516. Records of O2 consumption, energy expenditure, and heart rate were continuously assessed before, during, and after 5 minutes of the training session’s end.

Energy expenditure

Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was obtained through expired gas collection during the HIIT body work session using a portable analyzer with a telemetry system (K5, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). The analyzer was calibrated according to the manufacturer. The VO2 was also measured over 5 minutes at the end of the session1919. Mookerjee S. Welikonich MJ and Ratamess NA. Comparison of energy cost during single-set vs. multiple-set resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2016; 30(5):1447-52.. The VO2 was collected breath-by-breath and averaged in 10-second intervals. The VO2peak was the highest value obtained in the session2020. Herdy AH, Ritt LEF, Stein R, et al. Teste cardiopulmonar de exercício: fundamentos. aplicabilidade e interpretação. Brazilian J Cardiol. 2016; 107. 5:467-481.,2121. Reis VM. Energy cost. aerobic energy cost and anaerobic energy cost. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum. 2011a; 13(6):484-487.. In order to obtain the energy expenditure of the HIIT body work session, the measured O2 was converted into energy units (calorie) by a conversion factor (1 ml O2 = 5 calories) as described elsewhere2222. Reis VM. Garrido NG. Vianna J. Sousa AC. Vilaça-Alves J. Marques MC. Energy cost of isolated resistance exercises across low- to high-intensities. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(7): e0181311.,2323. Reis VM, Simão R, Zajac A, Oliveira DR. Energy cost of resistance exercises : an update. J Human Kinetics suppl. 2011b, 1: 33-40.. The same procedure was performed to calculate the energy expenditure of the recovery period. Additionally, the MET calculation was realized by the following equation: MET: VO2 ÷ 3,5 (ml/kg/min).

Heart rate

Heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously throughout the training session using Garmin HR monitors coupled with the K5 unit. The HR data were recorded every 5s. In an attempt to reduce HR recording error during training, all subjects were asked to check their HR monitors before of session and after set (∼3 and 10 min). The maximal and its percentage of heart rate was estimated using the Tanaka, Monahan, and Seals equation2424. Tanaka H, Monahan KD, Seals DR. Age - Predicted Maximal Heart Revisited. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37:153-6..

Rate of perceived exertion

Subjects reported their rating of perceived exertion (RPE, scale 1-10), immediately at the end, and before each exercise set according to previous publications utilized in our group33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516,55. Rica R. Miranda J. Machado A, et al. Body-image and -size perception after a single session of HIIT body work in healthy adult men. Motricidade. 2018; 14(4):66-73.,1212. Machado AF. Baker JS. Junior F. Aylton J. Bocalini DS. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2019;39; 378-383..

Statistical analysis

Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The Shapiro-Wilks test was used to analyze data distribution. The differences between the exercises during the training session were evaluated through repeated-measures ANOVA in conjunction with Tukey post hoc. The analyses were performed using SPSS software (v. 22; IBM, USA) with a significance level of p <0.05.

Results

As described in Figure 1, relative heart rate (Panel A) and VO2 kinetics (Panel B) at the 1st set was statistically lower than that in the other sets. Similar results were found in energy expenditures (Panel C), the energy expenditure per minute ranged from 1.05 to 14.35 kcal.min-1n with a mean value of 12.53 ± 1.37 kcal.min-1.

Figure 1
Values expressed as mean ± standard deviation for % maximal heart rate (Panel A), VO2 (Panel B) and energy expenditure (Panel C). *indicate statistical differences (p< 0.05) from the first set.

Table 1
Physiological responses of HIIT body work® session.

The physiological responses expressed as means of each exercise of HIIT body work session are shown in Table 1. The absolute (p< 0.001; F(2.537, 27.91)= 134.7) and relative oxygen consumption (p< 0.001; F(2.189, 24.08)= 48.45), and MET parameters differed (p< 0.001; F(2.189, 24.08)= 48.45) between exercises, where the burpee values were higher than those in other exercises.

The total (p< 0.001; F(2,386, 26,24)= 47.86) and relative (p< 0.001; F(4.263, 46.89)= 39.69) energy expenditure as shown in Table 1 was higher on combined exercises (burpee and squat jump) when compared with the jumping jack. Though no differences (p>0.05) were found when compared with mountain climb and squat jump exercise.

As shown in Table 1, although the values found for perceived exertion (9.51 ± 0.34) and relative heart rate (89.42 ± 7.15 %) of overall session may classify as an intense exercise program. The values of perceived exertion (p< 0.001; F(3.44)= 32.01), absolute (p< 0.001; F(1.674, 18.42)= 92.71) and relative (p< 0.001; F(3.406, 37.47) = 41.33) heart rate of jumping jack were lower than other exercises. As expected, the total numbers differed around exercises (p< 0.001; F(2.111, 23.22)= 59.04).

Discussion

The energy expenditure found in this study was 12.63 kcal.min-1, which is similar to values observed in a Crossfit study2525. Brisebois M. Energy cost during one exercise session following acsm and crossfit (r) guidelines. [Doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman's University . Texas Woman's University; 2014 and corresponding to high intensity, as recommended by the ACSM - exercises performed above 6 METS are considered as intense2626. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334-1359. Similarly, both the heart rate data of the present study (86.87%) and previous reports33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516

4. Machado AF. Evangelista AL, Miranda JMQ, et al. Sweat rate measurements after high intensity interval training based on whole body single bout exercise. Braz J Sport Med. 2018b; 24: 197-201.
-55. Rica R. Miranda J. Machado A, et al. Body-image and -size perception after a single session of HIIT body work in healthy adult men. Motricidade. 2018; 14(4):66-73., as well as in studies with boot camp, naval rope, jumps, and circuit training, all agree that it attains values above those proposed (85% of maximum predicted HR) by ACSM for high-intensity exercise (85% of predicted maximum HR)2828. Fountaine CJ, Schmidt. BJ. Metabolic cost of rope training. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(4): 889-893.

29. Kramer A, Poppendieker T, Gruber M. Suitability of jumps as a form of high-intensity interval training: effect of rest duration on oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate. European J App Physiol. 2019; 119: 1149-1156.
-3030. Nuñez TP, Amorim FT, Beltz NM, Mermier CM, Moriarty TA, Nava RC, VanDusseldorp TA, Kravitz L. Metabolic effects of two high-intensity circuit training protocols: Does sequence matter? J Exerc Sci Fit. 2020;18(1):14-20..

To our knowledge, few studies have investigated the energy expenditure in exercise sessions that used only bodyweight1717. Ratamess NA, Rosemberg JG, Klei S, et al. Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance. bodyweight. and battling rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(1):47-57.,2828. Fountaine CJ, Schmidt. BJ. Metabolic cost of rope training. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(4): 889-893.. The total energy expenditure of 251.05 ± 27.26 kcal or 12.63 ± 2.24 kcal.min-1 found in this study was similar to those in other high-intensity modalities1717. Ratamess NA, Rosemberg JG, Klei S, et al. Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance. bodyweight. and battling rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(1):47-57.,2323. Reis VM, Simão R, Zajac A, Oliveira DR. Energy cost of resistance exercises : an update. J Human Kinetics suppl. 2011b, 1: 33-40.,2727. Porcari J, Hendrickson K, Foster C. Drop and give me 20. ACE Fitness Matters. 2008; 14(4):6-9.

28. Fountaine CJ, Schmidt. BJ. Metabolic cost of rope training. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(4): 889-893.

29. Kramer A, Poppendieker T, Gruber M. Suitability of jumps as a form of high-intensity interval training: effect of rest duration on oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate. European J App Physiol. 2019; 119: 1149-1156.

30. Nuñez TP, Amorim FT, Beltz NM, Mermier CM, Moriarty TA, Nava RC, VanDusseldorp TA, Kravitz L. Metabolic effects of two high-intensity circuit training protocols: Does sequence matter? J Exerc Sci Fit. 2020;18(1):14-20.
-3131. Willis EA, Szabo-Reed AN, Ptomey LT, et al. Energy cost and intensity of group-based high-intensity functional training: a brief report. J Physical Activity Health. 2019; 16(6):470-476.. Using the burpee exercise, Ratamess, Rosemberg, Klei et al.1717. Ratamess NA, Rosemberg JG, Klei S, et al. Comparison of the acute metabolic responses to traditional resistance. bodyweight. and battling rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(1):47-57. showed that 10s all-out repetitions, with a 2-minutes interval, resulted in an expenditure of approximately 9.6 ± 1.kcal.min-1. Brisebois2525. Brisebois M. Energy cost during one exercise session following acsm and crossfit (r) guidelines. [Doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman's University . Texas Woman's University; 2014 reported that the mean energy expenditure during a 60-minute CrossFit session in 30 adults was 693 kcal (7.5 kcal.min-1). Porcari, Hendrickson, Foster et al.2727. Porcari J, Hendrickson K, Foster C. Drop and give me 20. ACE Fitness Matters. 2008; 14(4):6-9. demonstrated that 40 minutes boot-camp exercise results in 392 kcal (9.8 kcal.min-1) per session. Willis, Szabo-Reed, Ptomey et al.3131. Willis EA, Szabo-Reed AN, Ptomey LT, et al. Energy cost and intensity of group-based high-intensity functional training: a brief report. J Physical Activity Health. 2019; 16(6):470-476. evaluated an energy expenditure of HIIT session of 45 minutes and found an energy expenditure of 552 ± 71 kcal. Finally, with the naval rope, Fountaine and Schmidt2828. Fountaine CJ, Schmidt. BJ. Metabolic cost of rope training. J Strength Cond Res. 2015; 29(4): 889-893. using a 1:3 protocol for 10 minutes found an energy expenditure of 9.79 kcal.min-1. In agreement with these previous studies, our data and converge in a typical high-intensity exercise profile.

In addition, the differences found between exercises are important for practical applications. To the best of our knowledge, there is no information about the exercise influences on metabolic outcomes. Accordingly, our results indicated that patterns (jumping jack and mountain climb) and combined (burpee and squat jump) exercises exhibit different physiological and psychological responses between exercises33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516,1212. Machado AF. Baker JS. Junior F. Aylton J. Bocalini DS. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2019;39; 378-383.. Collectively, this information allows an exercise selection in a training session to be applied to important pedagogical strategies to address exercise program elaboration for individual subjects with diverse functional fitness needs.

Certain information should be highlighted as important determinants of the energy expenditure of exercise sessions, such as the exercises used, the session duration, and the sample gender. The differences between genders were clarified by Willis et al. study3131. Willis EA, Szabo-Reed AN, Ptomey LT, et al. Energy cost and intensity of group-based high-intensity functional training: a brief report. J Physical Activity Health. 2019; 16(6):470-476., which showed an energy expenditure difference of ∼134 kcal per session (3 kcal.min-1). In addition, different exercises cause different physiological demands, even at equal intensities3434. Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(2):459-471,3535. Donnelly JE, Honas JJ, Smith BK, et al. Aerobic exercise alone results in clinically significant weight loss for men and women: midwest exercise trial 2. Obesity. 2013;21(3): E219-E228 as in the case of naval rope vs. exercises that use the only bodyweight. In a recent publication by our group1010. Evangelista AL, Teixeira CLS, Machado AF, et al. Effects of a short-term of whole-body. high intensity. intermittent training program on morpho-functional parameters. J Bodywork Mov Therap. 2019; 23(3):456-460., using the same experimental design as that in the present study, with 3 weekly sessions for a period of 6 weeks, no significant differences in body composition parameters were observed. These findings may be consistent with the results of the present study, showing that the energy expenditure required for weight loss is approximately 2000 Kcal per week3636. American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand: Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory. musculoskeletal. and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1334-1359.,3737. Schoenfeld B, Dawes J. High-intensity interval training: Applications for general fitness training. Strength Cond J. 2009; 31(6): 44-46.. However, it is important to mention that the program duration, the training progression, and the energy intake control may have influenced their results.

Although studies have found favorable outcomes in morpho-functional parameters for HIIT training using treadmills and cycle ergometers ~when compared with moderate-intensity exercise3838. Kessler HS, Sisson SB, Short KR. The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk. Sports Med. 2012; 42(6):489-509.

39. Rozenek R, Salassi JW 3rd, Pinto NM, Fleming JD. Acute cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols using 60s of work and 60s recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 2016; 30(11):3014-3023.

40. Schaun GZ, Pinto SS, Silva MR, Dolinski DB, Alberton CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate- intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res. 2018; 32(10): 2730-2742.

41. Godkin FE, Jenkins EM, Little JP, et al. The effect of brief intermittent stair climbing on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. Apllied Physiol, Nutrition, Metabol. 2018; 43(9): 969-972

42. Astorino TA, Schubert MM, Palumbo E, Stirling D, Mcmillan DW. Effect of two doses of interval training on maximal fat oxidation in sedentary women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(10):1878-1886.
-4343. Gist NH, Fedewa MV, Dishman RK, Cureton KJ. Sprint interval training effects on aerobic capacity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(2):269-279., studies have also shown similarity in aerobic capacity4444. Earnest C, Lupo M, Thibodaux J, et al. Interval training in men at risk for insulin resistance. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(04):355-363.,4545. Gibala MJ. Intermittent exercise and insulin sensitivity in older individuals - It's a HIIT. Acta Physiol. 2018; 222(4): e13054, biochemical parameters4646. Gillen JB, Percival ME, Ludzki A, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala M. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women. Obesity. 2013;21(11):2249-2255,4747. Keating SE, Machan EA, O'Connor HT, et al. Continuous exercise but not high intensity interval training improves fat distribution in overweight adults. J Obesity. 2014; 2014:834865. and weight loss4040. Schaun GZ, Pinto SS, Silva MR, Dolinski DB, Alberton CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate- intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res. 2018; 32(10): 2730-2742.,4848. Gibala MJ. Intermittent exercise and insulin sensitivity in older individuals - It's a HIIT. Acta Physiol. 2018; 222(4): e13054.,4949. Baron B, Noakes TD, Dekerle J, et al. Why does exercise terminate at the maximal lactate steady state intensity ? Br J Sports Med. 2008; 42: 828-833. when compared high and moderate-intensity exercises. Hence, the complete details of HIIT training vs. moderate-intensity training remains to be further clarified.

Briefly, some important points present in this study should be clarified by other investigations. Firstly, corresponding to the heart rate and O2 kinetics, our results were similar to other studies using a different HIIT design4949. Baron B, Noakes TD, Dekerle J, et al. Why does exercise terminate at the maximal lactate steady state intensity ? Br J Sports Med. 2008; 42: 828-833.. Furthermore, the exercise changes in HR and caloric cost are in concordance with prepositions to address the differences in training pattern and combined exercise as suggested to our group33. Machado AF, Evangelista AL, Miranda JM, et al. Description of training loads using whole-body exercise during high-intensity interval training. Clinics. (2018a); e516,1212. Machado AF. Baker JS. Junior F. Aylton J. Bocalini DS. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2019;39; 378-383..

Additionally, some important limitations are present in this study. The sample was limited to healthy individuals who had experience with HIIT bodywork sessions, the maximal oxygen uptake was not evaluated, together these points limit the generalization of the results. There is a large variety of HIIT applications on programs and exercise regimes, and the results from this study cannot be applied to other forms of exercise session design. Additionally, the sample size was small and consisted of eutrophic participants, so the specific energy expenditure in overweight/obese individuals cannot be speculated. The maximal test should also be applied to confirm the % HR kinetics during the exercise session.

Conclusion

In summary, the energy expenditure during the 20 minutes of a single HIIT bodywork session appears to be ∼250 Kcal as a typical high-intensity exercise profile. Future trials should be designed to determine the long-term effect on health-related outcomes and be applied in different populations.

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  • 1
    Associate Editor: Gustavo R da Mota. UFTM/Uberada, MG, Brazil .
  • Acknowledgments: This work received funding from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e Inovação do Espírito Santo - FAPES (84417625/2018) and the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P. (UID 04045/2020). DSB is a productivity fellowship at Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) agency.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    06 Nov 2020
  • Date of issue
    Oct 2020

History

  • Received
    08 May 2020
  • Accepted
    14 Aug 2020
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