Anchoviella juruasanga is described from the drainages of rios Negro, Madeira, Tapajós, Trombetas, Tocantins, and Jari, in the Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having a short upper jaw, with its posterior tip extending between the verticals through anterior and posterior margins of the pupil (vs. posterior tip of upper jaw extending beyond the vertical through posterior margin of the pupil). Anchoviella juruasanga is also distinct from other strictly freshwater Amazonian species of the genus by the distance from tip of snout to posterior end of upper jaw between 8 and 11% in standard length (vs. 14% or more in A. alleni, A. carrikeri, A. guianensis, and A. jamesi). The anal-fin origin slightly posterior to or at the vertical through the base of the last dorsal-fin ray further distinguishes the new species from A. alleni (anal-fin origin posterior to the vertical through the last anal-fin ray by at least 14% of head length) and A. jamesi (anal-fin origin anterior to the vertical through the last anal-fin ray). An identification key for the Amazonian species of Anchoviella, including marine and estuarine species known to occur in the lower portion of the basin, is presented.
Anchovies; Engraulinae; Freshwater fish; Systematics; Taxonomy