Effect of Various Concentrations of an Anise Seed Powder (Pimpinella Anisum L.) Supplement on Selected Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chickens

KIA Al-Shammari J Batkowska MM Gryzińska About the authors

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of anise seed (Pimpinella anisum L.) powder supplemented to the drinking water on selected blood parameters of broilers. In total, 360 one-day-old Hubbard Classic chicks were randomly divided into four groups with three replicates of 30 birds each. Anise seed powder was added at 0, 500, 750, and 1000mg/L to the drinking water offered to the C (control), T1, T2, and T3 groups respectively. The supplement was supplied for 56 days. When broilers were 28 and 56 days old, blood samples were collected (30 birds per group) by brachial vein puncture to evaluate the cellular components of blood (RBC, WBC, Hgb, HCT, H/L). The following serum biochemical parameters were evaluated: CHOL, GLU, TP, albumin, globulins, Ca, P, TG, total lipids, UA, and creatinine, as well as AST and ALT enzyme activities. The statistical analysis indicated that the anise supplement significantly improved blood RBC, WBC, Hgb, HCT, TP, albumin, globulin, GLU, P, and Ca levels of broilers in groups T4, T3, and T2 compared with the control group on days 28 and 56, and on average. Also, T3, T2 and T1 presented lower H/L ratio and CHOL, TG, total lipids, creatinine, UA, AST and ALT serum levels compared with the control group. The highest inclusion levels of anise seed powder, i.e., 1000 and 750mg/L, had a stimulating effect on the physiological traits of the birds.

Keywords:
Blood parameters; poultry; medicinal plants; Pimpinella anisum L

INTRODUCTION

The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry production was banned in the European Union (Windisch et al., 2008Windisch W, Schedle K, Plitzner C, Kroismayr A. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of Animal Science 2008;86:140-148.) due to the presence of their residues in poultry products and antibiotic resistance of human pathogens. Medicinal plants, used as growth promoters and flavor agents, may be used an alternative to antibiotics, and improve the live performance of poultry, such as essential oils extracted from oregano, cinnamon, pepper, sage, thyme, rosemary (Hernandez et al., 2004Hernandez F, Madrid J, Garcia V, Orengo J, Megias MD. Influence of two plant extract on broiler performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poultry Science 2004;83:169-174.) or anise powder (Ciftci et al., 2005Ciftci M, Güler T, Dalkiliç B, Ertas ON. The effect of anise oil (Pimpinella anisum L.) on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2005;4(11):851-855.; Al-Kassie 2008Al-Kassie GAM. The effect of anise and rosemary on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2008;7(3):243-245.; Al-Shammari 2011Al-Shammari KIA. Effect of different concentrations supplementation with anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.) powder in drinking water in some productive indicators of broiler chickens. Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences 2011;1(19):200-208.) in broiler feeds.

Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) has been widely used to maintain or improve animal and human health. It is an annual aromatic herb belonging to the Apiaceae family. It is cultivated mainly in southern Europe and Southeast Asia. Anise fruits, or the so-called seeds, are usable parts of the plant (Al-Beitawi et al., 2009Al-Beitawi NA, El-Ghousein SS, Abdullah HN. Antibiotic growth promoters and anise seeds in broiler diets. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2009;5(4):472-481.). They contain 2-6% of essential oils, phenolic acids, eugenol, estragole, and trans-anethole, which is a powerful phytoestrogen and the main component of the oil (80-95%) (Christaki et al., 2012Christaki E, Bonos E, Giannenas I, Florou-Paneri P. Aromatic plants as a source of bioactive compounds. Agriculture 2012;2:228-243.). Anise has been used over the years for its antioxidant (Gulcin et al., 2003Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kirecci E, Kufrevioglu OI. Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extract. Food Chemistry 2003;83:371-382.), antimicrobial (Al-Kassie 2008Al-Kassie GAM. The effect of anise and rosemary on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2008;7(3):243-245.), antibacterial (Tabanca et al., 2003Tabanca N, Bedir E, .Kirimer N, Baser KH, Khan SI, Jacob MR, Khan IA. Antimicrobial compounds from Pimpinella species growing in Turkey. Planta Medica 2003;69:933-938.), antipyretic (Afifi et al., 1994Afifi NA, Ramadan A, El - Kashoury EA, El - Banna HA. Some pharmacological activities of essential oils of certain umbelliferous fruits. Veterinary Medical Journal 1994;42:85-92.), and antifungal (Soliman & Badea 2002Soliman KM, Badea RI. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2002;40:1669-1675.) properties. Also, essential oil from anise seeds can stimulate immunity (Yazdi et al., 2014Yazdi FF, Ghalamkari G, Toghiani M, Modaresi M, Landy N. Anise seed (Pimpinella anisum L.) as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chicks. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 2014;4(6):447-451.), as well as a digestion and milk secretion (galactagogue) (Frankič et al., 2009). Anise has also been shown to have anti-cancer (Kadan et al., 2012), antioxidative, antihemolytic, anti-inflammatory (Iyer et al., 2013Iyer SR, Ullagaddi RC, Bondada A. Antihemolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.). Journal of Advance Pharmaceutical Research and Bioscience 2013;1(2):52-59), antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic (Rajeshwari et al., 2011Rajeshwari U, Shobha I, Andallu B. Comparison of aniseeds and coriander seeds for antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Spatula DD - Peer Reviewed Journal on Complementary Medicine and Drug Discovery 2011;1(1):9-16.), cytoprotective, as well a santi-ulcer (Al Mofleh et al., 2007Al Mofleh IA, Alhaider AA, Mossa JS, Al-Soohaibani MO, Rafatullah S. Aqueous suspension of anise "Pimpinella anisum" protects rats against chemically induced gastric ulcers. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2007;13(7):1112-1118.) and anti-osteoporosis characteristics (Hassan & Saed 2011Hassan WN, Saed AM. Protective effect of anise fruit (Pimpinella anisum) against osteoporosis in rat model. American Journal of Biomedical Sciences 2011;3(1):49-56.).

The number of studies on the physiological responses of poultry to the supplementation of anise seeds in the drinking water is limited (Al-Shammari, 2011Al-Shammari KIA. Effect of different concentrations supplementation with anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.) powder in drinking water in some productive indicators of broiler chickens. Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences 2011;1(19):200-208.). Some experiments evaluated the performance of broilers fed anise (Al-Beitawi et al., 2009Al-Beitawi NA, El-Ghousein SS, Abdullah HN. Antibiotic growth promoters and anise seeds in broiler diets. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2009;5(4):472-481.; Al-Kassie 2008Al-Kassie GAM. The effect of anise and rosemary on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2008;7(3):243-245.; Ciftci et al., 2005Ciftci M, Güler T, Dalkiliç B, Ertas ON. The effect of anise oil (Pimpinella anisum L.) on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2005;4(11):851-855.; El-Deek et al., 2003El-Deek AA, Attia YA, Hannfy MM. Effect of anise (Pimpinella anisum), ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and their mixture on performance of broilers. Archiv Für Geflügelkunde 2003;67(2):92-96.; Soltan et al., 2008Soltan MA, Shewita RS, El-Katcha MI. Effect of dietary anise seeds supplementation on growth performance, immune response, carcass traits and some blood parameters of broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science 2008;7(11):1078-1088.. These studies tested different levels of anise seeds powder added to the diet in order to determine its on the live performance of broilers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of anise seed (Pimpinella anisum L.) powder supplemented to the drinking water as a physiological stimulator on the blood profile of broiler chickens.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The present experiment was conducted on a private poultry farm in Babylon, Iraq. A total of 360 one-day-old Hubbard Classic unsexed broiler chicks were allotted to four treatment groups (n=90), with three replicates (pens) of 30 birds each. Birds were reared in floor pens (4 m2) with wood-shaving deep litter and equipped with hanging drinkers and feeders. All chicks were vaccinated against infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, and infectious bursal disease, according to the vaccination program implemented on the farm. The birds were fed ad libitum . The diet was formulated according to the NRC (National Research Council, 1994), and was isocaloric and isonitrogenous (Table 1).

Table 1
Ingredients and chemical composition of the basal diet fed to Hubbard Classic broilers for 56 days

Anise seed powder was obtained commercially (Center of Herbal Medicine/Hatra Herbs, Iraq). The control group of birds (C) drank regular drinking water without any additives. Three different quantities of anise seeds powder were added to the drinking water: 500 mg/L, 750 mg/L and 1000 mg/L, and were offered to groups T1, T2 and T3 respectively.

When broilers were 28 and 56 days old, blood samples were collected by brachial vein puncture using sterile lancets, and placed in centrifuge tubes containing the anti-coagulant K3-EDTA. The following blood count parameters were determined: erythrocyte (RBC) and leucocyte counts (WBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L) (Archer 1965Archer RK. Haematological techniques for use on animals. Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Puplications; 1965.; Gross & Siegel 1983Gross WB, Siegel HS. Evaluation of the heterophil / lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Diseases 1983;27:972-979.; Natt & Herick 1952Natt MP, Herick CA. A new blood diluent for counting the erythrocytes and leucocytes of the chicken. Poultry Science 1952;31:735-738.). Part of the collected blood was centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 10 min, and the following biochemical parameters were evaluated in the blood plasma: levels of total cholesterol (CHOL), glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), albumin and globulin, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), triglycerides (TG), total lipids, uric acid (UA), creatinine, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. All blood serum biochemical parameters were determined photometrically using commercially available testing kits (Biodiagnostic Co).

The data were statistically analyzed by the General Linear Models procedure of the SAS software (SAS, 1996). Statistically significant differences observed among treatment were separated using the Duncan's multiple range test with 5% probability level.

RESULTS

The effects of Pimpinella anisum L. supplementation on blood count parameters are presented in table 2. The RBC, WBC, Ht, and Hgb obtained when broilers were 28 and 56 days old, as well as the overall mean of the analyzed parameters indicated a significant influence of the additive (p≤0.05). Broilers receiving anise seed powder in the drinking water presented higher RBC and WBC, which resulted in higher hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, the HCT difference between T3 and the control group was about 18%, on average. The results also showed significant decrease (p≤0.05) of the H/L ratio of T1, T2 and T3 relative to the control group at both evaluated ages and of overall average (about 30%).

Table 2
Effect of the supplementation of Pimpinella anisum L. in the drinking water on blood cell counts of Hubbard Classic broilers

Table 3 shows the results of selected biochemical blood traits of broilers drinking water supplemented with Pimpinella anisum . Glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium, and phosphorus levels were significantly different (p≤0.05) across treatment groups as measured at 28 and 56 days of age and as overall average, with higher values obtained in the anise-fed groups (T1, T2 and T3) compared with the control group. The addition of anise seed powder to the drinking water also resulted in significant reduced (p≤0.05) levels of total cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides, as well as of AST and ALT activities when compared with the control group. Moreover, significant decreases in UA and creatinine levels were recorded, independently of period, as a result of anise seed supplementation.

Table 3
Effect of the supplementation of Pimpinella anisum L. in the drinking water on blood biochemical parameters of Hubbard Classic broilers

DISCUSSION

The H/L ratio is considered a stress indicator. According to Gross & Siegel (1983Gross WB, Siegel HS. Evaluation of the heterophil / lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Diseases 1983;27:972-979.), the H/L ratio seems to be a more valuable tool to explain the different stress factors to which birds are exposed than corticosterone serum levels. Environmental conditions, especially in intensive rearing systems, can be generate stress. Natural substances like probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids or plant-derived products are recommended for stress reduction (Cetin et al., 2011Cetin E, Guclu BK, Cetin N. Effect of dietary humate and organic acid supplementation on social stress induced by high stocking density in laying hens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2011;10(18):2402-2407.; Ghareeb et al., 2008Ghareeb K, Awad WA, Nitsch S, Abdel-Raheem S, Böhm J. Effects of transportation on stress and fear responses of growing broilers supplemented with prebiotic or probiotic. International Journal of Poultry Science 2008;7(7):678-685.; Windisch et al., 2008Windisch W, Schedle K, Plitzner C, Kroismayr A. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of Animal Science 2008;86:140-148.). In the present study, broilers were reared under intensive, conventional management conditions The anise additive evaluated in the current study may play an important role in alleviating stress, as shown by the reduction in H/L ratio in the anise-supplemented group relative to the control group.

Anise supplementation at 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg of broiler diet reduced serum levels of ALT, glucose, and cholesterol, but had no effect on serum uric acid level when compared with the control group (Tabanca et al., 2003Tabanca N, Bedir E, .Kirimer N, Baser KH, Khan SI, Jacob MR, Khan IA. Antimicrobial compounds from Pimpinella species growing in Turkey. Planta Medica 2003;69:933-938.). On the other hand, Kucukkurt et al. (2009Kucukkurt I, Avci G, Eryavuz A, Bayram I, Cetingul IS, Akkaya AB, Uyarlar C. Effects of supplementation of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.) at various amounts to diets on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and some biochemical parameters in laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 2009;2(1):1-5.) did not find any differences in plasma cholesterol, glucose and total protein concentrations in laying quails fed with anise seeds at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/kg; however, serum triglyceride level was lower only in 10 g/kg diet when compared with the control group. Similar results were observed by Christaki et al. (2011Christaki EV, Bonos EM, Florou-Paneri PC. Use of anise seed and/or a-tocopheryl acetate in laying Japanese quail diets. South African Journal of Animal Science 2011;41(2):126-133.), who found that total cholesterol and TG serum levels were considerably lower in Japanese quails supplemented with ground anise seed at 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg. Other medicinal herbs or plants have the same effect on biochemical profile of poultry blood. The additive of rosemary plant was incorporated into the diets at 5.7 g/kg, 8.6 g/kg and 11.5 g/kg (Polat et al., 2011Polat U, Yesilbag D, Eren M. Serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens fed diets containing rosemary and rosemary volatile oil. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2011;5(13):23-30.), and reduced total cholesterol and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule generated from muscle metabolism. The kidneys maintain blood creatinine level within a normal range. It is possible that the feeding anise seeds stimulates the liver and the kidneys to function more efficiently. The supplementation of the drinking water of broilers with thyme (Thymus vulgaris ), coneflower (Echinacea purpurea ), and garlic (Allium sativum ) improved not only the live performance, but also the immune parameters and the biochemical profile of birds (Rahimi et al., 2011Rahimi S, Teymouri Zadeh Z, Karimi Torshizi MA, Omidbaigi R, Rokni H. Effect of the three herbal extracts on growth performance, immune system, blood factors and intestinal selected bacterial population in broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2011;13:527-539.). Those authors found that garlic significantly reduced TC, LDL, and TG serum levels, and thyme increased the hematocrit and the hemoglobin levels.

Anise seeds positively affect the digestibility of nutrients, enhance the digestion of protein, cellulose and fat, improve ileal digestibility of nutrients, increase the activities of pancreatic lipase and amylase, have antioxidant activity, preventing fatty acids oxidation, and increase nutrient utilization (Al-Shammari 2011Al-Shammari KIA. Effect of different concentrations supplementation with anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.) powder in drinking water in some productive indicators of broiler chickens. Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences 2011;1(19):200-208.; Ertas et al., 2005Ertas ON, Guler T, Ciftci M, Dalkilic B, Simsek UG. The effect of essential oil mix derived from oregano, clove and anise on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2005;4(11):879-884.; Ertas et al., 2005; Hernandez et al., 2004Hernandez F, Madrid J, Garcia V, Orengo J, Megias MD. Influence of two plant extract on broiler performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poultry Science 2004;83:169-174.; Jamroz & Kamel 2002Jamroz D, Kamel C. Plant extracts enhance broiler performance. In non ruminant nutrition:Antimicrobial agents and plant extracts on immunity, health and performance. Journal of Animal Science 2002;80(1):41.; Ramakrisna et al., 2003Ramakrisna RR, Platel K, Srinivasan K. In vitro influence of species and spice - active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine. Nahrung 2003;47:408-412.). These properties of the anise seeds may have stimulated digestion of the broilers in the present experiment, as shown by the low activities of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) of broilers supplemented with anise seeds. The significant increase in calcium and phosphorus serum levels in the experimental groups supplemented with various doses of anise seeds powder relative to the control group may be due to the antiosteoporotic properties of this plant (Putnam et al., 2007Putnam SE, Scutt AM, Bicknell K, Priestley CM, Williamson EM. Natural products as alternative treatments for metabolic bone disorders and for maintenance of bone health. Phytotherapy Research 2007;21:99-112.).

The beneficial properties of anise were reflected in the cellular and biochemical traits of blood of all treatment groups (T3, T2 and T1), resulting from the improvement of biological and metabolic processes as well as optimized utilization of nutrients in the digestive system. Anise may enhance broiler resistance to various stress factors, reduce lipid synthesis, enhance growth and protein synthesis, change carbohydrate metabolism, increase blood levels calcium, phosphorus, protein, and glucose, stimulate erythrocyte synthesis and cell differentiation, and stimulate of blood circulation.

CONCLUSION

Results of the experiment showed that adding 500, 750, 1000 mg/L of anise seeds powder into the drinking water of Hubbard Classic broiler chickens significantly improved their blood profile. Anise seeds can be considered as an effective physiological promoter in growing broilers.

REFERENCES

  • Afifi NA, Ramadan A, El - Kashoury EA, El - Banna HA. Some pharmacological activities of essential oils of certain umbelliferous fruits. Veterinary Medical Journal 1994;42:85-92.
  • Al Mofleh IA, Alhaider AA, Mossa JS, Al-Soohaibani MO, Rafatullah S. Aqueous suspension of anise "Pimpinella anisum" protects rats against chemically induced gastric ulcers. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2007;13(7):1112-1118.
  • Al-Beitawi NA, El-Ghousein SS, Abdullah HN. Antibiotic growth promoters and anise seeds in broiler diets. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2009;5(4):472-481.
  • Al-Kassie GAM. The effect of anise and rosemary on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2008;7(3):243-245.
  • Al-Shammari KIA. Effect of different concentrations supplementation with anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.) powder in drinking water in some productive indicators of broiler chickens. Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences 2011;1(19):200-208.
  • Archer RK. Haematological techniques for use on animals. Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Puplications; 1965.
  • Cetin E, Guclu BK, Cetin N. Effect of dietary humate and organic acid supplementation on social stress induced by high stocking density in laying hens. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2011;10(18):2402-2407.
  • Christaki E, Bonos E, Giannenas I, Florou-Paneri P. Aromatic plants as a source of bioactive compounds. Agriculture 2012;2:228-243.
  • Christaki EV, Bonos EM, Florou-Paneri PC. Use of anise seed and/or a-tocopheryl acetate in laying Japanese quail diets. South African Journal of Animal Science 2011;41(2):126-133.
  • Ciftci M, Güler T, Dalkiliç B, Ertas ON. The effect of anise oil (Pimpinella anisum L.) on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2005;4(11):851-855.
  • El-Deek AA, Attia YA, Hannfy MM. Effect of anise (Pimpinella anisum), ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and their mixture on performance of broilers. Archiv Für Geflügelkunde 2003;67(2):92-96.
  • Ertas ON, Guler T, Ciftci M, Dalkilic B, Simsek UG. The effect of essential oil mix derived from oregano, clove and anise on broiler performance. International Journal of Poultry Science 2005;4(11):879-884.
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  • Gross WB, Siegel HS. Evaluation of the heterophil / lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Diseases 1983;27:972-979.
  • Gulcin I, Oktay M, Kirecci E, Kufrevioglu OI. Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extract. Food Chemistry 2003;83:371-382.
  • Hassan WN, Saed AM. Protective effect of anise fruit (Pimpinella anisum) against osteoporosis in rat model. American Journal of Biomedical Sciences 2011;3(1):49-56.
  • Hernandez F, Madrid J, Garcia V, Orengo J, Megias MD. Influence of two plant extract on broiler performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poultry Science 2004;83:169-174.
  • Iyer SR, Ullagaddi RC, Bondada A. Antihemolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.). Journal of Advance Pharmaceutical Research and Bioscience 2013;1(2):52-59
  • Jamroz D, Kamel C. Plant extracts enhance broiler performance. In non ruminant nutrition:Antimicrobial agents and plant extracts on immunity, health and performance. Journal of Animal Science 2002;80(1):41.
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  • Polat U, Yesilbag D, Eren M. Serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens fed diets containing rosemary and rosemary volatile oil. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2011;5(13):23-30.
  • Putnam SE, Scutt AM, Bicknell K, Priestley CM, Williamson EM. Natural products as alternative treatments for metabolic bone disorders and for maintenance of bone health. Phytotherapy Research 2007;21:99-112.
  • Rahimi S, Teymouri Zadeh Z, Karimi Torshizi MA, Omidbaigi R, Rokni H. Effect of the three herbal extracts on growth performance, immune system, blood factors and intestinal selected bacterial population in broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2011;13:527-539.
  • Rajeshwari U, Shobha I, Andallu B. Comparison of aniseeds and coriander seeds for antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Spatula DD - Peer Reviewed Journal on Complementary Medicine and Drug Discovery 2011;1(1):9-16.
  • Ramakrisna RR, Platel K, Srinivasan K. In vitro influence of species and spice - active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine. Nahrung 2003;47:408-412.
  • SAS. SAS user's guide: statistics. 6th ed. Cary: SAS Institute; 1996.
  • Soliman KM, Badea RI. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2002;40:1669-1675.
  • Soltan MA, Shewita RS, El-Katcha MI. Effect of dietary anise seeds supplementation on growth performance, immune response, carcass traits and some blood parameters of broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science 2008;7(11):1078-1088.
  • Tabanca N, Bedir E, .Kirimer N, Baser KH, Khan SI, Jacob MR, Khan IA. Antimicrobial compounds from Pimpinella species growing in Turkey. Planta Medica 2003;69:933-938.
  • Windisch W, Schedle K, Plitzner C, Kroismayr A. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. Journal of Animal Science 2008;86:140-148.
  • Yazdi FF, Ghalamkari G, Toghiani M, Modaresi M, Landy N. Anise seed (Pimpinella anisum L.) as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters on performance, carcass traits and immune responses in broiler chicks. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 2014;4(6):447-451.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2017

History

  • Received
    June 2016
  • Accepted
    Aug 2016
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