Accessibility / Report Error

Effect of Dietary Lysine Regimens on Growth Performance and Meat Composition in Aseel Chicken

ABSTRACT

A study was designed with the objective, to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine (Lys) regimens on growth performance and meat composition of Aseel chicken. In total, 540 day old chicks, 180 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 9 experimental groups in a 3 (Varieties: Mianwali (MW), Peshawari (PW), and Lakha (LK)) × 3 (Lys regimens: L1, L2 and L3:1.35, 1.30 and 1.25%) factorial arrangement under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sex as block. Each experimental group was replicated 6 times with 10 birds in each with average weight of 29 gram. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG) and feed:gain ratio (F:G) parameters of growth performance and Dry Matter (DM), Ash, Crude Protein (CP) and Ether Extract (EE) parameters of meat composition were evaluated. The results indicated better (p=0.0006) WG and (p=0.0006) F:G was observed in MW verities. Among different Lys regimens, higher and medium level in the diet improved WG (p<.0001), F:G (p<.0001) and reduced (p=0.0001) FI. Similarly increased (p<.0001; 0.0150) ash content in thigh and breast due to increased level of lysine in the early life period. Dry matter was found to be higher (p=0.0036) only in medium Lys regimen, whereas meat CP was observed to be higher (p=0.0064) in control diet. It was concluded that, 1.30% digestible Lys level regimen can be used to improve the early growth rate of Aseel chicken. Similarly, Mianwali variety due to its better early growth can be used as a meat type chicken.

Keywords:
Amino Acid; Aseel Chicken; Growth Performance; Meat Composition

INTRODUCTION

Aseel is the oldest Asian game fowl having superior meat quality. The pugnacity, upright posture, firm muscular thighs with strong legs (Usman et al. 2014Usman M, Zahoor I, Basheer A, Akram M, Mahmud A. Aseel chicken-a preferable choice for cost-effective and sustainable production of meat-type poultry in the tropics. Science International 2014;26(3):1301-1306.) and heavy body weight (Jatoi et al. 2014Jatoi AS, Iqbal M, Sahota AW, Akram M, Javed K, Jaspal MH, et al. Comparative growth performance in four varieties of native Aseel chickens maintained in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 2014;46:1565-1571.) are well-known characteristics of the Aseel. With large body size Aseel has body weight (BW) range of three to five kg; probably the reason why Aseel was used in the breeding plan of Cornish breed grand parent of modern broiler (Usman et al. 2014). On the basis of its body weight, sturdiness, diseases resistance, adaptability, survival in harsh climatic conditions and excellent meat producing qualities the Aseel can be used as a meat-type bird (Khan et al. 2016). It is speculated that an improved Aseel chicken may help in the revival of family poultry and can bring the small poultry farmers back into business, helping in poverty alleviation. The main hurdle in the use of Aseel as a meat type bird, however, is it’s poor early growth rate and F:G. Different techniques including genetic selection, managemental related and nutritional manipulations can be applied to improve the early poor growth of Aseel chicken (Rehman et al. 2017).

The concept of providing individual amino acids for proper growth is not new. Specific amount of individual amino acids is necessary for proper growth performance (Baker & Han, 1994Baker DH, Han Y. Ideal amino acid profile for chicks during the first three weeks posthatching. Poultry Science 1994;73:1441-1447.; Ayasan & Okan, 2014). Lysine, the basic building block for protein synthesis, is involved directly or indirectly in the regulation of the protein synthesis (Dozier et al. 2007Dozier W, Corzo A, Kidd M, Branton S. Dietary apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid density effects on growth and carcass traits of heavy broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2007;16:192-205.). Lysine is critical and accounts for 7% of the protein in breast meat (Eits et al. 2003Eits R, Kwakkel R, Verstegen M, Emmans G. Responses of broiler chickens to dietary protein:effects of early life protein nutrition on later responses. British Poultry Science 2003;44:398-409.; Dozier et al. 2007). Dietary Lys is important for maintenance and skeletal muscle accretion (Dozier et al. 2007; Ayasan & Okan, 2010). Supplementation of Lys during early growth stages (Ayasan & Okan, 2006; Campestrini et al. 2010Campestrini E, Barbosa MJB, Nunes RV, Gasparino E, Silva WTM, Khül R. Level digestible lysine with two electrolyte balances for broiler chicks at the starting phase (1-21 day). Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2010;39:151-157.) is beneficial because it involves the regulation of the protein synthesis and increases muscle growth (Eits et al. 2003), improve weight gain and feed efficiency (Quentin et al. 2003Quentin M, Bouvarel I, Berri C, Le Bihan-Duval E, Baeza E, Jego Y, et al. Growth, carcass composition and meat quality response to dietary concentrations in fast-, medium-and slow-growing commercial broilers. Animal Research 2003;52:65-77.; Si et al. 2004Si J, Fritts C, Waldroup P, Burnham D. Effects of tryptophan to large neutral amino acid ratios and overall amino acid levels on utilization of diets low in crude protein by broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2004;13:570-578.). Chickens grow faster at a relatively high dietary Lys concentration in the diet compared with diet deficient in Lys (Li et al. 2013Li J, Zhao XL, Yuan YC, Gilbert ER, Wang Y, Liu YP, et al. Dietary lysine affects chickens from local Chinese pure lines and their reciprocal crosses. Poultry Science 2013;92:1683-1689.). Deficiency of Lys in the diet results in decreased protein synthesis and accretion (Liao et al. 2015Liao SF, Wang T, Regmi N. Lysine nutrition in swine and the related monogastric animals:muscle protein biosynthesis and beyond. Springer Plus 2015;4:147.). Keeping in view all above discussion, it was hypothesized that balanced diet supplemented with Lys may ameliorate the early poor growth rate of indigenous Aseel chicken. The present study was, therefore, planned to evaluate the effect of different Lys regimens on growth performance and meat composition in different varieties of indigenous Aseel chicken.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Ethical note

The experimental procedures were in accordance with the guidelines and code of practice of the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Lahore. Ethical approval was granted before the conduct of the study via protocol number UVAS-DAS-4901.

Housing, Experimental Birds and Diets

The study was conducted at the Indigenous Chicken Genetic Resource Center, Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. In total, 540 day old chicks, 180 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 9 experimental groups in a 3 (Varieties: Mianwali (MW), Peshawari (PW), and Lakha (LK)) × 3 (Lys regimens: L1, L2 and L3:1.35, 1.30 and 1.25%) factorial arrangement under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sex as block. Each experimental group was replicated 6 (three for male and female each) times with 10 birds in each, the experiment was conducted in multi deck cage houses with stocking density of 0.2-0.4 ft2 /bird. House preparation for the experiment was done by cleaning and washing of the equipments, rinsing with potassium per magnate (KMnO4) and sun drying. Fumigation (35ml formalin + 17.5g KMnO4 = 1X concentration) of the house was completed before one week of the chicks arrival. Management conditions like temperature, relative humidity and lighting schedule were maintained according to intensive broiler rearing. Water and feed were provided ad-libitum through trough feeders and nipple drinking system.

Nine different diets with variable Lys levels formulated on the bases of ideal amino acid concept were used. The diets were formulated in such a way that the average allowance of Lys (1.20%) in all treatments were the same. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric (Table 1). Before the start of the trial, experimental diets were analyzed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber, ether extract (EE), ash, calcium and phosphorus by following AOAC (2005) while, amino acid analysis was executed using Biochrome 30+ Series amino acid analyzer resulting in ±2% from the calculated values and metabolizable energy was calculated through regression equation as described by NRC (1994). Linear formulation method was used for the diet’s formulation. Experimental diets were offered for the duration of 6 wk.

Table 1
Ingredients and nutrients composition of diets*

Parameters

Cumulative feed intake was determined by combining the weekly feed intake (FI). Initial and final body weights (FBW) were recorded to calculate the WG, feed:gain ratio (F:G) and Lys efficiency ratio (LER). In total, 162 birds, three from each replicate with average weight were picked, kept off feed for six hours before slaughtering. Thereafter, birds were slaughtered to collect meat samples from the thigh and breast portion of the carcass. Proximate analysis (DM, Ash, CP and EE) of the meat samples was performed using standard methods, DM was determined through hot air oven at 80 Cº for 48 hours (Haunshi et al. 2012Haunshi S, Panda AK, Rajkumar U, Padhi MK, Niranjan M, Chatterjee RN. Effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on performance of Aseel breed of chicken during juvenile phase. Tropical Animal Health and Production 2012;44:1653-1658.), CP by Kjeldahl method (AOAC 1999). Ether extract was determined by the Soxhlet apparatus method (AOAC 1999) and ash was determined by complete burning of the sample using furnace with heating temperature of 600°C (AOAC 1999).

Statistical Analysis

Before analysis, data were checked for uniformity and homogeneity of variance and verified for the normality. After that, the data were analyzed through ANOVA technique in factorial arrangement under RCBD by using GLM procedure of SAS assuming the following mathematical model:

Y i j k = µ + β i + V j + L k + ( V L ) j k + ε i j k

Where, Yijk is Dependent variables, µ is overall population mean, βi are the blocks that is sex, Vj is effect of ith treatment (i=3; Varieties), Lk is effect of jth treatment (j=3; Lysine Regimens), (VL)ij is interaction effect and εijk is residual error. Aseel variety and Lys regimens were taken as main effects. The interaction of these were also tested. Treatment means were compared through Tukeys HSD test at 5% probability level. Each replicate was considered as an experimental unit.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Feed Intake, Weight Gain and Feed:Gain Ratio

Different Lys regimens separately (p=0.0001) and in interaction with different Aseel varieties (p=0.0496) showed variations in feed intake, whereas Aseel varieties independently (p=0.1005) could not show their influence on feed intake. Reduced FI was observed in higher and medium Lys regimens. Reduced FI in higher and medium Lys regimen birds may be attributed to the fact that more amino acid dense diets in less quantity might have fulfilled nutrients requirement of the birds and made them satiated. Similar results were reported in other studies also, where lower FI due to high amino acid dense diets was observed in broilers (Sklan & Plavnik, 2002Sklan D, Plavnik I. Interactions between dietary crude protein and essential amino acid intake on performance in broilers. British Poultry Science 2002;43:442-449.; Corzo et al. 2005Corzo A, Kidd M, Burnham D, Miller E, Branton S, Gonzalez-Esquerra R. Dietary amino acid density effects on growth and carcass of broilers differing in strain cross and sex. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2005;14:1-9.). Likewise, supplementation of branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) resulted in decreased FI in animals (Trottier & Easter, 1995Trottier NL, Easter R. Dietary and plasma branched-chain amino acids in relation to tryptophan: effect on voluntary feed intake and lactation metabolism in the primiparous sow. Journal of Animal Science 1995;73:1086-1092.).

All treatments including Aseel varieties (p=0.0002), Lys regimens (p<.0001) and their interaction (p=0.0034) indicated marked difference in weight gain. High and medium level of Lys regimens demonstrated higher weight gain compared to low level regimen. Among different varieties, (p=0.0006) birds of MW variety showed enhanced weight gain followed by those of PW and LK. Feed:gain ratio showed marked variations (p<.0001) with respect to Lys regimens, Aseel varieties (p=0.0006), and their interaction (p=0.0026). Higher and medium Lys regimens resulted in improved F:G than low level of Lys. Birds of MW variety exhibited better F:G than those of LK and PW. Lysine efficiency showed similar trend to that of F:G in dietary treatments (p<.0001) and varieties (p=0.0007). Interaction of dietary treatments and varieties showed differences (p=0.0496, 0.0034, 0.0026 and 0.009) in FI, WG, F:G and LER, where higher FI was found in birds of all varieties fed low Lys diets. Weight gain was higher in medium Lys diet fed birds of MW variety, F:G and LER were better in all varieties fed high and medium Lys diet. Phase wise WG and F:G showed linear response (figure 1).

Figure 1
Phase wise weight gain and feed conversion ratio in varying lysine diets

Higher and medium level Lys regimens in the diets of Aseel chicken improved WG and F:G. It is quite possible that the supplementation of higher and medium level of Lys as compared to lower level might have promoted muscle accretion in early two weeks of growth, resulting in increased final weight gain. It is reported that supplementation of Lys during early growth stages (Campestrini et al. 2010Campestrini E, Barbosa MJB, Nunes RV, Gasparino E, Silva WTM, Khül R. Level digestible lysine with two electrolyte balances for broiler chicks at the starting phase (1-21 day). Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2010;39:151-157.) is beneficial. It involves the regulation of the protein synthesis and increases muscle accretion (Dozier et al. 2007Dozier W, Corzo A, Kidd M, Branton S. Dietary apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid density effects on growth and carcass traits of heavy broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2007;16:192-205.; Eits et al. 2003Eits R, Kwakkel R, Verstegen M, Emmans G. Responses of broiler chickens to dietary protein:effects of early life protein nutrition on later responses. British Poultry Science 2003;44:398-409.). Hence, chickens grow faster at a relatively high dietary Lys concentration in the diet compared with diet having less Lys (Li et al. 2013Li J, Zhao XL, Yuan YC, Gilbert ER, Wang Y, Liu YP, et al. Dietary lysine affects chickens from local Chinese pure lines and their reciprocal crosses. Poultry Science 2013;92:1683-1689.). Moreover, increased weight gain in higher and medium Lys diets may also be attributed to its distinct characteristic of increasing villous height in jejunum and ileum with increasing Lys levels (Vaezi et al. 2011Vaezi GH, Teshfam M, Bahadoran SH, Farazyan H, Hosseini S. Effects of different levels of lysine on small intestinal villous morphology in starter diet of broiler chickens. Journal of Global Veterinaria 2011;7:523-526.; Wang et al. 2009Wang W, Qiao S, Li D. Amino acids and gut function. Amino Acids 2009;37:105-110.) and increasing crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum (Franco et al. 2006Franco JRG, Murakami AE, Natali MRM, Garcia ERM, Furlan AC. Influence of delayed placement and dietary lysine levels on small intestine morphometrics and performance of broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2006;8:233-241.) ultimately accelerating early growth through improved nutrient digestion and uptake.

Similar to these findings, increment in Lys over and above NRC (1994) recommendation was reported to improve WG and F:G (Si et al. 2004). It was reported that meat type birds performed better with increasing amino acids densities (Zhai et al. 2013Zhai W, Peebles E, Mejia L, Zumwalt C, Corzo A. Effects of dietary amino acid density regimens on growth performance and meat yield of Cobb× Cobb 700 broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2013;22:447-460., 2014). Panda et al. (2011Panda AK, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, Lavanya G, Reddy EPK, Sunder GS. Early growth response of broilers to dietary lysine at fixed ratio to crude protein and essential amino acids. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 2011;24:1623-1628.) fed broiler 1.3% Lys with a specific ratio to other amino acid and, observed better results, indicating that concentrated diets can improve F:G in broiler (Quentin et al. 2003Quentin M, Bouvarel I, Berri C, Le Bihan-Duval E, Baeza E, Jego Y, et al. Growth, carcass composition and meat quality response to dietary concentrations in fast-, medium-and slow-growing commercial broilers. Animal Research 2003;52:65-77.). Moreover, improved F:G in high and medium Lys groups may be attributed to the higher WG and lower FI in the same groups. On the other hand, decreased WG diet may be explained by the fact that inadequate Lys supply depresses the immune system of the birds (Geraert & Mercier2010Geraert PA, Mercier Y. Amino acids: beyond the building blocks! Antony: Adisseo France SAS; 2010.) showing adverse effects on livability and growth performance (Liao et al. 2015Liao SF, Wang T, Regmi N. Lysine nutrition in swine and the related monogastric animals:muscle protein biosynthesis and beyond. Springer Plus 2015;4:147.). Similarly, it was reported that depressed growth in Lys deficient diets may be due to decreased protein synthesis and accretion (Tesseraud et al. 1996Tesseraud S, Peresson R, Chagneau AM. Dietary lysine deficiency greatly affects muscle and liver protein turnover in growing chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 1996;75:853-865.).

The observed difference in growth performance between varieties may be the result of genetic diversity between the breeds and varieties (Leeson et al. 1997Leeson S, Caston L, Summers J. Layer performance of four strains of Leghorn pullets subjected to various rearing programs. Poultry Science 1997;76:1-5.). Similarly, differences in WG and F:G were observed in different varieties of Aseel by Jatoi et al. (2014Jatoi AS, Iqbal M, Sahota AW, Akram M, Javed K, Jaspal MH, et al. Comparative growth performance in four varieties of native Aseel chickens maintained in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 2014;46:1565-1571.).

Mortality percentage also differed significantly among different (p=0.028) dietary treatments, where higher mortality was found in groups fed low Lys diets (Table 2). Higher and medium Lys regimens in the diets showed reduced mortality. Higher mortality in low Lys diet may be attributed to the fact that inadequate Lys supply may depresses immune system of the birds (Geraert & Mercier 2010Geraert PA, Mercier Y. Amino acids: beyond the building blocks! Antony: Adisseo France SAS; 2010.), as deficiency of dietary Lys leads to increased susceptibility of birds to diseases (Datta et al.2001Datta D, Bhinge A, Chandran V. Lysine: is it worth more? Cytotechnology 2001;36:3-32.; Li et al.2007Li P, Yin YL, Li D, Kim SW, Wu G. Amino acids and immune function. British Journal of Nutrition. 2007;98:237-252.). The reason behind is because the fact that Lys integral component for protein synthesis, any deficiency of Lys can limits the immune related protein synthesis includes antibodies and cytokines. Chen et al. (2003Chen C, Sander JE, Dale NM. The effect of dietary lysine deficiency on the immune response to Newcastle disease vaccination in chickens. Avian Diseases 2003;47:1346-1351.) reported that Lys deficiency negatively affects antibody response f and cell mediated immunity, also showing adverse effects on growth performance (Liao et al. 2015Liao SF, Wang T, Regmi N. Lysine nutrition in swine and the related monogastric animals:muscle protein biosynthesis and beyond. Springer Plus 2015;4:147.). Similar to the current study, Mushtaq et al. (2015Mushtaq MMH, Ahmad G, Parvin R. Influence of dietary graded levels of digestible lysine and lowering energy to protein ratio on the growth performance of broilers under subtropical summer conditions. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2015;17:3.) fed higher Lys level to the birds and observed reduced mortality, concluding that higher Lys levels in the diets improves livability.

Table 2
Growth performance, lysine efficiency ratio and mortality at six weeks of age

Meat Composition

Birds fed with medium level Lys regimens showed higher (p=0.0036) percentage of DM content in thigh whereas DM content in breast remained unchanged (p=0.1728). Varieties independently indicated similar pattern in DM contents in both thigh and breast (p=0.6635; 0.0786). Birds fed with higher Lys demonstrated increased (p<.0001; 0.0150) ash contents in both thigh and breast. Among different varieties, birds of PW variety indicated higher (p=0.0002) ash content in thigh whereas ash content of breast was found to higher (p<.0001) in LK variety of Aseel. Birds fed with lower Lys indicated higher (p=0.0064) CP content in thigh whereas CP remained unchanged (p=0.7139) in breast. Moreover, Aseel varieties remained unresponsive (p=0.7447; 0.3339) regarding CP in both thigh and breast. All treatments separately and in interaction did not show any pronounced (p=0.6340; 0.3272; 0.9806 and 0.1159) effect on EE in both thigh and breast meat samples (Table 3). Findings of the current study confirm that different dietary Lys regimens affect meat composition (DM, Ash, CP and EE) of indigenous Aseel chicken that might be the result of incremental levels of amino acids modifying the muscle growth by increasing myofiber size (Tesseraud et al. 1996Tesseraud S, Peresson R, Chagneau AM. Dietary lysine deficiency greatly affects muscle and liver protein turnover in growing chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 1996;75:853-865.). Lower Lys level during early growth stages in the present study did not show adverse effect on proximate meat composition. However, opposite to present study it was observed that amino acid deficiency can lead to protein decrease and crude fat increase in meat (Corzo et al. 2005Corzo A, Kidd M, Burnham D, Miller E, Branton S, Gonzalez-Esquerra R. Dietary amino acid density effects on growth and carcass of broilers differing in strain cross and sex. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2005;14:1-9.; Lilly et al. 2011Lilly RA, Schilling MW, Silva JL, Martin JM, Corzo A. The effects of dietary amino acid density in broiler feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2011;20:56-67.).

Table 3
Effect of dietary amino acid regimens on meat composition traits of Aseel varieties

Among different varieties, ash content in thigh was found to be greater in birds of PW variety, whereas in breast it was found to be higher in LK variety of Aseel. However, DM, CP and EE contents in both thigh and breast remained unchanged among all varieties. Greater ash content in PW and LK might be due to their genetic effect. Similarly, differences in ash content among different genotypes of poultry have already been reported as Wattanachant et al. (2004Wattanachant S, Benjakul S, Ledward DA. Compositions, color and texture of Thai indigenous and broiler chicken muscles. Poultry Science 2004;83:123-128.) observed that Thai Indigenous chicken meat contained lower percentages of ash contents than those of commercial broiler, indicating that ash content varies with genotype (Wattanachant 2008; Sogunle et al. 2010Sogunle OM, Egbeyale LT, Alajo OA, Adeleye OO, Fafiolu AO, Onunkwor OB, et al. Comparison of meat composition and sensory values of two different strains of broiler chickens. Archivos de Zootecnia 2010;59:311-314.) and variety (Okarini et al. 2013Okarini AI, Purnomo, Aulanni'am H, Radiati EL. Proximate, total phenolic, antioxidant activity and amino acids profile of bali indigenous chicken, spent laying hen and broiler breast fillet. International Journal of Poultry Science 2013;7:415-420.). Samooel et al. (2015Samooel J, Bae HS, Yong HI, Lee HJ, Seo DW, Park HB, et al. Proximate composition, and L-carnitine and betaine contents in meat from Korean indigenous chicken. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 2015;28:1760-1766.) observed significantly higher ash content in meat proximate composition of yellow-brown plumage color birds.

In the current study, no variety effect on DM, CP and EE was observed. In contrast, difference in DM (Tougan et al. 2013Tougan PU, Dahouda M, Salifou CFA, Ahounou GS, Kossou DNF, Amenou C, et al. Nutritional quality of meat from local poultry population of Gallus gallus species of Benin. Journal of Animal and Plant Science 2013;19:2908-2922.), CP (Wattanachant 2008Wattanachant S. Factors affecting the quality characteristics of Thai indigenous chicken meat. Suranaree Journal of Science and Technology 2008;15:317-322.) and EE (Samooel 2015Samooel J, Bae HS, Yong HI, Lee HJ, Seo DW, Park HB, et al. Proximate composition, and L-carnitine and betaine contents in meat from Korean indigenous chicken. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 2015;28:1760-1766.) was reported among different genotypes as well as phenotypes of poultry, indicating these parameters of meat composition may vary from breed to breed (Mohan et al. 2008Mohan J, Sastry KVH, Moudgal RP, Tyagi JS. Production and other characteristics of Aseel peela desi hens under normal rearing system. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 2008;43:217-219.; Okarini et al. 2013Okarini AI, Purnomo, Aulanni'am H, Radiati EL. Proximate, total phenolic, antioxidant activity and amino acids profile of bali indigenous chicken, spent laying hen and broiler breast fillet. International Journal of Poultry Science 2013;7:415-420.), strain to strain (Sogunle et al. 2010Sogunle OM, Egbeyale LT, Alajo OA, Adeleye OO, Fafiolu AO, Onunkwor OB, et al. Comparison of meat composition and sensory values of two different strains of broiler chickens. Archivos de Zootecnia 2010;59:311-314.) and genotypes to genotypes (Liu et al. 2012Liu XD, Jayasena DD, Jung Y, Jung S, Kang BS, Heo KN. Differential proteome analysis of breast and thigh muscles between Korean native chickens and commercial broilers. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 2012;25:895-902.). Higher ash contents in the present study was reported in indigenous chicken meat (2%) (Ogunmola et al. 2013Ogunmola OO, Taiwo OF, Ayankoso AS. The nutritive value of the meat quality of locally breed chicken, exotic chicken and turkey. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry 2013;3:46-50.), while lower ash contents (0.95±0.5%) by (Tougan et al. 2013; Chepkemoi et al. 2017Chepkemoi M, Macharia JW, Sila D, Oyier P, Malaki P, Ndiema E, et al. Physical characteristics and nutritional composition of meat and eggs of five poultry species in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development 2017;29:153.). Whereas protein content are higher than those presented in the literature for indigenous chicken meat 18.15% by (Chepkemoi et al. 2017), 20.5±0.5 (Tougan et al. 2013). Moreover these variations in nutritional contents can be attributed to variation in the breed, moreover to feed, sex, production system, processing, age at slaughter, and the part of the cut (Haunshi et al. 2010Haunshi S, Sunil D, Kadirvel G. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production. Tropical Animal Health and Production 2010;42:1013-1019.).

From the findings it can be concluded that 1.30% digestible Lys level regimen with ideal amino acid ratio during early weeks of growth can be used to improve early growth of native Aseel chicken. Furthermore, Mianwali variety due to its better early growth performance can be used in future breeding plans for the development of a meat type breed.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Quality Control Department, Islamabad Feeds and ICGRC, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.

REFERENCES

  • AOAC - Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Official methods of analysis of AOAC. 15th ed. Gaittersburg; 1999.
  • AOAC - Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. Official methods of analysis of AOAC. 18th ed. Gaittersburg; 2005.
  • Aysan T, Okan F. Determination of threonine requirements of female broiler chicks in starter period. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture Cukurova University 2006:21:41-48.
  • Aysan T, Okan F. Effects of diets containing different levels of threonine and lysine amino acids on fattening performance of broiler chicks. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 2010;5:36-43.
  • Aysan T, Okan F. The effect of choice feeding based on threonine on performance and carcass parameters of male broiler chicks. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science And Technology 2014:2:190-196.
  • Baker DH, Han Y. Ideal amino acid profile for chicks during the first three weeks posthatching. Poultry Science 1994;73:1441-1447.
  • Campestrini E, Barbosa MJB, Nunes RV, Gasparino E, Silva WTM, Khül R. Level digestible lysine with two electrolyte balances for broiler chicks at the starting phase (1-21 day). Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2010;39:151-157.
  • Chepkemoi M, Macharia JW, Sila D, Oyier P, Malaki P, Ndiema E, et al. Physical characteristics and nutritional composition of meat and eggs of five poultry species in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development 2017;29:153.
  • Chen C, Sander JE, Dale NM. The effect of dietary lysine deficiency on the immune response to Newcastle disease vaccination in chickens. Avian Diseases 2003;47:1346-1351.
  • Corzo A, Kidd M, Burnham D, Miller E, Branton S, Gonzalez-Esquerra R. Dietary amino acid density effects on growth and carcass of broilers differing in strain cross and sex. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2005;14:1-9.
  • Datta D, Bhinge A, Chandran V. Lysine: is it worth more? Cytotechnology 2001;36:3-32.
  • Dozier W, Corzo A, Kidd M, Branton S. Dietary apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid density effects on growth and carcass traits of heavy broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2007;16:192-205.
  • Duncan DB. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 1955;11:1-42.
  • Eits R, Kwakkel R, Verstegen M, Emmans G. Responses of broiler chickens to dietary protein:effects of early life protein nutrition on later responses. British Poultry Science 2003;44:398-409.
  • Franco JRG, Murakami AE, Natali MRM, Garcia ERM, Furlan AC. Influence of delayed placement and dietary lysine levels on small intestine morphometrics and performance of broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2006;8:233-241.
  • Geraert PA, Mercier Y. Amino acids: beyond the building blocks! Antony: Adisseo France SAS; 2010.
  • Haunshi S, Sunil D, Kadirvel G. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production. Tropical Animal Health and Production 2010;42:1013-1019.
  • Haunshi S, Panda AK, Rajkumar U, Padhi MK, Niranjan M, Chatterjee RN. Effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on performance of Aseel breed of chicken during juvenile phase. Tropical Animal Health and Production 2012;44:1653-1658.
  • Jatoi AS, Iqbal M, Sahota AW, Akram M, Javed K, Jaspal MH, et al. Comparative growth performance in four varieties of native Aseel chickens maintained in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 2014;46:1565-1571.
  • Khan MT, Mahmud A, Zahoor I, Javed K. Organic and inorganic selenium in Aseel chicken diets: effect on hatching traits. Poultry Science 2017;96:1466-1472
  • Leeson S, Caston L, Summers J. Layer performance of four strains of Leghorn pullets subjected to various rearing programs. Poultry Science 1997;76:1-5.
  • Li J, Zhao XL, Yuan YC, Gilbert ER, Wang Y, Liu YP, et al. Dietary lysine affects chickens from local Chinese pure lines and their reciprocal crosses. Poultry Science 2013;92:1683-1689.
  • Li P, Yin YL, Li D, Kim SW, Wu G. Amino acids and immune function. British Journal of Nutrition. 2007;98:237-252.
  • Liao SF, Wang T, Regmi N. Lysine nutrition in swine and the related monogastric animals:muscle protein biosynthesis and beyond. Springer Plus 2015;4:147.
  • Lilly RA, Schilling MW, Silva JL, Martin JM, Corzo A. The effects of dietary amino acid density in broiler feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2011;20:56-67.
  • Liu XD, Jayasena DD, Jung Y, Jung S, Kang BS, Heo KN. Differential proteome analysis of breast and thigh muscles between Korean native chickens and commercial broilers. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 2012;25:895-902.
  • Mohan J, Sastry KVH, Moudgal RP, Tyagi JS. Production and other characteristics of Aseel peela desi hens under normal rearing system. Indian Journal of Poultry Science 2008;43:217-219.
  • Mushtaq MMH, Ahmad G, Parvin R. Influence of dietary graded levels of digestible lysine and lowering energy to protein ratio on the growth performance of broilers under subtropical summer conditions. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2015;17:3.
  • NRC - National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of poultry. Washington: National Academy Press; 1994.
  • Ogunmola OO, Taiwo OF, Ayankoso AS. The nutritive value of the meat quality of locally breed chicken, exotic chicken and turkey. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry 2013;3:46-50.
  • Okarini AI, Purnomo, Aulanni'am H, Radiati EL. Proximate, total phenolic, antioxidant activity and amino acids profile of bali indigenous chicken, spent laying hen and broiler breast fillet. International Journal of Poultry Science 2013;7:415-420.
  • Panda AK, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, Lavanya G, Reddy EPK, Sunder GS. Early growth response of broilers to dietary lysine at fixed ratio to crude protein and essential amino acids. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 2011;24:1623-1628.
  • Quentin M, Bouvarel I, Berri C, Le Bihan-Duval E, Baeza E, Jego Y, et al. Growth, carcass composition and meat quality response to dietary concentrations in fast-, medium-and slow-growing commercial broilers. Animal Research 2003;52:65-77.
  • Samooel J, Bae HS, Yong HI, Lee HJ, Seo DW, Park HB, et al. Proximate composition, and L-carnitine and betaine contents in meat from Korean indigenous chicken. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 2015;28:1760-1766.
  • Si J, Fritts C, Waldroup P, Burnham D. Effects of tryptophan to large neutral amino acid ratios and overall amino acid levels on utilization of diets low in crude protein by broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2004;13:570-578.
  • Sklan D, Plavnik I. Interactions between dietary crude protein and essential amino acid intake on performance in broilers. British Poultry Science 2002;43:442-449.
  • Sogunle OM, Egbeyale LT, Alajo OA, Adeleye OO, Fafiolu AO, Onunkwor OB, et al. Comparison of meat composition and sensory values of two different strains of broiler chickens. Archivos de Zootecnia 2010;59:311-314.
  • Tesseraud S, Peresson R, Chagneau AM. Dietary lysine deficiency greatly affects muscle and liver protein turnover in growing chickens. British Journal of Nutrition 1996;75:853-865.
  • Tougan PU, Dahouda M, Salifou CFA, Ahounou GS, Kossou DNF, Amenou C, et al. Nutritional quality of meat from local poultry population of Gallus gallus species of Benin. Journal of Animal and Plant Science 2013;19:2908-2922.
  • Trottier NL, Easter R. Dietary and plasma branched-chain amino acids in relation to tryptophan: effect on voluntary feed intake and lactation metabolism in the primiparous sow. Journal of Animal Science 1995;73:1086-1092.
  • Usman M, Zahoor I, Basheer A, Akram M, Mahmud A. Aseel chicken-a preferable choice for cost-effective and sustainable production of meat-type poultry in the tropics. Science International 2014;26(3):1301-1306.
  • Vaezi GH, Teshfam M, Bahadoran SH, Farazyan H, Hosseini S. Effects of different levels of lysine on small intestinal villous morphology in starter diet of broiler chickens. Journal of Global Veterinaria 2011;7:523-526.
  • Wang W, Qiao S, Li D. Amino acids and gut function. Amino Acids 2009;37:105-110.
  • Wattanachant S, Benjakul S, Ledward DA. Compositions, color and texture of Thai indigenous and broiler chicken muscles. Poultry Science 2004;83:123-128.
  • Wattanachant S. Factors affecting the quality characteristics of Thai indigenous chicken meat. Suranaree Journal of Science and Technology 2008;15:317-322.
  • Zhai W, Peebles E, Mejia L, Zumwalt C, Corzo A. Effects of dietary amino acid density regimens on growth performance and meat yield of Cobb× Cobb 700 broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2013;22:447-460.
  • Zhai W, Peebles E, Mejia L, Zumwalt C, Corzo A. Effects of dietary amino acid density and metabolizable energy level on the growth and meat yield of summer-reared broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2014;23:501-515.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Apr-Jun 2018

History

  • Received
    09 July 2017
  • Accepted
    30 Oct 2017
Fundação de Apoio à Ciência e Tecnologia Avicolas Rua Barão de Paranapanema, 146 - Sala 72, Bloco A, Bosque, Campinas, SP - 13026-010. Tel.: 19 3255-8500 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revista@facta.org.br