Growth and nutrition of peanut crop subjected to saline stress and organomineral fertilization1 1 Research developed at Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, Redenção, CE, Brazil

Crescimento e nutrição da cultura do amendoim submetida ao estresse salino e adubação organomineral

Elane B. da Silva Thales V. de A. Viana Geocleber G. de Sousa José T. M. de Sousa Max F. dos Santos Benito M. de Azevedo About the authors

HIGHLIGHTS:

Irrigation of peanut with 5.0 dS m-1 water limited plant growth and the number of leaves.

Fertilization with 100% mineral and 100% bovine biofertilizer attenuated saline stress for foliar N and Ca concentrations.

Using 1.0 dS m-1 water and 100% mineral fertilization increased the foliar concentrations of K, P and Mg.

ABSTRACT

The peanut crop, owing to its microbiological and nutritional aspects, is of great economic importance for agriculture and the food industry. However, salt stress can negatively affect nutrient uptake and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and foliar nutrient concentrations of peanut plants subjected to irrigation with saline water and different forms of organomineral fertilization. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design (5 × 2 factorial scheme) with five forms of fertilization (F1 = 100% mineral; F2 = 100% bovine biofertilizer; F3 = 100% vegetal ash; F4 = 50% mineral + 50% bovine biofertilizer; and F5 = 50% mineral + 50% vegetal ash), two levels of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water (ECw) (1.0 and 5.0 dS m-1), and five replicates. Salt stress inhibited plant growth and the number of leaves, but increased the average stem diameter with the use of 100% bovine biofertilizer and higher salinity water. When ECw of 5.0 dS m-1 was used along with the bovine biofertilizer (100%), the P concentration in plants increased. The K concentration was reduced in plants fertilized with bovine biofertilizer (100%) and vegetal ash (100%), while Mg concertation was reduced in plants fertilized with bovine biofertilizer (100%) or mineral fertilizer (50%) + bovine biofertilizer (50%) with irrigation water of 5.0 dS m-1.

Key words:
Arachis hypogaea L.; salinity; plant nutrition

RESUMO

A cultura do amendoim em razão dos aspectos microbiológicos e nutricionais torna-se uma cultura de grande importância econômica para agricultura e indústria alimentícia. No entanto, o estresse salino pode causar efeitos negativos na absorção de nutrientes e no crescimento de plantas. Objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento e os teores foliares de nutrientes de plantas de amendoim submetidas a irrigação com água salina e formas de adubação organomineral. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 5 × 2, referente a cinco formas de adubação (F1 = 100% mineral, F2 = 100% biofertilizante bovino, F3 = 100% cinza vegetal, F4 = 50% mineral + 50% biofertilizante bovino e F5 = 50% mineral + 50% cinza vegetal) e dois valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (1,0 e 5,0 dS m-1), com cinco repetições. O estresse salino inibiu a altura da planta e o número de folhas, mas aumentou o diâmetro médio do caule com utilização de 100% de biofertilizante. As adubações com fertilizante 100% mineral, 100% biofertilizante bovino e 100% cinza vegetal mitigaram o estresse salino e aumentaram o teor de N e Ca foliar. O teor de K foi reduzido em plantas fertilizadas com 100% biofertilizante bovino e 100% cinza vegetal e de Mg em 100% biofertilizante bovino e 50% de fertilizante mineral + 50% biofertilizante bovino, quando exposto a maior salinidade da água de irrigação.

Palavras-chave:
Arachis hypogaea L., salinidade; nutrição de plantas

Introduction

Peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.), originating in South America, can be cultivated in almost all types of soil, and is a promising species for various purposes, from human food and animal fodder to the production of biofuels. However, regions with irregular rainfall and lower quality water, such as the northeast of Brazil, have low yields (Cruz et al., 2021Cruz, R. I. F.; Silva, G. F. da; Silva, M. M. da; Silva, A. H. S.; Santos Júnior, J. H.; Silva, E. F. de F. Productivity of irrigated peanut plants under pulse and continuous dripping irrigation with brackish water. Revista Caatinga, v.34, p.208-218, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-21252021v34n121rc
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-21252021v...
).

Irrigation is the only way to guarantee agricultural production, especially in tropical regions with a hot dry climate, such as semi-arid regions of Northeast Brazil. These regions face several problems owing to water scarcity for plants at different phenological stages (Maniçoba et al., 2021Maniçoba, R. M.; Espínola Sobrinho, J.; Zonta, J. H.; Cavalcante Junior, E. G.; Oliveira, A. K. S. de; Freitas, I. A. da S. Resposta do algodoeiro à supressão hídrica em diferentes fases fenológicas no semiárido brasileiro. Revista Irriga, v.26, p.123-133, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.15809/irriga.2021v26n1p123-133
http://dx.doi.org/10.15809/irriga.2021v2...
). This problem is associated with the high water consumption of irrigation and has encouraged the use of lower quality resources, such as saline water, which is responsible for the decline in crop productivity worldwide (Costa & Medeiros, 2017Costa, A. R. F. C. da; Medeiros, J. F. de. Água salina como alternativa para irrigação de sorgo para geração de energia no Nordeste brasileiro. Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.6, p.169-177, 2017.; Silva et al., 2019Silva, C. B. da; Silva, J. C. da; Santos, D. P. dos; Silva, P. F. da; Barbosa, M. de S.; Santos, M. A. L. Manejo de irrigação na cultura da beterraba de mesa sob condições salinas em Alagoas. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada , v.13, p.3285-3296, 2019. https://doi.org/10.7127/RBAI.V13N200880
https://doi.org/10.7127/RBAI.V13N200880...
; Bouras et al., 2021Bouras, H.; Bouaziz, A.; Bouazzama, B.; Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R. How phosphorus fertilization alleviates the effect of salinity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) productivity and quality. Agronomy, v.11, p.1-12, 2021, https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081491
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11081491...
).

The use of saline water in agriculture reduces the osmotic and water potential of plants, which consequently decreases the availability of water, absorption, and transport of essential nutrients for plant growth. This, in turn, leads to nutritional imbalance, affecting the physiological functions and productive potential of cultivated plants (Lima et al., 2021Lima, A. F. da S.; Santos, M. F. dos; Oliveira, M. L.; Sousa, G. G. de; Mendes Filho, P. F.; Luz, L. N. da. Physiological responses of inoculated and uninoculated peanuts under saline stress. Revista Ambiente e Água, v.16, p.26-43, 2021. https://doi.org/10.4136/ambi-agua.2643
https://doi.org/10.4136/ambi-agua.2643...
; Sousa et al., 2021Sousa, H. C.; Sousa, G. G. de; Lessa, C. I. N.; Lima, A. F. da S.; Ribeiro, R. M. R.; Rodrigues, F. H. da C. Growth and gas exchange of corn under salt stress and nitrogen doses. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , v.25, p.174-181, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v25n3p174-181
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agri...
; Costa et al., 2021Costa, F. H. R.; Goes, G. F.; Almeida, M. de S.; Magalhães, C. L.; Sousa, J. T. M. de; Sousa, G. G. Maize crop yield in function of salinity and mulch. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v.25, n.12, p.840-846, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v25n12p840-846
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agri...
).

Practices to mitigate excess salts in irrigation water have been applied in various cropping systems, including mineral fertilization, which aims to nourish agricultural crops and maximize their cultivation (Sousa et al., 2022Sousa, G. G. de; Sousa, H. C.; Santos, M. F. dos; Lessa, C. I. N.; Gomes, S. P. Saline water and nitrogen fertilization on leaf composition and yield of corn. Revista Caatinga , v.35, n.1, p.191-198, 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-21252022v35n119rc
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1983-21252022v...
). The resources used to mitigate salt stress are biofertilizers, as organic sources; nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), as mineral sources; or a combination of both, which form organomineral fertilizers (Souza et al., 2018Souza, J. T. A.; Nunes, J. C.; Cavalcante, L. F.; Nunes, J. A. da S.; Pereira, W. E.; Freire, J. L. de O. Effects of water salinity and organomineral fertilization on leaf composition and production in Passiflora edulis. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , v.22, p.535-540, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v22n8p535-540
https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriam...
; Souza et al., 2019a).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and foliar nutrient concentrations of peanut plants subjected to irrigation with saline water and different forms of organomineral fertilization.

Material and Methods

The experiment was carried out from June to September 2019 in the experimental area of the Auroras Seedling Production Unit (UPMA), which belongs to the Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira (UNILAB), Redenção, Ceará, Brazil (4º13’33” S, 38º43’39” W; altitude of 88 m). The climate of the region is ‘Aw’, that is, rainy tropical, very warm, with a predominance of rain in the summer and autumn.

The meteorological data obtained during the experimental period are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1
Mean values of temperature and relative air humidity during the experimental period

The experimental design used was completely randomized, in a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, with five replicates and two plants per plot. The first factor corresponded to the different forms of fertilization: F1 = 100% mineral; F2 = 100% bovine biofertilizer; F3 = 100% vegetal ash; F4 = 50% mineral + 50% bovine biofertilizer; and F5 = 50% mineral + 50% vegetal ash) and two values of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water (ECw) (1.0 and 5.0 dS m-1)

Six BR-1 peanut seeds were sown in 8 L plastic pots containing a material substrate obtained from a mixture of aloof, sand, and bovine manure at a ratio of 4:3:1.

To evaluate the chemical attributes of the soil, a sample was collected before treatment and sent to the Soil and Water Laboratory of the Soil Sciences Department at the Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC). The results are presented in Table 1. Thinning was carried out 10 days after sowing (DAS), leaving only the most vigorous plants.

Table 1
Chemical attributes of the substrate used for growing peanuts before applying treatments

The biofertilizer used was composed of fresh bovine manure and water in a 1:1 ratio, stored in 100 L plastic pots, and maintained in aerobic fermentation for 20 d. The vegetal ash came from sugarcane burning in Fazenda Douradinha, Redenção, Ceará.

Plant fertilization was performed based on chemical analyses of the substrate, bovine biofertilizer, and vegetal ash (Tables 1 and 2), and mineral fertilization following the recommendations for chemical fertilization of Fernandes (1993Fernandes, V. L. B. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado do Ceará. Fortaleza: UFC, 1993. 247p.), i.e., 15 kg ha-1 of N, 62.5 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 50 kg ha-1 of K2O. For the 10.000 plant stand, the maximum dose per plant in the cycle was 1.8 g N, 7.5 g P2O5, and 6.0 g K2O.

Table 2
Chemical attributes of bovine biofertilizer and vegetal ash

To determine the fraction of nutrients present in the substrate, the density of the substrate (1.3 g dm-3) was multiplied by the volume of the substrate in each pot (8 L). The value obtained (10.4 kg) was multiplied by the amounts of N, P, and K obtained in the substrate analysis (Table 3).

Table 3
Estimation of nutrient supply by the substrate and needs for mineral nutritional supplementation with cattle manure and vegetal ash

Through nutrient supply strategies, split application of fertilizer 8 DAS was initiated. For 100% mineral fertilization (F1), 1.8 g per plant of N, 7.5 g per plant of P2O5, and 6.0 g per plant of K2O were applied. In the organomineral treatments (F4 and F5), 50% in mineral form was used, in the amounts of 0.9 g per plant of N, 3.7 g P2O5, and 3.0 g per plant of K2O, while the other half (50%) comprised biofertilizer and ash.

According to the demand for nutritional supplementation (Table 3) and the amount of NPK (Table 2), 5.0 L of bovine biofertilizer for the 100% dose (F1), and 2.5 L for the 50% dose (F4) were applied. For vegetal ash, 1.5 kg was used for the 100% dose (F3), and 0.75 kg for the 50% dose (F5).

The irrigation water was prepared by diluting soluble salts (NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgCl2.6H2O), following the methodology of Medeiros (1992Medeiros, J. F. de. Qualidade da água de irrigação utilizada nas propriedades assistidas pelo “GAT” nos Estados do RN, PB, CE e avaliação da salinidade dos solos. Campina Grande: UFPB, 1992. 173p. Dissertação Mestrado), to obtain an equivalent ratio of 7:2:1 for Na:Ca:Mg. Irrigation was manually applied daily from 8 DAS, using 15% leaching. Calculations were performed according to the lysimeter principle of drainage (Bernardo et al., 2019Bernardo, S.; Mantovani, E. C.; Silva, D. D. da; Soares, A. A. Manual de Irrigação. 9.ed. Viçosa: Editora UFV, 2019. 545p.), represented by two vessels of each treatment, maintaining the soil at field capacity. The water volume applied to the plants was determined using Eq. 1:

V I = V p - V d 1 - L F (1)

where:

VI - volume of water to be applied in the irrigation event (mL);

Vp - volume of water applied in the previous irrigation event (mL);

Vd - volume of water drained (mL); and,

LF - leaching fraction of 0.15.

At 35 DAS, the following variables were analyzed: plant height (PH), the distance between the neck and the apex of the plant measured with a measuring tape (cm); number of leaves (NL), measured by directly counting green leaves; and stem diameter (SD), measured with the aid of a digital caliper, averaged over the basal stem diameter of plants at a height of approximately 2 cm from the soil surface.

At 85 DAS, plant material was collected from the aerial parts of peanut plants to determine the concentrations of mineral elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na). Samples were dried in an oven with forced air circulation at 65 °C until a constant weight was reached, then crushed in a mill. Furthermore, to determine total N, the milled material was subjected to nitric-perchloric digestion, followed by steam distillation and titration for NH4 and quantified using the semimicro-Kjeldahl procedure (Miyazawa et al., 2009Miyazawa, M.; Pavan, M. A.; Muraoka, T.; Carmo, C. A.; Melo, W. J. D. Análise química de tecido vegetal. In: Silva, F. C. Manual de análises químicas de solos, plantas e fertilizantes. Brasília: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, 2009. Cap.2, p.193-233.).

To determine the leaf concentrations of other macronutrients (P, K, Mg and Ca) and Na, the milled tissue samples were subjected to a dry digestion process, by incinerating in an electric muffle furnace at temperatures between 500 °C and 550 °C. The resulting ash was dissolved in dilute nitric acid solution (HNO3). The concentrations were determined using a photoelectric flame photometer for K and Na, molybdenum blue spectrophotometry for P, and atomic absorption spectroscopy for Mg and Ca.

The variables analyzed in the study were subjected to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p ≤ 0.05) to assess normality. Data were then subjected to analysis of variance, and Tukey’s test for comparison of means (p ≤ 0.05) was performed using the program ASSISTAT 7.7 BETA (Silva & Azevedo, 2016Silva, F. de A. S.; Azevedo, C. A. V. de. The Assistat Software Version 7.7 and its use in the analysis of experimental data. African Journal of Agricultural Research , v.11, p.3733-3740, 2016. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11522
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11522...
).

Results and Discussion

The interaction between ECw and organomineral fertilization significantly affected the stem diameter (SD) of peanut plants. Plant height (PH) was influenced by the two factors studied but was isolated. The number of leaves (NL) was affected only by the electrical conductivity of the irrigation water (Table 4).

Table 4
Summary of the analysis of variance for the effects of electrical conductivity of irrigation water and different types of fertilization on plant height (PH), number of leaves (NL), and stem diameter (SD) of peanut plants subjected to irrigation

The higher electrical conductivity of irrigation water (5.0 dS m-1) negatively affected the height of peanut plants, which were 29% shorter on average than plants irrigated with water of 1.0 dS m-1 (Figure 2A). The greater amount of salt in the growth environment reduces the soil matric potential, creating resistance to water absorption by plants, limiting cell division and expansion, and consequently hindering growth (Souza et al., 2019aSouza, M. V. P. de; Sousa, G. G. de; Sales, J. R. da S.; Freire, M. H. da C.; Silva, G. L. da; Viana, T. V. de A. Saline water and biofertilizer from bovine and goat manure in the Lima bean crop. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias, v.14, p.1-8, 2019a. https://doi.org/10.5039/agraria.v14i3a5672
https://doi.org/10.5039/agraria.v14i3a56...
).

Figure 2
Plant height (PH) of peanut plants as a function of the electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw) (A) and different types of fertilization (F1 - NPK 100%; F2 - biofertilizer 100%; F3 ­- vegetal ash 100%; F4 ­- NPK 50% +bio 50%; F5 ­- NPK 50% + ash 50%) (B)

Freitas et al. (2021Freitas, A. G. S.; Sousa, G. G. de; Sales, J. R. da S.; Silva Junior, F. B. da; Barbosa, A. S.; Guilherme, J. M. da S. Morfofisiologia da cultura do amendoim cultivado sob estresse salino e nutricional. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada, v.15, p.48-57, 2021. https://doi 10.7127/rbai.v1501201
https://doi 10.7127/rbai.v1501201...
) obtained similar results when assessing the responses of peanut cultures grown in a greenhouse under different levels of salinity. Similarly, Pereira-Filho et al. (2017Pereira Filho, J. V.; Bezerra, F. M. B.; Silva, T. C. da; Pereira, C. C. M. de S. Crescimento vegetativo do feijão-caupi cultivado sob salinidade e déficit hídrico. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada , v.11, p.2217-2228, 2017. https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n800718
https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n800718...
) also found a reduction in the height of cowpea plants under salt stress.

Except for plants fertilized with vegetal ash (F3), the other fertilizers resulted in statistically greater plant height (Figure 2B). Sales et al. (2020Sales, J. R. da S.; Sousa, G. G. de; Rocha, R. G. L.; Costa, F. H. R.; Cruz Filho, E. M. da; Leite, K. N. Organic and mineral fertilization on productivity and postharvest of okra. Revista Agro@mbiente On-line, v.14, p.1-13, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.18227/1982-8470ragro.v14i0.6153
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), evaluating the growth of okra cultures fertilized with bovine biofertilizer, observed similar results.

The highest ECw negatively affected the number of leaves (NL) of peanut plants (Figure 3). Decreasing the number of leaves in a saline medium is one of the adaptations that plants use to regulate water absorption, which is associated with other morphological and anatomical changes and decreased transpiration (Freitas et al., 2021Freitas, A. G. S.; Sousa, G. G. de; Sales, J. R. da S.; Silva Junior, F. B. da; Barbosa, A. S.; Guilherme, J. M. da S. Morfofisiologia da cultura do amendoim cultivado sob estresse salino e nutricional. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada, v.15, p.48-57, 2021. https://doi 10.7127/rbai.v1501201
https://doi 10.7127/rbai.v1501201...
).

Figure 3
Number of leaves (NL) of peanut plants as a function of the electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw)

These results are consistent with those of Goes et al. (2021Goes, G. F.; Sousa, G. G. de; Freire, M. H. da C.; Canjá, J. F.; Marcolino, F. C. Salt water irrigation in different cultivars of lima bean. Revista Ciência Agronômica, v.52, p.1-8, 2021. https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20210016
https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20210...
), who found that an increase in the concentration of salts in irrigation water compromised the emission of lima bean leaves.

Table 5 presents the mean values for the stem diameter (SD) related to the interaction between the forms of fertilization and ECw.

Table 5
Average stem diameter (SD) values for peanut plants subjected to different fertilization and ECw treatments

A decrease in SD was observed in plants irrigated with higher ECw (5.0 dS m-1), with the vegetal ash fertilization (F3) and organomineral treatments (F4 and F5) (Table 5). Melo Filho et al. (2016Melo Filho, J. S. de; Véras, M. L. M.; Alves, L. de S.; Sousa, N. A.; Cavalcante, L. de M.; Melo, E. N. de; Andrade, R. A. de; Silva, S. S. da; Dias, T. J.; Golçalves Neto, A. C. Growth indexes, production and tolerance of peanut irrigated with saline water and bovine biofertilizer. African Journal of Agricultural Research, v.11, p.4470-4479, 2016. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11568
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11568...
) evaluated the growth of peanuts irrigated with saline water and bovine biofertilizer and observed negative effects with increased ECw, with a decrease in the relative SD in plants that did not receive bovine biofertilizer.

Freitas et al. (2021Freitas, A. G. S.; Sousa, G. G. de; Sales, J. R. da S.; Silva Junior, F. B. da; Barbosa, A. S.; Guilherme, J. M. da S. Morfofisiologia da cultura do amendoim cultivado sob estresse salino e nutricional. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada, v.15, p.48-57, 2021. https://doi 10.7127/rbai.v1501201
https://doi 10.7127/rbai.v1501201...
) analyzed the effects of irrigation water salinity on cultivar BR-1 peanuts, and found a greater peanut SD in plants grown in soil with mineral fertilizer and a K source than in plants grown without fertilizer.

Here, the interaction between the ECw and type of fertilization showed a significant effect on the leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Na (Table 6).

Table 6
Summary of the analysis of variance results for the the effects of ECw and fertilization type on nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na) concentrations of the aerial part of peanut plants

With treatments F1, F2, and F3, plants irrigated with water with higher ECw had a higher leaf N concentration than those irrigated with low salinity water (Table 7); however, it was below the range considered adequate (30 at 45 g kg-1) for peanut culture (Ambrosano et al., 1996Ambrosano, E. J.; Tanaka, R. T.; Mascarenhas, H. A. A.; Raij, B. V.; Quaggio, J. A.; Cantarella, H. Leguminosas e oleaginosas. In: Raij, B. V.; Cantarella, H.; Quaggio, J. A.; Furlani, A. M. C. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo. Campinas: Instituto Agronômico/Fundação IAC, 1996. p.187-203. Boletim Técnico, 100). Possibly, this increase in N under conditions of high salinity may be linked to metabolites, such as amino acids, amines, and betaines. These metabolites can be used for osmotic adjustment and protection from cytosolic oxidative stress (Annunziata et al., 2017Annunziata, M. G.; Ciarmiello, L. F.; Woodrow, P.; Maximova, E.; Fuggi, A.; Carillo, P. Durum wheat roots adapt to salinity remodeling the cellular content of nitrogen metabolites and sucrose. Frontiers in Plant Science, v.7, p.1-16, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.02035
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.02035...
).

Table 7
Average values of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations of the dry leaf mass of peanut plants subjected to different fertilization and ECw treatments

Similar effects have been observed by Reges et al. (2017Reges, K. da S. L.; Viana, T. V. de A.; Sousa, G. G. de; Santos, F. S. S.; Lacerda, C. F. de; Azevedo, B. M. de. Estresse salino em plantas de pimentão em sistema semi-hidropônico sob fertilização orgânica e mineral. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada , v.11, p.1-12, 2017. https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629
https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629...
) in pepper plants, where the authors found an increase in shoot N with ECw of 4.5 dS m-1. Coelho et al. (2017Coelho, D. S.; Simoes, W. L.; Salviano, A. M.; Souza, M. A. de; Santos, J. E. de. Acúmulo e distribuição de nutrientes em genótipos de sorgo forrageiro sob salinidade. Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo, v.16, p.178-192, 2017. https://doi.org/10.18512/1980-6477/rbms.v16n2p178-192
https://doi.org/10.18512/1980-6477/rbms....
) evaluated the effects of fertilization and mineral irrigation with saline water on sorghum and found reduced leaf N content with an ECw of 7.5 dS m-1.

The high ECw reduced the foliar P concentration in peanut plants in treatments F1 and F4 and increased it in treatment F2 in relation to the low-salinity water (Table 7). The levels of P obtained in the two irrigation treatments did not reach the ideal range of 2 to 5 g kg-1 (Ambrosano et al., 1996Ambrosano, E. J.; Tanaka, R. T.; Mascarenhas, H. A. A.; Raij, B. V.; Quaggio, J. A.; Cantarella, H. Leguminosas e oleaginosas. In: Raij, B. V.; Cantarella, H.; Quaggio, J. A.; Furlani, A. M. C. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo. Campinas: Instituto Agronômico/Fundação IAC, 1996. p.187-203. Boletim Técnico, 100).

Elevated phosphate adsorption and a decrease in the solubility of this mineral with an increase in the NaCl concentration of the soil reduces the P concentration in leaves (Souza et al., 2018Souza, J. T. A.; Nunes, J. C.; Cavalcante, L. F.; Nunes, J. A. da S.; Pereira, W. E.; Freire, J. L. de O. Effects of water salinity and organomineral fertilization on leaf composition and production in Passiflora edulis. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , v.22, p.535-540, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v22n8p535-540
https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriam...
). These results agree with those of Reges et al. (2017Reges, K. da S. L.; Viana, T. V. de A.; Sousa, G. G. de; Santos, F. S. S.; Lacerda, C. F. de; Azevedo, B. M. de. Estresse salino em plantas de pimentão em sistema semi-hidropônico sob fertilização orgânica e mineral. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada , v.11, p.1-12, 2017. https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629
https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629...
) in pepper cultures fertilized with bovine biofertilizer, and those of Coelho et al. (2017Coelho, D. S.; Simoes, W. L.; Salviano, A. M.; Souza, M. A. de; Santos, J. E. de. Acúmulo e distribuição de nutrientes em genótipos de sorgo forrageiro sob salinidade. Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo, v.16, p.178-192, 2017. https://doi.org/10.18512/1980-6477/rbms.v16n2p178-192
https://doi.org/10.18512/1980-6477/rbms....
) in forage sorghum genotypes grown under saline and mineral fertilization conditions.

The potassium (K) concentration was reduced in plants fertilized with F2 and F3 when irrigated with high-salinity water (Table 7). This decrease in leaf K concentration reflects the antagonistic effects of K and Na, which compete for the same absorption sites in the plasma membrane of root cells (Rodrigues et al., 2021Rodrigues, V. dos S.; Sousa, G. G. de; Soares, S. da C.; Leite, K. N.; Ceita, E. D. R. de; Sousa, J. T. M. de. Gas exchanges and mineral content of corn crops irrigated with saline water. Revista Ceres, v.68, p.453-459, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-737X202168050010
https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-737X2021680...
). Therefore, despite the large amount of K in the vegetal ash (Table 1), salt stress was not mitigated. In addition, the K content was much lower than the range considered adequate for the dry leaf mass of the crop, which ranges from 17 to 30 g kg-1 (Ambrosano et al., 1996Ambrosano, E. J.; Tanaka, R. T.; Mascarenhas, H. A. A.; Raij, B. V.; Quaggio, J. A.; Cantarella, H. Leguminosas e oleaginosas. In: Raij, B. V.; Cantarella, H.; Quaggio, J. A.; Furlani, A. M. C. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo. Campinas: Instituto Agronômico/Fundação IAC, 1996. p.187-203. Boletim Técnico, 100). Similar results were obtained by Souza et al. (2019bSouza, M. C. M. R. de; Menezes, A. S.; Costa, R. S. da; Lacerda, C. F. de; Amorim, A. V.; Ximenes, A. I. S. Água salina na composição mineral foliar de noni sob adubação orgânica. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , v.23, p.687-693, 2019b. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v23n9p687-693
https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriam...
) in noni plants irrigated with water with an EC of 4 dS m-1 and fertilized with organic compost.

There was an increase in the foliar Ca content with increasing ECw in F1, F2, and F3 (Table 8). The use of organic biofertilizers can improve the chemical properties of the soil, such as increasing the Ca available to plants (Sales et al., 2020Sales, J. R. da S.; Sousa, G. G. de; Rocha, R. G. L.; Costa, F. H. R.; Cruz Filho, E. M. da; Leite, K. N. Organic and mineral fertilization on productivity and postharvest of okra. Revista Agro@mbiente On-line, v.14, p.1-13, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.18227/1982-8470ragro.v14i0.6153
http://dx.doi.org/10.18227/1982-8470ragr...
), and attenuating the harmful effects of salinity. For ash, Na+ may have competed with K+ (Table 8), providing a higher accumulation of Ca2+ in the aerial parts of peanut plants. Despite this, the values did not reach the Ca range considered ideal by Ambrosano et al. (1996Ambrosano, E. J.; Tanaka, R. T.; Mascarenhas, H. A. A.; Raij, B. V.; Quaggio, J. A.; Cantarella, H. Leguminosas e oleaginosas. In: Raij, B. V.; Cantarella, H.; Quaggio, J. A.; Furlani, A. M. C. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo. Campinas: Instituto Agronômico/Fundação IAC, 1996. p.187-203. Boletim Técnico, 100), which is 12-20 g kg-1.

Table 8
Average values of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na) concentrations of the dry leaf mass of peanut plants subjected to different fertilization and ECw treatments

Reges et al. (2017Reges, K. da S. L.; Viana, T. V. de A.; Sousa, G. G. de; Santos, F. S. S.; Lacerda, C. F. de; Azevedo, B. M. de. Estresse salino em plantas de pimentão em sistema semi-hidropônico sob fertilização orgânica e mineral. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada , v.11, p.1-12, 2017. https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629
https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629...
) also observed an increase in Ca concentration in the dry matter of pepper plants subjected to irrigation with saline water and fertilization with bovine biofertilizer.

The Mg concentration was lower in the aerial parts of plants irrigated with higher salinity water and F2 and F4 fertilization treatments (Table 8). However, the Mg concentrations were within the range considered adequate for this macronutrient, from 3 to 8 g kg-1 (Ambrosano et al., 1996Ambrosano, E. J.; Tanaka, R. T.; Mascarenhas, H. A. A.; Raij, B. V.; Quaggio, J. A.; Cantarella, H. Leguminosas e oleaginosas. In: Raij, B. V.; Cantarella, H.; Quaggio, J. A.; Furlani, A. M. C. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo. Campinas: Instituto Agronômico/Fundação IAC, 1996. p.187-203. Boletim Técnico, 100).

The Na concentration was higher in plants irrigated with high ECw for all forms of fertilization (Table 8). Increases in the Na concentration in the soil can induce a nutritional imbalance as a results of the high ionic concentration and inhibition of the absorption of other cations (Rodrigues et al., 2021Rodrigues, V. dos S.; Sousa, G. G. de; Soares, S. da C.; Leite, K. N.; Ceita, E. D. R. de; Sousa, J. T. M. de. Gas exchanges and mineral content of corn crops irrigated with saline water. Revista Ceres, v.68, p.453-459, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-737X202168050010
https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-737X2021680...
). Ahmadi & Souri (2018Ahmadi, M.; Souri, M. K. Growth and mineral content of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants under mild salinity with different salts. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, v.40, p.1-8, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-018-2773-x
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-018-2773-...
) reported that high concentrations of NaCl can impair the biological function of the roots and interrupt the rate of absorption of nutrient elements, such as K, Ca, and Mg.

Similarly, Lima et al. (2015Lima, G. S. de; Nobre, R. G.; Gheyi, H. R.; Soares, L. A. dos A.; Pinheiro, F. W. A.; Dias, A. S. Crescimento, teor de sódio, cloro e relação iônica na mamoneira sob estresse salino e adubação nitrogenada. Comunicata Scientiae, v.6, p.212-223, 2015.) found an increase in leaf Na concentration in castor bean under saline stress and N fertilization. However, Reges et al. (2017Reges, K. da S. L.; Viana, T. V. de A.; Sousa, G. G. de; Santos, F. S. S.; Lacerda, C. F. de; Azevedo, B. M. de. Estresse salino em plantas de pimentão em sistema semi-hidropônico sob fertilização orgânica e mineral. Revista Brasileira de Agricultura Irrigada , v.11, p.1-12, 2017. https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629
https://doi.org/10.7127/rbai.v11n600629...
) found no effect of bovine biofertilizer and NPK fertilization on pepper leaves irrigated with saline water.

Conclusions

  1. Salt stress inhibited plant growth and the number of leaves, but increased the average stem diameter with the use of 100% bovine biofertilizer and higher salinity water.

  2. Fertilization with mineral fertilizer (100%), bovine biofertilizer (100%), and vegetal ash (100%) mitigated salt stress and increased the concentrations of N and Ca.

  3. Irrigation with water of 5.0 dS m-1 and bovine biofertilizer application (100%) increased the P concentration in plants.

  4. The K concentration was reduced in plants fertilized with bovine biofertilizer (100%) and vegetal ash (100%); the Mg concentration was reduced in plants fertilized with bovine biofertilizer (100%) and mineral fertilizer (50%) + bovine biofertilizer (50%), when irrigated with water of ECw of 5.0 dS m-1.

  5. Irrigation with water of ECw 5.0 dS m-1 increased the Na concentration under mineral fertilization with NPK (100%), bovine biofertilizer (100%), mineral fertilizer (50%) + bovine biofertilizer (50%), and mineral fertilizer (50%) + vegetal ash (50%).

Acknowledgments

To Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, for granting a scholarship; to Fundação Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - FUNCAP, for promoting research and to the Bio-Sal Group for the support and offer of the study area.

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  • 1 Research developed at Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, Redenção, CE, Brazil

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    20 Apr 2022
  • Date of issue
    July 2022

History

  • Received
    07 Dec 2021
  • Accepted
    09 Feb 2022
  • Published
    21 Feb 2022
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