Conceptions of teachers on school inclusion and inclusive environment interactions: a review of the literature

Inclusive education has been a challenge for different professionals engaged in promoting the development of students with disabilities. Schools have been an essential place for promoting social, emotional and academic development, because they enable opportunities for experiences that stimulate interaction and mediation of learning of significant content, while contributing towards resilience processes. This study analyzed the content of national studies published between 2000 and 2010 on teachers' conceptions of inclusion of pupils with educational needs and interactions in the context of inclusive education; it also aimed to identify factors that facilitate and hinder effectiveness of educational guidelines. After a systematic search of the BVS-PSI portal using the keywords teacher, inclusive education, interaction, special education, school, learning, conceptions, mental disability, mediation, development and relationship, 29 articles were encountered. There was a predominance of authors in the field of psychology. Data collection was conducted via interview and questionnaire. The studies showed deficiencies linked to concepts of individual characteristics that may cause limitations. The lack of support from specialized staff, teaching materials and assistive training and preparation were identified as the main factors hindering successful implementation of inclusive principles. The literature shows the need for teacher development. Given the results, the authors suggest further studies on the health of teachers, investigation into their conceptions of inclusion, as well as the need for intervention in schools considering historical and social determinants of disabilities and factors undermining teacher well-being.

Inclusive Education; Teachers; Disabilities; Teacher-student interaction

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