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Effects of adding ground or steam-flaked corn and zinc-enriched yeast to grower pellet feed on fattening performance, development of rumen papilla, and some blood parameters in lambs

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ground or steam-flaked corn and zinc-enriched yeast addition to grower pellet feed on fattening performance, rumen papillae development, and some blood parameters in lambs. For this purpose, thirty-six Kivircik male lambs were selected and divided equally into six groups: basal diet containing pellet feed without different corn form and yeast (control), basal diet 80% + ground corn 20% (PGC), basal diet 80% + steam-flaked corn 20% (PFC), PGC + Zn-enriched yeast (PGCZnY), PFC + Zn-enriched yeast (PFCZnY), and control + Zn-enriched yeast (PZnY). They were fed for 56 days according to the diets mentioned above. At the conclusion of the evaluations in fattening performance, rumen papillae development, and some blood parameters, there were no significant differences in body weight gain, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed efficiency among the experimental groups. In the PGCZnY group, rumen papillae length was found to be higher than the other experimental groups. At the end of the trial (day 0), leukocyte and lymphocyte counts decreased significantly only in the control group compared with the other groups in the present study. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values, analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the trial, increased significantly in all groups except in the PGCZnY group. Supplementation of Zinc-enriched yeast to ground corn can be used for increasing ruminal papilla length, however decreasing the serum BUN levels in lambs during the fattening period.

Keywords:
ground corn; growth performance; lambs; steam-flaked corn; zinc-enriched yeast

1. Introduction

In parallel with the increasing human population, the need for red meat is increasing around the world (Juárez et al., 2021Juárez, M.; Lam, S.; Bohrer, B. M.; Dugan, M. E. R.; Vahmani, P.; Aalhus, J.; Juárez, A.; López-Campos, O.; Prieto, N. and Segura, J. 2021. Enhancing the nutritional value of red meat through genetic and feeding strategies. Foods 10:872. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040872
https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040872...
). Red meat is one of the essential nutrient sources for human health. Its physical, chemical, and biological properties indicate its nutritional quality (Holman et al., 2020Holman, B. W. B.; Fowler, S. M. and Hopkins, D. L. 2020. Red meat (beef and sheep) products for an aging population: a review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 55:919-934. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14443
https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14443...
). Sheep is one of the sources of red meat with its tasteful and high-quality content. Therefore, sheep breeding is of economic importance in Turkey (Yilmaz et al., 2013Yilmaz, O.; Cengiz, F.; Ertugrul, M. and Wilson, R. 2013. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: sheep breeds and cross-breeds and their conservation status. Animal Genetic Resources 52:147-163. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2078633613000015
https://doi.org/10.1017/S207863361300001...
).

The replacement of commercial feeds, which are commonly used in animal nutrition, with different forms of corn could be a method to decrease production costs. For this reason, it is thought that different corn types may improve feed intake in lambs (Reis et al., 2001Reis, W.; Jobim, C. C.; Macedo, F. A. F.; Martins, E. N.; Cecato, U. and Silveira, A. 2001. Desempenho de cordeiros terminados em confinamento, consumindo silagens de milho de grãos com alta umidade ou grãos de milho hidratados em substituição aos grãos de milho seco da dieta. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 30:596-603. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982001000200040
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-3598200100...
). It has been reported that texturized starter forms containing steam-flaked grains combined with a pelleted supplement lead to better performance than a finely ground, crushed, or pelleted starter feed in previous studies (Franklin, 2003Franklin, S. T.; Amaral-Phillips, D. M.; Jackson, J. A. and Campbell, A. A. 2003. Health and performance of Holstein calves that suckled or were hand-fed colostrum and were fed one of three physical forms of starter. Journal of Dairy Science 86:2145-2153. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73804-1
https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(0...
; Hill, 2012Hill, T. M.; Bateman II, H. G.; Aldrich, J. M. and Schlotterbeck, R. L. 2012. High starch, coarse-grain, low-fiber diets maximize growth of weaned dairy calves less than 4 months of age. The Professional Animal Scientist 28:325-331. https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)30363-6
https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)3...
; Moeini, 2017Moeini, H.; Mahdavi, A. H.; Riasi, A.; Ghorbani, G. R.; Oskoueian, E.; Khan, M. A. and Ghaffari, M. H. 2017. Effects of physical form of starter and forage provision to young calves on blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 101:755-766. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12485
https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12485...
). However, limited studies were found in which different forms of feed materials were added to pellet feed during the fattening period in lambs.

With the ban on the use of antibiotics in the European Union in 2006, the use of other feed additives as alternative growth promoters has been increased in sheep breeding (Valenzuela-Grijalva et al., 2017Valenzuela-Grijalva, N. V.; Pinelli-Saavedra, A.; Muhlia-Almazan, A.; Domínguez-Díaz, D. and González-Ríos, H. 2017. Dietary inclusion effects of phytochemicals as growth promoters in animal production. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 59:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0133-9
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0133-...
). Probiotics are one of the alternative feed additives that have been used in sheep breeding systems (Markowiak and Śliżewska, 2018Markowiak, P. and Śliżewska, K. 2018. The role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in animal nutrition. Gut Pathogens 10:21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13099-018-0250-0
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13099-018-0250-...
). Abd El-Tawab et al. (2016)Abd El-Tawab, M. M.; Youssef, I. M. I.; Bakr, H. A.; Fthenakis, G. C. and Giadinis, N. D. 2016. Role of probiotics in nutrition and health of small ruminants. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 19:893-906. https://doi.org/10.1515/pjvs-2016-0114
https://doi.org/10.1515/pjvs-2016-0114...
reported that probiotics regulate rumen pH, increase the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA), and stimulate lactic acid using protozoa, resulting in a highly efficient rumen function.

Zinc (Zn) is a trace element that plays an important role in the health and performance of animals (Suttle, 2010Suttle, N. F. 2010. Mineral nutrition of livestock. 4th ed. CAB International, Cambridge.). The effects of Zn on fattening performance and some blood parameters were investigated in animals in previous studies (Berrie et al., 1995Berrie, R. A.; Hallford, D. M.; Galyean, M. L.; Brundage, A. L. and White, T. W. 1995. Effects of zinc source and level on performance, carcass characteristics, and metabolic hormone concentrations of growing and finishing lambs. The Professional Animal Scientist 11:149-156. https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)32579-1
https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)3...
; Fadayifar et al., 2012Fadayifar, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Zamani, P.; Bahari, A.; Malecki, M. and Dezfoulian, A. H. 2012. Improvement in lamb performance on barley-based diet supplemented with zinc. Livestock Science 144:285-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.12.002
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.12...
). However, there are limited studies about the effects of Zn-enriched yeast on fattening performance, blood biochemical parameters, and rumen papilla development in the literature. It has been reported that Zn-enriched yeast supplementation could lessen intestinal damage and improve overall performance in lambs (NRC, 2007NRC - National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.).

In Turkey, a combination of corn, barley, and wheat is used in standard lamb rearing feeds for fermentation in the rumen. Considering feed cost, breeders prefer to add corn and barley up to 20% to the grower feed at the last period of fattening as a general practice. In this study, the scientific basis of this application was investigated by adding also Zn-enriched yeast.

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rate of 20% ground or steam-flaked corn and zinc-enriched yeast addition to the grower pellet feed on fattening performance, development of rumen papilla, and biochemical blood parameters in lambs.

2. Material and Methods

The experiment was undertaken in Balikesir, Turkey (39°28'52" N and 28°2'27" E, and 340 m altitude), after approval by the local ethics committee (approval no. 6 – 1 /2021). The lambs used in the experiment were fed milk directly from their mothers for seven days after birth. In the 7-60 days period, in addition to milk, standard lamb starter diet was given ad libitum. Since all lambs were housed in the same conditions and fed the same way, the rumen papillae were initially considered to be homogeneous. In total, 36 Kivircik male lambs (23.76±0.05 kg body weight [BW]; two months old) were weighed and housed in a feedlot system marked with 1.25×1.80 cm individual pens. The lambs were randomly divided equally into six experimental groups (Table 1). In the study, lamb grower pellet feed (containing 18.75% crude protein), without different corn form and yeast (control), was used as a basal diet (Table 2). In addition to this basic feed, experimental groups were formed by using ground corn or steam-flaked corn, and Zn-enriched yeast: basal diet containing pellet feed basal diet 80% + ground corn 20% (PGC), basal diet 80% + steam-flaked corn 20% (PFC), PGC + Zn-enriched yeast (PGCZnY), PFC + Zn-enriched yeast (PFCZnY), and control + Zn-enriched yeast (PZnY). Lambs received 150 g of alfalfa hay and their specifically formulated experimental diets ad libitum in two equal parts at 07:00 and 17:00 h during 56 days. Lambs in PGCZnY, PFCZnY, and PZnY groups were fed 30 g/d Zn-enriched yeast [(Zn- Methionine Zn (1:2) 30 mg/kg, Sacchromyces cerevisiae (SC; NCYCR 404, 3×109 cfu/kg)]. Diets were formulated according to the recommendations of NRC (2007NRC - National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.). Lambs were weighed after an eight-hour fasting period with 14-day intervals. Dry matter (DM; method 930.15; AOAC, 2000AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.), crude ash (method 942.05; AOAC, 2000AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.), ether extract (method 954.02; AOAC, 2000AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.); crude protein (N×6.25; method 990.03; AOAC, 2000AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.) and crude fiber (method 978.10; AOAC, 2000AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.) were analyzed according to the guidelines of AOAC (2000AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD.) (Table 3). Metabolizable energy (MJ/kg DM) was calculated according to UKASTA/ADAS/COSAC (1985UKASTA/ADAS/COSAC. 1985. Prediction of the energy value of compound feeds. Report of the UKASTA/ADAS/COSAC Working Party. United Kingdom Agricultural Suppliers and Traders Association, London.). Bodyweight (BW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (FE) were calculated.

Table 1
Experimental groups
Table 2
Ingredients of pelleted feed
Table 3
Chemical composition of experimental diets

2.1. Determination of hematological and serum biochemical parameters

Hematological and biochemical parameters were examined from the blood samples of the lambs at the begining (before the trial; day 0) and at the end of the trial (after the trial; day 56). For this purpose, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of lambs to heparinized tubes. Erythrocyte (RBC) and leukocyte (WBC) counts; lymphocytes (LYM), monocytes (MON), and granulocytes (NEU) counts and percentages (%); hemoglobin (HGB) levels, hematocrit (HCT) values, platelet (PLT) count, mean red blood cell volume (MCV), mean red blood cell hemoglobin (MCH), as well as mean red blood hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined using an automated blood analyzer (Abacus Junior Vet-5, USA). Then, the blood samples were taken to the laboratory under the cold chain and were centrifuged at 3000 g for 25 min. Serum samples were taken into eppendorf tubes, and were stored in the refrigerator (−20 °C) until analysis. Values of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine (CREAT), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined using an automated biochemistry analyzer (BS-400 PLUS Mindray, China).

2.2. Detection of rumen papillae development

At the end of the experiment, two slaughtered lambs from each group were selected for papillae lengths-widths measurements taken from rumen samples. For histopathological examination, 1-2 cm wide tissue pieces were taken from the dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen, placed in 10% buffered neutral formaldehyde solution and fixed. Papillae samples fixed in formalin were blocked in paraffin after routine follow-up. Sections of 4 μm thickness were taken from paraffin blocks, stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, and examined under a light microscope (Nikon, Eclipse Ni, Tokyo, Japan). The lengths and widths of the rumen papillae were photographed with a camera (Nikon, DS-Ri2, Tokyo, Japan) integrated into the light microscope, and the results were measured in the NIS-Elements BR (5.02.00, Nikon, Tokyo, Japan).

2.3. Statistical analysis

The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design. Normality of the variables was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (Model 1) using the SPSS 20.0 program (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Means were compared (P<0.05) by using Duncan's test (Duncan, 1955Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:1-42.).

Model 1:

Y ij = μ + T i + e ij ,

in which Yij = observed value of the trait in animal receiving treatment i; μ = constant inherent to all observations; Ti = effect of treatment i (i = 1: CON; 2: PGC; 3: PFC; 4: PGCZnY; 5: PFCZnY; and 6: PZnY); and eij = random error associated with observation Yij.

3. Results

3.1. Body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed efficiency

Body weight (kg), ADG (g), ADFI (g), and FE (g feed/g gain) were not significantly affected by the trials (Table 4).

Table 4
Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (FE, g feed/g gain) in groups

3.2. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters

In this study, WBC and LYM count decreased significantly only in the CON group compared with the other groups at the end of the trial (Tables 5 and 6). At the end of the trial (day 56), MON numbers in the CON and PZnY groups decreased compared with the beginning of the trial (day 0) (P<0.05). On the other hand, the number of NEU and percentages of LYM, MON, and NEU were not affected by different feed applications (P>0.05). The RBC count increased at the end of the trial compared with beginning of the analysis in both CON and PZnY groups (P<0.05). The HGB and PLT values were not affected by treatments. According to the HGB and PLT values, no significant difference was detected among the experimental groups before (day 0) and after (day 56) the trials (P>0.05). Although HCT values increased between measurements (day 0 - day 56) in all experimental groups, they showed statistical changes only in PFC, PGCZnY, and PZnY groups (P<0.05). In addition, the highest HCT values were found in the PFC group at the end of the trial. Analysis of the day 56, MCV values were found to be higher in the PGC and PFC groups compared with the other groups (P<0.05). The MHC values were not affected by the applications before and after the trials. Values of MCHC were statistically decreased between the two measurements in the CON and PFC groups (P<0.05).

Table 5
Differential WBC counts and ratios (%) of the trial groups (mean±SE)
Table 6
Some hematological parameters (mean±SE) of the trial groups

In our study, serum BUN values increased significantly in all groups except in the PGCZnY group between the analysis of days 0 and 56 (P<0.05) (Table 7). The highest BUN values were determined in the PFC and PZnY groups at the end of the trial. Although serum AST values increased in all groups on day 56 (P<0.05), ALT values in all measurements were not affected by the treatments. In addition, the highest ALT values among the experimental groups were determined in the PGC group. Serum GGT values increased in the second analysis (day 56) compared with the first (day 0) in all groups except the PGC group (P<0.05). Compared with the other groups, the lowest GGT values were found in the PGC group. At the end of the trial, although serum ALB values increased in all groups, statistical differences occurred only in the CON, PFC, and PFCZnY groups (P<0.05). In addition, the highest ALB levels were defined in the PFC group compared with the other groups. In the CON, PGC, PFC, and PZnY groups, TP levels increased significantly on day 56 analysis due to different feed treatments (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the measurements of TP levels in the PGCZnY and PFCZnY groups (P>0.05). On the other hand, serum CREAT levels were not affected by different feed treatments in the study (P>0.05). In addition, the highest CREAT levels were determined in the PFC group compared with the others in the second analysis (P>0.05).

Table 7
Serum biochemical parameters (mean±SE) of the experimental groups

3.3. Rumen papillae development

In the histopathological examination, it was observed that the rumen papillae of lambs in CON group were parakeratotic. Black necrotic areas were observed in the extreme parts of the keratin layer. Degenerated epithelial cells with vacuoles were seen in the cytoplasm of the lamina epithelial. Besides, focal inflammation was noted in the lamina propria foci with neutrophil leukocytes and mononuclear cell infiltration. The histopathological findings of the rumen of the animals in the PZnY group were similar to the CON group. Parakeratosis, necrosis, and hydropic degeneration were detected in the papilla ruminis of the PGC and PGCZnY groups, but no inflammation was observed. The pathological findings were not found in the PFC and PFCZnY groups. In addition, while a large amount of protozoan was observed between the papillae ruminis in the sections of the PFCZnY group, no protozoan was seen in the sections of the other groups. Papillae lengths-widths were measured (Table 8, Figures 1 and 2).

Table 8
Rumen papilla measurement (μm)
Figure 1
Rumen papillae width (μm).
Figure 2
Rumen papillae length (μm).

4. Discussion

In the present study, the effects of as much as 20% ground or steam-flaked corn and zinc-enriched yeast addition to the grower pellet feed on BW, ADG, ADFI, and FE were evaluated and no significant changes among the experimental groups were found. Akin to our study, Hejazi et al. (1999)Hejazi, S.; Fluharty, F. L.; Perley, J. E.; Loerch, S. C. and Lowe, G. D. 1999. Effects of corn processing and dietary fiber source on feedlot performance, visceral organ weight, diet digestibility, and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Journal of Animal Science 77:507-515. https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.773507x
https://doi.org/10.2527/1999.773507x...
reported that corn processing might not optimize performance of feeding lambs with ground corn instead of whole shelled corn in their study. In a previous study, Ding et al. (2008)Ding, J.; Zhou, Z. M.; Ren, L. P. and Meng, Q. X. 2008. Effect of monensin and live yeast supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and ruminal fermentation parameters in lambs fed steam-flaked corn-based diets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 21:547-554. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70353
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70353...
stated that the addition of yeast for 49 days to lamb rations positively affected the feed efficiency and daily live weight gain in lambs. Haddad and Goussous (2005)Haddad, S. G. and Goussous, S. N. 2005. Effect of yeast culture supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, and growth performance of Awassi lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 118:343-348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.10.003
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.200...
also found that daily supplementation of 3 g/d for 74 days of yeast culture (YC) in the rations of Awassi lambs improved the body weight gain and feed efficiency. Mikulec et al. (2010)Mikulec, Ž.; Mašek, T.; Habrun, B. and Valpotić, H. 2010. Influence of live yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation to the diet of fattening lambs on growth performance and rumen bacterial number. Veterınarskı Arhıv 80:695-703. also investigated the effects of live yeast (SC - 0.5 g/day or 1 g/day) on the growth performance of East-Friesian lambs participating in a 14.04 kg BW, and did not observe a positive effect on the growth performance similar to our results. This may be due to the differences in yeast content, animal breed, starting weight of the trial, and management conditions. In addition, the reports on the effect of the probiotic application on the growth and the fattening performance of lambs and carcass characteristics are inconsistent (Baranowski et al., 2007Baranowski, A.; Gabryszuk, M.; Jozwik, A.; Bernatowicz, E. and Chylinski, W. 2007. Fattening performance, slaughter indicators and meat chemical composition in lambs fed the diet supplemented with linseed and mineral bioplex. Animal Science Papers and Reports 25:35-44.; Titi et al., 2008Titi, H. H.; Dmour, R. O. and Abdullah, A. Y. 2008. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs and Shami goat kids fed yeast culture in their finishing diet. Animal Feed Science and Technology 142:33-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.06.034
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.200...
; Whitley et al., 2009Whitley, N. C.; Cazac, D.; Rude, B. J.; Jackson-O’Brien, D. and Parveen, S. 2009. Use of commercial probiotic supplement in meat goat. Journal of Animal Science 87:723-728. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1031
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1031...
). Besides, Knuth et al. (2020)Knuth, R. M.; Cunningham-Hollinger, H. C.; Bangoura, B.; Julian, A. L.; Page, C. M.; Hummel, G. L.; Woodruff, K. L.; Whaley, J. R.; Bardsley, K. D.; Lake, S. L.; Gifford, C. L.; Bisha, B. and Stewart, W. C. 2020. Impacts of dietary zinc concentrations on lamb feedlot performance. Translational Animal Science 4:S6-S10. https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txaa087
https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txaa087...
indicated that the addition of Zn to ration for 63 days increased the DM intake, but did not improve the growth performance of lambs. It was also reported that there was no effect of Zn addition to the diets of lamb on growth performance (Solaiman and Min, 2019Solaiman, S. G. and Min, B. R. 2019. The effect of high levels of dietary zinc on growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, immune response, and tissue minerals in growing Boer-cross goat kids. Small Ruminant Research 177:167-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2019.05.018
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.20...
). This can be related to the type and level of probiotics and the content of the experimental diet (Khalid, 2011Khalid, M. F.; Shahzad, M. A.; Sarwar, M.; Rehman, A. U.; Sharif, M. and Mukhtar, N. 2011. Probiotics and lamb performance: a review. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6:5198-5203.).

In the PGCZnY group, rumen papilla length was found to be higher than in the other experimental groups. Besides, whole rumen papilla ruminis widths were detected to be the highest in the PFCZnY group compared with the other groups in the present study. Conversely, Petrič et al. (2021)Petrič, D.; Mravčáková, D.; Kucková, K.; Kišidayová, S.; Cieslak, A.; Szumacher-Strabel, M.; Huang, H.; Kolodziejski, P.; Lukomska, A.; Slusarczyk, S.; Čobanová, K. and Váradyová, Z. 2021. Impact of zinc and/or herbal mixture on ruminal fermentation, microbiota, and histopathology in lambs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:630971. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.630971
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.63097...
reported that supplementation of Zn to ration did not affect the weight and length of the rumen papilla ruminis in CON and Zn-added groups in lambs. However, Shahid et al. (2020)Shahid, A. B.; Malhi, M.; Soomro, S. A.; Shah, M. G.; Kalhoro, N. H.; Kaka, A.; Mal, R.; Soomro, M. A.; Samo, S. P. and Sanjrani, M. N. 2020. Influence of dietary selenium yeast supplementation on fermentation pattern, papillae morphology and antioxidant status in rumen of goat. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 52:565-571. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20190205120240
https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/201...
informed that the addition of Se-enriched yeast to ration improved the papillae concentration and length of the rumen papilla ruminis in the Se-added group compared with CON. On the other hand, the positive effects of Zn-enriched yeast supplementation to the ground or steam-flaked corn forms on papilla development were better observed in the PGCZnY and PFCZnY groups compared with the others in the present study. Also, parakeratosis, necrosis, and hydropic degeneration were noted in the papilla ruminis of the CON and PZnY groups, but also inflammation was observed in our study. Similarly, Steele et al. (2009)Steele, M. A.; AlZahal, O.; Hook, S. E.; Croom, J. and McBride, B. W. 2009. Ruminal acidosis and the rapid onset of ruminal parakeratosis in a mature dairy cow: a case report. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 51:39. https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-51-39
https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-51-39...
also observed parakeratosis in papilla ruminis of cows depending on easily fermentable carbohydrate rations. Focal infiltration of inflammatory cells in papillae within the epithelial layer was observed in animals fed Zn+herbs by Petrič et al. (2021)Petrič, D.; Mravčáková, D.; Kucková, K.; Kišidayová, S.; Cieslak, A.; Szumacher-Strabel, M.; Huang, H.; Kolodziejski, P.; Lukomska, A.; Slusarczyk, S.; Čobanová, K. and Váradyová, Z. 2021. Impact of zinc and/or herbal mixture on ruminal fermentation, microbiota, and histopathology in lambs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:630971. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.630971
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.63097...
.

The RBC counts were found as 13.00±0.64 at the beginning of the trial and increased (14.58±0.54) due to Zn-enriched yeast supplement in PZnY group in our study. On the other hand, HGB values were not affected by the different diet applications. Hematocrit (%) values increased as 38.87±1.34, 36.03±0.46, and 35.50±1.51 (before and after the trial) in PFC, PGCZnY, and PZnY groups, respectively. Conversely, Petrič et al. (2021)Petrič, D.; Mravčáková, D.; Kucková, K.; Kišidayová, S.; Cieslak, A.; Szumacher-Strabel, M.; Huang, H.; Kolodziejski, P.; Lukomska, A.; Slusarczyk, S.; Čobanová, K. and Váradyová, Z. 2021. Impact of zinc and/or herbal mixture on ruminal fermentation, microbiota, and histopathology in lambs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:630971. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.630971
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.63097...
reported that RBC, HGB, and HCT values were not significantly influenced by time (day 0, 35, and 70), treatment (Zn, Herb, Zn-Herb), or the treatment × time interaction in lambs. However, Osita et al. (2019)Osita, C. O.; Ani, A. O.; Ezema, C.; Oyeagu, C. E.; Uzochukwu, I. E. and Ezemagu, I. E. 2019. Hematological and biochemical indices of West African Dwarf sheep fed diets containing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), grass, grass/legume (50:50) and legume. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 18:34-41. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.34.41
https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.34.41...
found that SC (0.75 and 1.5 g/kg) supplementation to ration showed positive effects on the hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (HbC), packed-cell volume (PCV), and red blood cell (RBC) counts in weaned Najdi ram lambs. These can also be observed due to different animal types, diet applications, or management conditions. At the end of the trial (day 56), MCV (fL) values were found to be higher in the PGC (26.83±0.54) and PFC (26.50±0.50) groups compared with the other groups. On the other hand, MCH values were not affected by the diet administration between the analyses (day 0 and day 56), but were the highest in the PFCZnY group at the end of the trial. Petrič et al. (2021)Petrič, D.; Mravčáková, D.; Kucková, K.; Kišidayová, S.; Cieslak, A.; Szumacher-Strabel, M.; Huang, H.; Kolodziejski, P.; Lukomska, A.; Slusarczyk, S.; Čobanová, K. and Váradyová, Z. 2021. Impact of zinc and/or herbal mixture on ruminal fermentation, microbiota, and histopathology in lambs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:630971. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.630971
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.63097...
also observed that treatment-time (organic Zn) significantly affected the MCV in lambs. Similarly, Osita et al. (2019)Osita, C. O.; Ani, A. O.; Ezema, C.; Oyeagu, C. E.; Uzochukwu, I. E. and Ezemagu, I. E. 2019. Hematological and biochemical indices of West African Dwarf sheep fed diets containing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), grass, grass/legume (50:50) and legume. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 18:34-41. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.34.41
https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.34.41...
detected that dietary supplementation of yeast significantly increased the MCV and MCH values in lambs. In addition, MCHC values decreased as 35.85±0.37 and 34.81±1.38 in the CON and PFC groups at the end of the trial compared with beginning, respectively. This finding was consistent with that of Osita et al. (2019)Osita, C. O.; Ani, A. O.; Ezema, C.; Oyeagu, C. E.; Uzochukwu, I. E. and Ezemagu, I. E. 2019. Hematological and biochemical indices of West African Dwarf sheep fed diets containing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), grass, grass/legume (50:50) and legume. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 18:34-41. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.34.41
https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2019.34.41...
. The differences in the results may be due to the processing method, the amount of used corn, the level, and content of yeast, differences in the animal material, age, and management conditions. The WBC and LYM counts decreased significantly only in the CON group compared with the other groups in our study. Petrič et al. (2021)Petrič, D.; Mravčáková, D.; Kucková, K.; Kišidayová, S.; Cieslak, A.; Szumacher-Strabel, M.; Huang, H.; Kolodziejski, P.; Lukomska, A.; Slusarczyk, S.; Čobanová, K. and Váradyová, Z. 2021. Impact of zinc and/or herbal mixture on ruminal fermentation, microbiota, and histopathology in lambs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:630971. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.630971
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.63097...
also defined that treatment (Zn, Herb, and Zn-Herb supplemention) and time (day 0, 35, and 70) significantly affected NEU levels, and time (day 0, 35, 70) significantly affected the counts of LYM and eosinophil (EOS). MON counts decreased in the CON and PFZnY groups at the end of the trial (day 56) in our study. On the other hand, the number of NEU and the percentages of LYM, MON, and NEU (%) were not affected by different diet administration in the present study. Petrič et al. (2021)Petrič, D.; Mravčáková, D.; Kucková, K.; Kišidayová, S.; Cieslak, A.; Szumacher-Strabel, M.; Huang, H.; Kolodziejski, P.; Lukomska, A.; Slusarczyk, S.; Čobanová, K. and Váradyová, Z. 2021. Impact of zinc and/or herbal mixture on ruminal fermentation, microbiota, and histopathology in lambs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:630971. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.630971
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.63097...
suggested that treatment and time (organic Zn) significantly affected NEU values and counts of LYM and EOS. Similarly, the addition of SC yeast on diet was found a factor determining an increase in the number of NEU, while receiving feed supplemented with Yarrowia lipolytica and/or the probiotic in piglets an increment factor for LYM count by Czech et al. (2018)Czech, A.; Smolczyk, A.; Ognik, K.; Wlazło, Ł.; Nowakowicz-Dębek, B. and Kiesz, M. 2018. Effect of dietary supplementation with Yarrowia lipolytica or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and probiotic additives on haematological parameters and the gut microbiota in piglets. Research in Veterinary Science 119:221-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.06.007
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.06.0...
. In addition, Milewski (2009)Milewski, S. 2009. Effect of yeast preparations Saccharomyces cerevisiae on meat performance traits and blood hematological indices in sucking lambs. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 65:51-54. reported that feeding lambs diets containing SC had a significant effect on the blood's WBC count and contributed to higher LYM percentages in the leukogram. In a previous study, a significant effect of dietary treatments (exogenous fibrinolytic enzymes cocktail and Artemisia absinthium Linn.) was observed for all the differential WBC except basophil count (Beigh, 2018Beigh, Y. A.; Ganai, A. M.; Mir, M. S.; Ahmad, I.; Amin, U. and Mehraj, F. 2018. Hemato-biochemcial characteristics of lambs on dietary feed additives (exogenous fibrinolytic enzymes, Artemisia absinthium Linn.) supplementation. Comparative Clinical Pathology 27:1473-1485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2759-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2759-...
). In addition, we did not find any significant change among the groups according to PLT values in our study. Beigh et al. (2018)Beigh, Y. A.; Ganai, A. M.; Mir, M. S.; Ahmad, I.; Amin, U. and Mehraj, F. 2018. Hemato-biochemcial characteristics of lambs on dietary feed additives (exogenous fibrinolytic enzymes, Artemisia absinthium Linn.) supplementation. Comparative Clinical Pathology 27:1473-1485. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2759-5
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2759-...
also reported that feed additives supplemented alone as well as in combination did not show any significant effect on platelet indices in lambs. On the other hand, van der Peet-Schwering et al. (2007)van der Peet-Schwering, C. M. C.; Jansman, A. J. M.; Smidt, H. and Yoon, I. 2007. Effects of yeast culture on performance, gut integrity, and blood cell composition of weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science 85:3099-3109. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0110
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0110...
found that the number of PLT was less in piglets fed with the CON diet compared with supplemented diets [YC and modified yeast culture (YC+cell wall product containing mannan oligosaccharides)]. It can be observed due to different animal types or digestive systems.

In the present study, serum AST values increased in all groups at the end of the trial; however, ALT values were not affected by the different diet treatments. Interestingly, the Zn-enriched yeast and ground corn diets showed the best protective effects (hepatic) on ALT and AST values in our study. Besides, serum GGT values were affected at day 56 analysis compared with the day 0 in all groups except the PGC group by the diet applications. Compared with the other groups, the lowest GGT values were found in the PGC group. Hussein (2018)Hussein, A. F. 2018. Effect of probiotics on growth, some plasma biochemical parameters and immunoglobulins of growing Najdi lambs. World's Veterinary Journal 8:80-89. informed that plasma ALT levels decreased significantly in CON and treatment groups [L. sporogenes (37.50 × 103), SC-47 (625.0 × 103 cfu), 1 g alpha-amylase, and 20 g sea wood powder/kg diet - concentrate feed mixture, for six months] in both sexes of lambs. On the other hand, plasma AST levels showed the opposite trend in which AST concentration increased significantly in lambs fed probiotics. El-Ashry et al. (2003)El-Ashry, M. A.; Fayed, A. M.; Youssef, K. M.; Salem, F. A. and Aziz, H. S. 2003. Effect of feeding flavomycin or yeast as feed supplement on lamb performance in Sinai. Egyptian Journal of Nutrition and Feeds 6:1009-1022. also found that supplementation of flavomycin (20 mg/h/d) and SC (5 mg/h/d) diet increased plasma ALT and AST levels in growing lambs. Abou Elenin et al. (2016)Abou Elenin, E. I. M.; Abd El-Galil, E. R.; Etman, K. E. I. and El-Shabrawy, H. M. 2016. Improvement of rumen fermentation and performance of growing lambs by adding natural microbial resources. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences 10:202-212. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2016.202.212
https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2016.202.21...
also researched the improvement of rumen fermentation and performance of the growing lambs by adding natural microbials. There were no differences in AST and ALT values between the groups to which 10 g of yeast was added per lamb daily to the basic ration for 24 weeks, the control group, and other groups with other additives to the growing lambs.

Conversely, Özsoy et al. (2013)Özsoy, B.; Yalcin, S.; Erdoğan, Z.; Cantekin, Z. and Aksu, T. 2013. Effects of dietary live yeast culture on fattening performance on some blood and rumen fluid parameters in goats. Revue Médicene Vétérinaire 164:263-271. reported that enzyme activities of AST, ALT, and GGT were not altered by yeast culture supplementation in goats. It may be due to different diet contents or application times. On the other hand, serum CREAT levels were not affected by different feed treatments except the CON group in the present study. In addition, the analysis of the day 56, the highest CREAT levels were determined in the PFC group compared with the others. Sallam et al. (2020)Sallam, S. M. A.; Kholif, A. E.; Amin, K. A.; El-Din, A. N. M. N.; Attia, M. F. A.; Matloup, O. H. and Anele, U. Y. 2020. Effects of microbial feed additives on feed utilization and growth performance in growing Barki lambs fed diet based on peanut hay. Animal Biotechnology 31:447-454. https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2019.1616554
https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2019.16...
reported that additive mixtures (peanut hay + microbial feed additives) did not affect the concentrations of CREAT in Barki lambs similar to our results. These same results were also determined by Payandeh and Kafilzadeh (2007)Payandeh, S. and Kafilzadeh, F. 2007. The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on nutrient intake, digestibility and finishing performance of lambs fed a diet based on dried molasses sugar beet-pulp. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10:4426-4431. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.4426.4431
https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.4426.4...
and Elaref et al. (2020)Elaref, M. Y.; Hamdon, H. A. M.; Nayel, U. A.; Salem, A. Z. M. and Anele, U. Y. 2020. Influence of dietary supplementation of yeast on milk composition and lactation curve behavior of Sohagi ewes, and the growth performance of their newborn lambs. Small Ruminant Research 191:106176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2020.106176
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.20...
. In our study, serum BUN values increased significantly in all groups except the PGCZnY group between the beginning and the end of the trial. On the other hand, it was reported that the serum BUN values were not affected by different diets and additives (Özsoy et al., 2013Özsoy, B.; Yalcin, S.; Erdoğan, Z.; Cantekin, Z. and Aksu, T. 2013. Effects of dietary live yeast culture on fattening performance on some blood and rumen fluid parameters in goats. Revue Médicene Vétérinaire 164:263-271.; Sallam et al., 2020Sallam, S. M. A.; Kholif, A. E.; Amin, K. A.; El-Din, A. N. M. N.; Attia, M. F. A.; Matloup, O. H. and Anele, U. Y. 2020. Effects of microbial feed additives on feed utilization and growth performance in growing Barki lambs fed diet based on peanut hay. Animal Biotechnology 31:447-454. https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2019.1616554
https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2019.16...
; Payandeh and Kafilzadeh, 2007Payandeh, S. and Kafilzadeh, F. 2007. The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on nutrient intake, digestibility and finishing performance of lambs fed a diet based on dried molasses sugar beet-pulp. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10:4426-4431. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.4426.4431
https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.4426.4...
). These differences may be due to the enhancement of utilization of ammonia in rumen by adding Zn-enriched yeast (Lascano and Heinrichs, 2009Lascano, G. J. and Heinrichs, A. J. 2009. Rumen fermentation pattern of dairy heifers fed restricted amounts of low, medium, and high concentrate diets without and with yeast culture. Livestock Science 124:48-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.12.007
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.12...
).

5. Conclusions

Ground corn can be added to the diet of Kivircik lambs of 56 days of age during the fattening period. Besides, the supplementation of Zinc-enriched yeast to ground corn also can be used for increasing ruminal papilla length, however decreasing the serum blood urea nitrogen levels in lambs.

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Balıkesir University Scientific Research Coordinatorship, Project no: 2018-025. The authors would like to thank Balıkesir University Scientific Research Coordinatorship and Orgamin Ltd. Co. for their contribution.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    05 Dec 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    07 Dec 2021
  • Accepted
    21 July 2022
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