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Metabolizable energy equivalence of guanidinoacetic acid in corn soybean meal-based broiler diets

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated how guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) addition in diets with various metabolizable energy (ME) contents affects the performance of broiler chickens. We also estimated the equivalence of GAA in ME. We distributed 1,280 one-day-old broilers in a completely randomized design with eight treatments, eight replicates, and twenty birds per experimental unit. Treatments were based on ME levels (2,775-2,875-2,975 kcal/kg; 2,850-2,950-3,050 kcal/kg; 2,925-3,025-3,125 kcal/kg; or 3,000-3,100-3,200 kcal/kg, from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, and 22 to 42 days of age) and the inclusion of GAA (0 or 600 mg/kg). Supplementation of GAA increased weight gain in broilers at an energy level of 2,908 kcal/kg and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) at energy levels of 2,908 and 2,983 kcal/kg. There was a linear reduction in feed intake and an improvement in FCR of broilers with increasing levels of energy in diets, with and without GAA addition. Solving the equivalence equation, by applying each of the weighted average energy levels studied. indicates the GAA equivalence of 133, 103, 74, and 44 kcal/kg of diet. In conclusion, GAA supplementation improves broilers’ efficiency of energy use; the average ME equivalence of 600 mg/kg of GAA is 88.5 kcal/kg.

birds; creatine; performance

1. Introduction

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), the common name of N-(aminoimino-methyl)-glycine, is the precursor to creatine, which, together with phosphocreatine, is inextricably involved in cellular energy metabolism through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration (Portocarero and Braun, 2021Portocarero, N. and Braun, U. 2021. The physiological role of guanidinoacetic acid and its relationship with arginine in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 100:101203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101203
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.10120...
). Guanidinoacetic acid is methylated to creatine by the action of enzyme S-adenosylL-methionine:N-guanidino acetate methyltransferase, which, in poultry, is also expressed in the kidneys as well as in the liver (Van Pilsum et al., 1972Van Pilsum, J. F.; Stephens, G. C. and Taylor, D. 1972. Distribution of creatine, guanidinoacetate and the enzymes for their biosynthesis in the animal kingdom. Implications for phylogeny. The Biochemical Journal 126:325-345.). The GAA supplementation to broilers has been found to promote growth performance, enhance breast meat yield, and improve feed conversion ratio (FCR; Oviedo-Rondón and Córdova-Noboa, 2020; Zarghi et al., 2020Zarghi, H.; Golian, A. and Yazdi, F. T. 2020. Effect of dietary sulphur amino acid levels and guanidinoacetic acid supplementation on performance, carcase yield and energetic molecular metabolites in broiler chickens fed wheat-soy diets. Italian Journal of Animal Science 19:951-959. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2020.1809537
https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2020.18...
; de Souza et al., 2021de Souza, C.; Eyng, C.; Viott, A. M.; Avila, A. S.; Pacheco, W. J.; Junior, N. R.; Kohler, T. L.; Tenorio, K. I.; Cirilo, E. H. and Nunes, R. V. 2021. Effect of dietary guanidinoacetic acid or nucleotides supplementation on growth performances, carcass traits, meat quality and occurrence of myopathies in broilers. Livestock Science 251:104659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.104659
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2021.10...
). These effects may be partially related to significant increases in high-phosphate energy metabolites in muscle (DeGroot et al., 2018DeGroot, A. A.; Braun, U. and Dilger, R. N. 2018. Efficacy of guanidinoacetic acid on growth and muscle energy metabolism in broiler chicks receiving arginine-deficient diets. Poultry Science 97:890-900. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex378
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex378...
; Majdeddin et al., 2020Majdeddin, M.; Braun, U.; Lemme, A.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.; De Smet, S. and Michiels, J. 2020. Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation improves feed conversion in broilers subjected to heat stress associated with muscle creatine loading and arginine sparing. Poultry Science 99:4442-4453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.023
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.02...
). In addition, improvements in energy utilization by birds have been linked to better feed utilization (Khajali et al., 2020Khajali, F.; Lemme, A. and Rademacher-Heilshorn, M. 2020. Guanidinoacetic acid as a feed supplement for poultry. World’s Poultry Science Journal 76:270-291. https://doi.org/10.1080/00439339.2020.1716651
https://doi.org/10.1080/00439339.2020.17...
).

De novo synthesis of GAA requires amino acids glycine and arginine as precursors. Several studies on broilers have been performed to explore the potential of GAA as a “spare” of arginine (Ale Saheb Fosoul et al., 2019Ale Saheb Fosoul, S. S.; Azarfar, A.; Gheisari, A. and Khosravinia, H. 2019. Performance and physiological responses of broiler chickens to supplemental guanidinoacetic acid in arginine-deficient diets. British Poultry Science 60:161-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2018.1562156
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2018.15...
; DeGroot et al., 2019DeGroot, A. A.; Braun, U. and Dilger, R. N. 2019. Guanidinoacetic acid is efficacious in improving growth performance and muscle energy homeostasis in broiler chicks fed arginine-deficient or arginine-adequate diets. Poultry Science 98:2896-2905. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez036
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez036...
). Other studies have demonstrated that GAA supplementation can improve the energy use efficiency in broilers (Mousavi et al., 2013Mousavi, S. N.; Afsar, A. and Lotfollahian, H. 2013. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation to broiler diets with varying energy contents. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22:47-54. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00575
https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00575...
; Ale Saheb Fosoul et al., 2018Ale Saheb Fosoul, S. S.; Azarfar, A.; Gheisari, A. and Khosravinia, H. 2018. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents. British Journal of Nutrition 120:131-140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003701
https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451700370...
). In poultry feed, energy is the most expensive component, accounting for 70% of feed cost (Pirgozliev and Rose, 1999Pirgozliev, V. and Rose, S. P. 1999, Net energy systems for poultry feeds: a quantitative review. World’s Poultry Science Journal 55:23-36. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19990003
https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19990003...
; Noblet et al., 2022Noblet, J.; Wu, S. B. and Choct, M. 2022. Methodologies for energy evaluation of pig and poultry feeds: A review. Animal Nutrition 8:185-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2021.06.015
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2021.06....
). Nevertheless, according to Khajali et al. (2020)Khajali, F.; Lemme, A. and Rademacher-Heilshorn, M. 2020. Guanidinoacetic acid as a feed supplement for poultry. World’s Poultry Science Journal 76:270-291. https://doi.org/10.1080/00439339.2020.1716651
https://doi.org/10.1080/00439339.2020.17...
, the GAA equivalence in metabolizable energy (ME) in diets for broilers needs to be determined. The first studies with reduced energy in diets for broilers showed that GAA supplementation can contribute the equivalent of 47.8 kcal/kg ME (Çenesiz et al., 2020Çenesiz, A. A.; Yavaş, I.; Çiftci, I.; Ceylan, N. and Taşkesen, H. O. 2020. Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation is favourable to broiler diets even containing poultry by-product meal. British Poultry Science 61:311-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2020.1720909
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2020.17...
) and 50.0 kcal/kg ME (Ceylan et al. 2021Ceylan, N.; Koca, S.; Adabi, S. G.; Kahraman, N.; Bhaya, M. N. and Bozkurt, M. F. 2021. Effects of dietary energy level and guanidinoacetic acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality and intestinal architecture of broilers. Czech Journal of Animal Science 66:281-291. https://doi.org/10.17221/11/2021-CJAS
https://doi.org/10.17221/11/2021-CJAS...
).

In this study, we hypothesized that GAA supplementation may improve the energy use efficiency and, consequently, the performance of broilers. Therefore, we evaluated how GAA addition in diets with various energy contents affects the performance of broiler chickens; we also estimated an equivalence in ME of GAA.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Ethical matters

The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all animal handling procedures (case number 34/2020), and the experiment was conducted according to the experimental protocol for the use of live birds from the Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation.

2.2. Birds, experimental design, and diets

The experiment was conducted in Viçosa, MG, Brazil (20°45'57.19" S, 42°51'35.42" W, and 682 m altitude). The male broiler chickens (Cobb 500) used in the experiment were obtained from a commercial hatchery (Rivelli Alimentos SA, Matheus Leme, MG, Brazil). The chicks were vaccinated against bursal disease and Marek’s disease (Serotype 3, Live Marek’s Disease Vector, Merial Inc., Athens, GA).

Based on their body weight, we assigned a total of 1,280 one-day-old broilers to a completely randomized design with eight treatments, eight repetitions, and twenty birds per experimental unit. The birds were housed in 64 floor pens (2 m2), each equipped with four nipple drinkers and a feed dispenser.

Corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated to meet the nutritional recommendations given by Rostagno et al. (2017)Rostagno, H. S.; Albino, L. F. T.; Hannas, M. I.; Donzele, J. L.; Sakomura, N. K.; Perazzo, F. G.; Saraiva, A.; Teixeira, M. L.; Rodrigues, P. B.; Oliveira, R. F.; Barreto, S. L. T. and Brito, C. O. 2017. Tabelas brasileiras para suínos e aves: Composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. 4.ed. Departamento de Zootecnia, UFV, Viçosa, MG. according to phase, except for ME levels (Table 1). Basal diets contained 2,775, 2,875, and 2,975 kcal/kg in the phases of 1 to 7, 8 to 21, and 22 to 42 days, respectively. Treatments were based on four ME levels per phase (Table 2) and the inclusion of 0 or 600 mg/kg GAA (CreAMINO®, minimum 96% GAA, AlzChem, Trostberg, Germany). The increases in the ME levels of the basal diets were 75, 150, and 225 kcal/kg based on the experimental treatments. These energy density increases were carried out exclusively with the addition of soybean oil instead of the inert. The addition of GAA to the experimental diets was also in place of the inert. The diets were prepared in mashed form. Birds had free access to water and feed throughout the experimental period (1 to 42 days of age), and were exposed to 24 h of light from ages 1–14 days old, after which an 18 h light:6 h dark cycle was implemented until the end of the experiment.

Table 1
Ingredients and nutrient composition of basal diets (as fed basis)

Table 2
Experimental treatments

2.3. Performance and carcass characteristics

Birds and feed leftovers, were weighed at 42 days of age to calculate feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and FCR. Mortalities were recorded throughout the experimental period, and the necessary corrections of performance data were calculated.

At 42 days old, two birds with weights closest to the average weight of their respective experimental unit were selected. After 8 h of fasting, these broilers were euthanized and slaughtered to measure the yield of carcass, breast, and thigh with drumstick, as well as the relative weight of abdominal fat. Carcass yield was calculated in relation to living weight before slaughter (carcass weight × 100/live weight) and breast and thigh with drumstick yield as a function of carcass weight (part weight × 100/carcass weight). The relative weight of abdominal fat was calculated in relation to the birds’ live weight before slaughter.

2.4. Statistical analysis and ME equivalence calculations

For each variable, the analysis of variance was performed according to the following general model:

Y i j = μ + α i + ε i j (1)

in which Yij is the measured dependent variable, μ is the overall mean, αi is the effect of treatments, and εij is the random error.

Analyses were carried out using the PROC GLM of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.4). The significance of the effects was tested at the 5% probability level. To assess the effect of including GAA at each energy level, contrast analyses were performed. Linear equations for energy levels with or without GAA supplementation were also estimated using the PROC REG of SAS. Significance for each of the regression model parameters was tested at the 5% probability level using Student’s t test.

The ME equivalence of the GAA was estimated with a methodology adapted from Jendza et al. (2006)Jendza, J. A.; Dilger, R. N.; Sands, J. S. and Adeola, O. 2006. Efficacy and equivalency of an Escherichia coli-derived phytase for replacing inorganic phosphorus in the diets of broiler chickens and young pigs. Journal of Animal Science 84:3364-3374. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-212
https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-212...
and Stefanello et al. (2017)Stefanello, C.; Vieira, S. L.; Rios, H. V.; Simões, C. T.; Ferzola, P. H.; Sorbara, J. O. B. and Cowieson, A. J. 2017. Effects of energy, α-amylase, and β-xylanase on growth performance of broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 225:205-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.01.019
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.201...
. Linear effects of increasing ME in diets with or without GAA addition were tested. Regression equations of ME levels were generated for FCR, and an equivalence equation was obtained by equating the two linear equations estimated as follows:

Y = a + b X X 1 (FCR response according to ME levels in diets with GAA) (2)
Y = a + b X X 2 (FCR response according to ME levels in diets without GAA) (3)

Equivalence equation:

a + b X 2 = a + b X 1 (4)

in which Y is the FCR response; X1 is the ME level in diets with GAA; X2 is the ME level in diets without GAA; a is the intercept in each respective equation; and b is the slope in each respective equation.

The equivalence equation was solved by substituting the weighted average energy levels studied in X1 and obtaining X2. The equivalence in ME of the GAA was estimated at each energy level studied by subtracting X1 from X2, and the average of the estimates was calculated.

3. Results

There was no effect of GAA supplementation on the FI of broilers at any energy level studied (P>0.05; Table 3). However, GAA supplementation increased the WG of broilers at the energy level of 2,908 kcal/kg (P = 0.036) and improved the FCR at the energy levels of 2,908 kcal/kg (P = 0.004) and 2,983 kcal/kg (P = 0.049). Regarding the energy levels, there was a linear reduction in the FI of broilers with increasing levels of energy in the diets without (P = 0.015) and with (P = 0.018) GAA addition (Table 4). The FCR improved linearly with increasing levels of energy in the diets without (P<0.001) and with (P = 0.008) GAA. Solving the equivalence equation (by applying the weighted average energy levels studied) indicates that the ME equivalence of GAA were 133, 103, 74, and 44 kcal/kg of diet, with an average equivalence of 88.5 kcal/kg (Table 5).

Table 3
Growth performance of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age
Table 4
Linear regression equations estimated for each variable on the response of energy levels with or without guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation
Table 5
Equivalence equation for feed conversion ratio (FCR) and to estimate the energy equivalence of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA)

The carcass, breast and thighs with drumstick yield, and abdominal fat of the birds were not influenced by GAA supplementation at any energy level studied (P>0.05; Table 6); these parameters were also unaffected by the energy levels in the diets (P>0.05).

Table 6
Carcass yield, abdominal fat (% of live weight), breast, and thighs with drumstick (% of carcass) of broiler chickens at 42 days of age

4. Discussion

In this study, we hypothesized that GAA supplementation may improve broilers’ energy use efficiency. This was confirmed by the improvement in WG and FCR of broilers fed diets with the two lower energy levels studied. According to the recommendations of the National Research Council (NRC, 1994NRC - National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.), along with more recent standards adopted by the Brazilian Poultry Sector (Rostagno et al., 2017Rostagno, H. S.; Albino, L. F. T.; Hannas, M. I.; Donzele, J. L.; Sakomura, N. K.; Perazzo, F. G.; Saraiva, A.; Teixeira, M. L.; Rodrigues, P. B.; Oliveira, R. F.; Barreto, S. L. T. and Brito, C. O. 2017. Tabelas brasileiras para suínos e aves: Composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. 4.ed. Departamento de Zootecnia, UFV, Viçosa, MG.), these ME levels are a performance-limiting factor. The improvements in WG and FCR may be explained by higher creatine and phosphocreatine levels and higher ATP:ADP and phosphocreatine:ATP ratios in the muscles of broilers fed diets with GAA (Yazdi et al., 2017Yazdi, F. T.; Golian, A.; Zarghi, H. and Varidi, M. 2017. Effect of wheat-soy diet nutrient density and guanidine acetic acid supplementation on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science 16:593-600. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1305260
https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.13...
; DeGroot et al., 2018DeGroot, A. A.; Braun, U. and Dilger, R. N. 2018. Efficacy of guanidinoacetic acid on growth and muscle energy metabolism in broiler chicks receiving arginine-deficient diets. Poultry Science 97:890-900. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex378
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex378...
; Majdeddin et al., 2020Majdeddin, M.; Braun, U.; Lemme, A.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.; De Smet, S. and Michiels, J. 2020. Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation improves feed conversion in broilers subjected to heat stress associated with muscle creatine loading and arginine sparing. Poultry Science 99:4442-4453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.023
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.02...
); these improved parameters indicate more efficient energy metabolism. The phosphocreatine:ATP ratios in the breast muscles of broilers were reported to be 28.4 and 20.3 for those that received GAA at 600 mg/kg and for the control group, respectively (Yazdi et al., 2017Yazdi, F. T.; Golian, A.; Zarghi, H. and Varidi, M. 2017. Effect of wheat-soy diet nutrient density and guanidine acetic acid supplementation on performance and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Italian Journal of Animal Science 16:593-600. https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1305260
https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.13...
). Ale Saheb Fosoul et al. (2018)Ale Saheb Fosoul, S. S.; Azarfar, A.; Gheisari, A. and Khosravinia, H. 2018. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents. British Journal of Nutrition 120:131-140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003701
https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451700370...
reported that the enhancement in the buffering capacity for ATP in the muscles exerted by supplemental GAA affects the metabolism of energy in broiler chickens fed diets with energy reduction, resulting in an improved FCR. In addition to functioning directly in muscle accretion as the precursor to creatine, dietary GAA can also effectively “spare” arginine from being used for GAA synthesis, so that the arginine may be used for muscle accretion and other physiological functions (Portocarero and Braun, 2021Portocarero, N. and Braun, U. 2021. The physiological role of guanidinoacetic acid and its relationship with arginine in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 100:101203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101203
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.10120...
). As in the present study, Mousavi et al. (2013)Mousavi, S. N.; Afsar, A. and Lotfollahian, H. 2013. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation to broiler diets with varying energy contents. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22:47-54. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00575
https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00575...
reported that GAA supplementation can potentially improve the FCR and energy efficiency of broilers.

Previous study showed that the use of GAA improved the breast meat yield, but without effect on carcass and other cuts (Córdova-Noboa et al., 2018Córdova-Noboa, H. A.; Oviedo-Rondón, E. O.; Sarsour, A. H.; Barnes, J.; Ferzola, P.; Rademacher-Heilshorn, M. and Braun, U. 2018. Performance, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies of broilers fed either corn or sorghum based diets supplemented with guanidinoacetic acid. Poultry Science 97:2479-2493. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey096
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey096...
). In the present study, no effects of GAA were observed on carcass, breast, and thighs with drumstick yield. Similar results were observed by Mousavi et al. (2013)Mousavi, S. N.; Afsar, A. and Lotfollahian, H. 2013. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation to broiler diets with varying energy contents. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22:47-54. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00575
https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00575...
, who also evaluated the effect of GAA addition to diets containing different levels of ME.

With increasing levels of ME in diets without and with GAA addition, the birds reduced their FI. This result was expected, based on the literature, because broilers may adjust their FI in response to their energy needs (Leeson et al. 1996Leeson, S.; Caston, L. and Summers, J. D. 1996. Broiler response to diet energy. Poultry Science 75:529-535. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0750529
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0750529...
; Hu et al., 2021Hu, X.; Li, X.; Xiao, C.; Kong, L.; Zhu, Q. and Song, Z. 2021. Effects of dietary energy level on performance, plasma parameters, and central AMPK levels in stressed broilers. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:681858. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.681858
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.68185...
). This is linked to metabolic signalization. Hu et al. (2019)Hu, X.; Wang, Y.; Sheikhahmadi, A.; Li, X.; Buyse, J.; Lin, H. and Song, Z. 2019. Effects of dietary energy level on appetite and central adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in broilers. Journal of Animal Science 97:4488-4495. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz312
https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz312...
reported that the central adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and appetite are modulated in accordance with the energy level in the diet to regulate nutritional status and maintain energy homeostasis in broilers.

With the reduction in FI and no effect on WG, the FCR of broilers improved with increasing levels of energy in the diets with and without GAA addition, in accordance with several reports (Leeson et al., 1996Leeson, S.; Caston, L. and Summers, J. D. 1996. Broiler response to diet energy. Poultry Science 75:529-535. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0750529
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0750529...
; Ale Saheb Fosoul et al., 2018Ale Saheb Fosoul, S. S.; Azarfar, A.; Gheisari, A. and Khosravinia, H. 2018. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents. British Journal of Nutrition 120:131-140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003701
https://doi.org/10.1017/S000711451700370...
; Hu et al., 2021Hu, X.; Li, X.; Xiao, C.; Kong, L.; Zhu, Q. and Song, Z. 2021. Effects of dietary energy level on performance, plasma parameters, and central AMPK levels in stressed broilers. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8:681858. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.681858
https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.68185...
). The FCR responses observed in this study suggest an average ME equivalence of 88.5 kcal/kg, different from the values of 47.8 kcal/kg ME (Çenesiz et al., 2020Çenesiz, A. A.; Yavaş, I.; Çiftci, I.; Ceylan, N. and Taşkesen, H. O. 2020. Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation is favourable to broiler diets even containing poultry by-product meal. British Poultry Science 61:311-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2020.1720909
https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2020.17...
) and 50.0 kcal/kg ME (Ceylan et al., 2021Ceylan, N.; Koca, S.; Adabi, S. G.; Kahraman, N.; Bhaya, M. N. and Bozkurt, M. F. 2021. Effects of dietary energy level and guanidinoacetic acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality and intestinal architecture of broilers. Czech Journal of Animal Science 66:281-291. https://doi.org/10.17221/11/2021-CJAS
https://doi.org/10.17221/11/2021-CJAS...
) observed in studies with reduced energy in diets and the same GAA supplementation. However, further research is needed to validate this dietary ME in practical diets.

5. Conclusions

Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation improves the energy use efficiency in broilers, and the average metabolizable energy equivalence of 600 mg/kg of guanidinoacetic acid is 88.5 kcal/kg. This is a prominent novel finding from our study.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

References

  • Ale Saheb Fosoul, S. S.; Azarfar, A.; Gheisari, A. and Khosravinia, H. 2018. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents. British Journal of Nutrition 120:131-140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003701
    » https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003701
  • Ale Saheb Fosoul, S. S.; Azarfar, A.; Gheisari, A. and Khosravinia, H. 2019. Performance and physiological responses of broiler chickens to supplemental guanidinoacetic acid in arginine-deficient diets. British Poultry Science 60:161-168. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2018.1562156
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2018.1562156
  • Çenesiz, A. A.; Yavaş, I.; Çiftci, I.; Ceylan, N. and Taşkesen, H. O. 2020. Guanidinoacetic acid supplementation is favourable to broiler diets even containing poultry by-product meal. British Poultry Science 61:311-319. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2020.1720909
    » https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2020.1720909
  • Ceylan, N.; Koca, S.; Adabi, S. G.; Kahraman, N.; Bhaya, M. N. and Bozkurt, M. F. 2021. Effects of dietary energy level and guanidinoacetic acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality and intestinal architecture of broilers. Czech Journal of Animal Science 66:281-291. https://doi.org/10.17221/11/2021-CJAS
    » https://doi.org/10.17221/11/2021-CJAS
  • Córdova-Noboa, H. A.; Oviedo-Rondón, E. O.; Sarsour, A. H.; Barnes, J.; Ferzola, P.; Rademacher-Heilshorn, M. and Braun, U. 2018. Performance, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies of broilers fed either corn or sorghum based diets supplemented with guanidinoacetic acid. Poultry Science 97:2479-2493. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey096
    » https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey096
  • DeGroot, A. A.; Braun, U. and Dilger, R. N. 2018. Efficacy of guanidinoacetic acid on growth and muscle energy metabolism in broiler chicks receiving arginine-deficient diets. Poultry Science 97:890-900. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex378
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    17 Apr 2023
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    18 May 2022
  • Accepted
    3 Feb 2023
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