Abstract in English:The effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) level on serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was studied. Two isonitrogenous (28.56% crude protein) and isolipidic (5.28% crude lipid) diets were formulated to contain 30% or 53% wheat starch. Diets were fed for 90 days to fish in triplicate tanks (28 fish per tank). At the end of feeding trial, significantly higher serum triglyceride level, insulin level, cortisol level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed in fish fed the 53% CHO diet, while significantly lower serum total protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidative capacity were found in fish fed the 53% CHO diet compared with those fed the 30% diet. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 mRNA was significantly higher in the 53% CHO group than that in the 30% CHO at 6, 12 and 48 h after feeding. Ingestion of 53% dietary CHO impacts the nonspecific immune ability and causes metabolic stress in Megalobrama amblycephala.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY), protein (PY) and fat productions (FY) and somatic cell count (SCC) which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS) prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$) for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.
Abstract in English:In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.
Abstract in English:The objective of this experiment was to evaluate levels of replacement (0, 33, 67 and 100%) of corn silage with fresh sugarcane in dairy-goat diets on the ingestive behavior of these animals. Eight lactating Alpine goats (after lactation peak) with a live weight of 51.95±3.29 kg were distributed into two 4 × 4 Latin squares according to their milk production. Animals were placed in individual pens where they received diets ad libitum, twice a day, with a roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60, during 72 days of experiment. The evaluated variables were time spent feeding (TSF), ruminating (TSR), idle (TSI) and chewing (TSC), dry matter intake (DMI), neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), feeding efficiency of dry matter (FEDM) and neutral detergent fiber (FENDF), rumination efficiency of dry matter (REDM) and neutral detergent fiber (RENDF), number of ruminal boli per day (NRB) and number of rumination chews per day (NRC). The different treatments had no effect on TSF or TSR. However, a linear effect was observed on TSC. There was a linear effect on TSI, in which the highest value was observed in the treatment with 0% of sugarcane inclusion. A quadratic effect was observed on dry matter intake, with minimum point of 2.14 kg/day for 68.04% of sugarcane inclusion; however, NDFI was not affected by the different treatments. There was no effect of treatments on FEDM, although a quadratic effect was observed on FENDF, wherein the lowest value was observed in the treatment with 67% of sugarcane inclusion. There was no effect of different levels of corn silage replacement on REDM, RENDF, NRB or NRC. Sugarcane can be replaced with corn silage without changing the times spending on feeding and rumination.
Abstract in English:Two sugarcane varieties (IAC86-2480 and IAC91-2195) combined or not with soybean hulls (SH), partially replacing corn in concentrate, were included in the diet of crossbred dairy cows to evaluate the effects on feed intake, milk production, milk composition and rumen parameters of crossbred cows. The sugarcane varieties (IAC86-2480 and IAC91-2195) and concentrate compositions (with and without SH) were analyzed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were assigned to blocks by lactation period to evaluate feed intake, milk production and milk composition. A Latin square design was used to analyze rumen parameters. Feed intake, milk production and composition were similar among treatments. Average daily feed intake was 19.93 kg DM in cows fed IAC86-2480 sugarcane and 17.98 kg DM in those fed IAC91-2195, and their average milk production was 19.27 kg and 18.94 kg, respectively. The treatments with IAC86-2480 and IAC91-2195 had different effects on ruminal pH (6.47 and 6.61, respectively) and ammoniacal nitrogen (12.88 and 16.57 mg/dL, respectively). Sugarcane variety and concentrate composition had an interaction effect on volatile fatty acid levels and acetic acid/propionic acid ratio (93.62 mM and 2.54 for IAC86-2480 with SH; 106.70 mM and 2.41 for IAC86-2480 without SH; 115.70 mM and 3.30 for IAC91-2195 with SH; and 93.21 mM and 1.81 for IAC91-2195 without SH, respectively). Sugarcane variety and soybean hull inclusion in feed concentrate do not affect feed intake, milk production or composition in crossbred cows, although these variables change fatty acid production and ruminal pH.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient intake, performance, estimated methane production and carcass characteristics of steers fed diets containing three different levels of soybean grain: 0, 120 and 230 g/kg on the dry matter (DM). The study was conducted on eighteen castrated Nellore males with an average initial body weight (BW) of 370±12 kg in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions. Intake of dry matter (DMI, kg/day) and crude protein tended to decrease linearly, and the intake of ether extract increased linearly in response to the soybean grain levels in the diet. Levels of soybean grain in the diet did not affect DMI (g/kg of BW), final average weight, average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and estimated methane production. Animals fed diets with different levels of soybean grain were not different with respect to carcass yield, loin eye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, or bone, muscle and fat ratios. Carcass characteristics and meat quality were also not significantly different. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean grain in the diet alters the intake of crude protein and ether extract but does not affect performance, estimates of methane production, or carcass characteristics of feedlot Nellore.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC) and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.
Abstract in English:Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.