Actinomadura madurae mycetoma was diagnosed in two patients by the dermatologic outpatient clinic of the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (UFRJ) and the Antonio Pedro University Hospital (UFF). The first case was a 27-year-old negro male from the out-skirsts of Rio de Janeiro, who was injured prior to the onset of the disease in 1988. The affected left foot showed swelling, nodules, sinus tracts, purulent discharge containing grains, and serious bone involvement with lytic lesions. Histo-logical examination showed deeply basophylic stained grains with typical widefringed borders. The mycological examination revealed an actinomycete identified as A. madurae by culture. Oral tetracycline for six months did not improve the clinical-radiological picture and the patient was submitted to amputation. The second case was a 70-year-old white male, with previous injury en 1974, which occurred in Pernambuco State. Enlargement of the right foot draining sinuses formation with discharge of pus and grains. In tissue sections the grains were large and surrounded by amorphous eos-inophylic clubs radially oriented. There was discrete improvement by tetracycline and sulfonamide. No follow-up.