Two cross-sectional studies on schistosomiasis mansoni were done in Comercinho, Minas Gerais (Brazil), at an interval of 7 years. In 1974 and 1981 feces examinations (KATO-KATZ method) were done in 89 and 90% of the population (about 1,500 inhabitants) and clinical examinations were done in 78 and 92% of the patients who excreted Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the feces, respectively. The rate of infection by S. mansoni did not change (69.9% in 1974 and 70.4% in 1981), but the geometrical mean of eggs per gram of feces (431 ± 4 and 334 ± 4, respectively) and the rate of splenomegaly (11 and 7%, respectively) decreased significantly in 1981, when compared to 1974. This reduction was observed only in the central zones of the town (zones 1-2) where the rate of dwellings with piped water increased from 17 to 44%. In the surroundings (zones 3-4), where the proportion of houses with piped water did not change significantly between 1974 (10%) and 1981 (7%), the geometrical mean of S. mansoni eggs and the rate of splenomegaly did not change either.