Relationship between antibiotic consumption, oropharyngeal colonization, and ventilator-associated pneumonia by Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit of a Brazilian teaching hospital

Relação entre consumo de antibióticos, colonização de orofaringe e pneumonia associada à ventilação por Staphylococcus aureus em um hospital de ensino brasileiro

INTRODUCTION: his study evaluated the consumption of major classes of antibiotics, the colonization of the oropharynx of patients on mechanical ventilation, and the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit for adults. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out using colonized patients (cases) by oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA) and (controls) oxacillin-sensitive S. aureus (OSSA) from May 2009 to August 2010. The occurrence of VAP by S. aureus was also evaluated in the same period. Antibiotic consumption was expressed as the number of defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 patient-days for glycopeptides, carbapenems, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-six (56.1%) patients underwent mechanical ventilation with a frequency of oropharyngeal colonization of 36.4%, corresponding to 63.5% for ORSA and 36.5% for OSSA. The risk of illness for this organism was significant (p<0.05), regardless of whether colonization/infection was by ORSA or OSSA. The consumption of antibiotics was high, mainly for broad-spectrum cephalosporins (551.26 DDDs/1,000 patient-days). The high density of use of glycopeptides (269.56 DDDs/1,000 patient-days) was related to colonization by ORSA (Pearson r=0.57/p=0.02). Additionally, age >60 years, previous antibiotic therapy, and previous use of carbapenems were statistically significant by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant relationship between the colonization of the oropharyngeal mucosa and the risk of VAP by both phenotypes. The use of glycopeptides was related to colonization by ORSA.

Staphylococcus aureus; Oropharyngeal colonization; VAP; Antibiotic consumption

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