Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Key performance indicators (KPI) are essential to decision-making in an organization, but the approach to analysis and composition used in the formulation of the KPIs can lead to errors. Analysis based only on averages does not allow for discriminating between variations that are natural to the process or special cases which require investigation. The use of control charts can identify this differentiation. However, when several charts are presented encompassing different measurement units and scales, systemic interpretation can be impaired. To assist in this interpretation, this research study aimed at proposing a method to facilitate the analysis of control charts when multiple indicators are employed in the monitoring of agricultural operations. Based on the data obtained over 26 weeks from a mechanized sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) harvesting front, six indicators were defined and analyzed through individual control charts and, systemically, through a standardized group control chart. Results show that the points identified as being outside the control zone (special causes of variation) according to the standardized group control chart were the same as those identified by the six individual charts, which demonstrates the potential of this method to summarize the information with no loss of quality of analysis.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Microbial contamination of the wort during the fermentation process causes significant losses in ethanol production worldwide and creates a dependence of the industry on chemicals and antibiotics to control contamination. Therefore, this study used electron beam (e-beam) to disinfect wort from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) molasses and investigate the bioethanol fermentation. Four treatments (T0 – T3) were carried out using ionizing doses of radiation through the electron accelerator: 0 (control), 10, 20, and 40 kGy. Total mesophiles, total bacteria, sucrose, glucose, fructose, phenolics, flavonoids, hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and Furfural were measured. An alcoholic fermentation assay was performed after the irradiation process. The irradiated treatments showed no inversion of sugars and formation of the inhibitory by-products flavonoids, furfural and 5-HMF, except for the phenolic compounds. The lower dose tested (10 kGy) reduced more than 99.9 % of the total mesophiles and more than 99.99 % of the total bacteria in the substrate. In the fermentation, the irradiated worts presented similar (p > 0.05) yields (92, 93, and 94 %) and ethanol productivity levels (0.89, 0.88, and 0.87 g L–1 h–1, for T1, T2, and T3 respectively). However, all treatments presented higher yields and productivity (p < 0.05) when compared to the control (88 % and 0.85 g L–1 h–1), highlighting the possible use of e-beam in wort fermentation at a lower dose (10 kGy). This allows reduction in losses caused by microbial contamination, besides increasing fermentation yield and productivity with lower energy consumption.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Coffee farmers do not have efficient tools to have sufficient and reliable information on the maturation stage of coffee fruits before harvest. In this study, we propose a computer vision system to detect and classify the Coffea arabica (L.) on tree branches in three classes: unripe (green), ripe (cherry), and overripe (dry). Based on deep learning algorithms, the computer vision model YOLO (You Only Look Once), was trained on 387 images taken from coffee branches using a smartphone. The YOLOv3 and YOLOv4, and their smaller versions (tiny), were assessed for fruit detection. The YOLOv4 and YOLOv4-tiny showed better performance when compared to YOLOv3, especially when smaller network sizes are considered. The mean average precision (mAP) for a network size of 800 × 800 pixels was equal to 81 %, 79 %, 78 %, and 77 % for YOLOv4, YOLOv4-tiny, YOLOv3, and YOLOv3-tiny, respectively. Despite the similar performance, the YOLOv4 feature extractor was more robust when images had greater object densities and for the detection of unripe fruits, which are generally more difficult to detect due to the color similarity to leaves in the background, partial occlusion by leaves and fruits, and lighting effects. This study shows the potential of computer vision systems based on deep learning to guide the decision-making of coffee farmers in more objective ways.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT A study was undertaken comparing the water requirements of two common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to generate specific recommendations aimed at optimizing water use. To accomplish this work, the agronomic performance, responsiveness to water and water productivity of these two common bean cultivars of determinate and indeterminate growth habits were identified. The 2-year experiment was carried out during the winter growing season in the southeast of Brazil. Cultivars IAC Imperador, with an early season of determinate growth habit, and IPR Campos Gerais, having a mid-season of indeterminate growth habit, were subjected to five irrigation levels (54, 70, 77, 100, and 132 % of the crop evapotranspiration). Water deficit affected agronomic performance, reducing plant height (by up to 29 %), leaf area index (by up to 40 %), soil cover fraction (by up to 28 %), and grain yield (GY - by up to 31 %), in both cultivars. In contrast, excess water was more detrimental to cultivar IAC Imperador. Cultivar IPR Campos Gerais produced 18 % more than GY, showing superior water productivity and response to irrigation depth than IAC Imperador. Out of all the variables evaluated, the soil cover fraction correlated the most with grain yield in both common bean cultivars during the 2-year study. In other words, cover fraction evaluation in common bean allows for estimating crop production potential, which helps producers and technicians in their decision making regarding management practices. Thus, a cultivar directly affects water use in common bean production, thereby suggesting the need for a or water conservation strategy and sustainability of irrigated common bean production.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Microbial biodiversity of an environment can contribute to plant growth and increase crop yield. Plant extracts from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) were investigated on soybean plants grown after inoculation with these extracts. Soil samples were collected from two important Brazilian soybean-growing regions to produce the extracts used in the experiments. The extracts were produced with material collected from aboveground biomass and rhizosphere of soybean plants cultivated in a controlled greenhouse (phase 1). The extracts produced in phase 1 were applied in a sequential experiment (phase 2). Phase 2 was conducted to examine the plant microbiome after the microbial alteration process in the greenhouse through seed inoculation with the extracts produced previously. Samples of aboveground biomass were collected to determine root dry matter and crop yield. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequences were processed to determine the final microbial content of soybean. The inoculated treatments had lower species diversity; however, the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were more abundant in the treatments than in the non-inoculated treatment. The soybean plant stem in the inoculated treatment also had a positive response to enrichment of the bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Flavobacteria. Inoculation affected the microbial composition of soybean plants. The alteration of microbiome changes revealed differences for crop yield between the inoculated and non-inoculated treatments, with up to 93.5 % higher crop yields per plant according to the extract applied.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Soil enzymes play a fundamental role in nutrient cycling in forest systems. The stoichiometry of C, N, and P–acquiring enzymes has been used to indicate nutrient limitation in the soil. However, the enzymatic stoichiometry remains poorly understood in pure and mixed eucalypt plantations. Thus, this study aims to assess the activity of enzymes in the soil to address the hypothesis that the introduction of N2-fixing trees could influence the enzymatic stoichiometry on C, N, and P cycling. The activity of β-glucosidase (BG), urease (U), and acid phosphatase (AP) was assessed in soil (0-20 cm depth) of pure Eucalyptus grandis without (E) and with N fertilization (E+N), and a mixed system with E. grandis and Acacia mangium (E+A), and a pure A. mangium (A) plantation at 27 and 39 months after planting. The activities of BG/U, BG/AP, and U/AP were used to calculate the enzyme C/N, C/P, and N/P ratios, respectively. Rates of N–acquiring enzymes were higher in E and E+N, while soil microorganisms invested in P–acquiring enzymes in A and E+A. The vector length and angle demonstrated that C demand by microorganisms does not change in relation to N and P, regardless of the treatment. However, N demand decreased in relation to P in A and E+A (mainly at 27 months). Our results suggest that enzymes activity in pure eucalypt systems is limited for their soil-litter nutrient contents. At the same time while acacia and mixed plantation seem to invest in P–acquiring enzymes to improve biological N2 fixation promoted by diazotrophic bacteria associated to acacia.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: This study describes a biotechnological strategy for producing and applying oxalic acid to solubilize phosphorus (P) from rock phosphate (RP). We evaluated six fungal species (Aspergillus niger FS1, Penicillium islandicum FS41, Pleurotus ostreatus PO1, Rhizoctonia solani Rhiz555, Sclerotium rolfsii Sr25, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Scl134) and three culture media (potato dextrose broth, Tsao and Strasser media) to maximize oxalic acid production. Among the fungal isolates tested and culture media, S. rolfsii Sr25 and Tsao medium showed efficient oxalic acid production. Tsao medium was optimized following a response surface methodology after initial screening of factors affecting RP solubilization. The optimized concentrations were 1 g L–1 NaNO3, 100 g L–1 glucose, 2 g L–1 KH2PO4, 4.5 g L–1 yeast extract, and 25 mg L–1 MgSO4·7H2O used for 20 days of incubation. Under these conditions, 71 mmol L–1 oxalic acid was obtained, representing a three-fold increase over production under non-optimized conditions (20 mmol L–1). Under optimized conditions, oxalic acid produced by S. rolfsii Sr25 reacted with low-solubility RP and solubilized 100 % of the P contained in ore. Thus, using S. rolfsii Sr25 to produce oxalic acid seems a promising biotechnological alternative for P solubilization from RP.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Tuber floridanum is the first truffle species reported in Brazil and little is known about its nutritional properties and ecology. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) determine T. floridanum aroma and nutritional properties and (2) analyze cultivation and fruiting conditions, including potential crop pests and market value. Fruiting bodies of T. floridanum showed a slightly ellipsoid shape and smooth to shallow groovy surface. The mass of ascocarps ranged from 0.13 g to 15.95 g, and the truffle was composed of 71 % carbohydrates, 19 % protein, 5 % ash, and 5 % of fat. Octan-3-one, 1-methoxy-3-methyl-butane, and 1-methoxy-2-methyl-butane determined T. floridanum characteristic aroma. Soil properties were also specific for this truffle, differing from optimal soils where commercial truffles are produced. In addition, the occurrence of earwigs (Anisolabididae, Anisolabidinae) feeding on truffles (26 % of all ascocarps) in pecan orchards may reduce truffle quality and cause financial losses. T. floridanum aroma has a unique composition, completely different from any commercial and non-commercial truffle species analyzed so far. Soil conditions in pecan orchards were also specific for truffle fruiting. Further studies should elucidate other ecological conditions for the co-production of T. floridanum with pecan .
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Adaptation to climate change is a strategy for crops to cope with the scenario of rising temperatures worldwide. In the case of Coffea arabica L., the use of agroforestry systems (AFS) with woody species is a promising practice to reduce excessive heat during the day. This study aimed to 1) evaluate air temperature changes that occur in an AFS of coffee and double alleys of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müell. Arg.) and 2) carry out an analysis of future warming scenarios by comparing the cultivation of Arabic coffee in full sun and in an AFS of double alleys of rubber trees. The microclimatic variables were measured between two rows of coffee trees at 1.0 m of height from June 2016 to June 2018. The results indicate that the AFS with double alleys of rubber trees spaced 16 m apart had an average temperature reduction from 1.4 to 2.5 °C from 10h00 to 16h00. The study also simulated temperature increases of 1.7, 2.6, 3.1, and 4.8 °C from 2018 to 2099, according to scenarios predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the impact in coffee production in Paraná State, Brazil. Using the climatic generator PGECLIMA_R, simulations suggest a progressive reduction of traditional areas suitable for open-grown coffee in the state. Production conditions can be maintained through the AFS, since the systems attenuate mean temperatures by 1-2 °C. We conclude that the AFS of coffee and rubber trees contribute to coffee crop adaptations to a future warmer environment.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the hydrological cycle. Therefore, adequately estimating it is crucial to improving water resource planning and management.One of the most affordable methods of estimating ET is first to estimate reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) and later associate it to crop and soil coefficients. The FAO Kc-ETo approach can be used only when ETo is computed with the FAO Penman-Monteith equation. However, low data availability may restict the equations used to estimate ETo. In this study, we assess and calibrate common methods used to estimate ETo under such conditions of limited data availability. Based on the annual calibration, the Makkink (NSE = 0.85) outperformed the Priestley-Taylor (NSE = 0.73), Hargreaves-Samani (NSE = 0.56), and Penman-Monteith temperature approach (NSE = 0.58). The seasonal calibration of parameters showed no significant improvement to the methods assessed (ΔNSE ≤ 0.01), except for the Priestley-Taylor (ΔNSE = 0.06). The performance of temperature-based equations was particularly limited due to the performance of the equation adopted to estimate global solar radiation. Thus, improving the representation of global solar radiation for limited data availability can also play a key role in improving ETo prediction.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Variation in rainfall affects crops; therefore, agricultural practices become essential for forage production in semi-arid regions. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different agricultural practices on phyllochron, structural characteristics of forage cactus and millet, and their relations with crop yield using the principal component analysis (PCA). The design was in randomized blocks, with six treatments: sole cropped cactus without straw mulching, sole cropped cactus with straw mulching, sole cropped millet without straw mulching, sole cropped millet with straw mulching, and cactus intercropping with millet, with and without straw mulching, each with four replicates. There were three cactus cycles and nine millet cycles (three cycles of cultivars BRS1501 and six of IPA Bulk-1-BF). Biometric parameters were evaluated monthly, while yield was determined after the crop harvest. Phyllochron was determined with the regression analysis. The PCA was applied to structural characteristics and yield. The systems adopted did not influence the structural characteristics of cactus and millet ( p > 0.05), except for cladode thickness, which increased with straw mulching. Phyllochron of the millet reduced when the crop was intercropped. The structural characteristics of cladode length, width, and thickness influenced crop yield, mainly in systems with straw mulching. Straw mulching and intercropping alter phyllochron of cactus and millet. The adoption of straw mulching has a more significant relationship with cactus yield, whereas biometric variables influence crop yield for millet, not the cropping system.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Pornunça (Manihot sp.) is a potential forage to feed ruminants in drylands worldwide; however, evaluations of animal diets are necessary. This study assessed intake and digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, physiological responses, ingestive behavior, water intake, as well as hematological and biochemical responses of lambs fed diets containing increasing levels of Pornunça silage (PS) replacing Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp.). Treatments consisted of 0, 33, 66, and 100 % PS considering the roughage portion of the diet (% dry matter – DM). The experimental design was completely randomized with six replicates. Cyanide acid (HCN) levels in fresh Pornunça leaves were 207.7 mg kg−1 DM and 76.78 mg kg−1 DM in PS. Intake of DM and crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap) increased linearly with increasing levels of PS in the diet. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and CP were higher with increasing levels of PS. Idle time decreased linearly, while water balance, water intake via food, and total water in feces increased with PS. Nitrogen balance, physiological, and hematological responses were not influenced by treatments, while the final alanine aminotransferase increased for lambs fed all diets evaluated. The PS up to 100 % of the roughage portion increased DM and nutrient intake and digestibility without altering physiological responses and the hematological and biochemical parameters, resulting in greater water intake via food.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Apparent calcium (Ca) retention and digestibility coefficients are affected by limestone particle size in the diet of laying hens. This study aimed to determine the apparent retention and digestibility coefficients of Ca in limestone of different particle sizes in laying hens. The study comprised 288 Lohmann Brown laying hens (50 weeks of age; 1,964 ± 98 g) distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement [three Ca concentrations (10, 20, and 30 g kg–1) × two limestone particle sizes (480 and 1,978 µm)] with eight repetitions per treatment and six birds per experimental unit. The experiment included five days for adaptation and five days for total excreta collection. All birds were slaughtered at the end of the ten days to collect the ileal contents. The total or ileal Ca content was plotted against the Ca of diets concentration using linear regression analysis. The regression line slope represented the apparent retention (CaR) and digestibility coefficients of Ca (CaD) in limestone. There was interaction between Ca concentration in the diet and limestone granulometry on CaD (p = 0.001) and CaR (p < 0.001). The CaD and CaR of fine- and coarse-grained limestone increased linearly with increasing Ca concentrations in the diet. The apparent digestibility coefficients estimated for laying hens fed with fine-grained and coarse-grained limestone were 0.72 and 0.35, respectively. The apparent retention coefficients estimated for laying hens fed fine-grained and coarse-grained limestone were 0.96 and 0.47, respectively.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The environment is vital to the agricultural sector since it can cause adversities throughout the entire productive chain. This study evaluated the geographical distribution of zebu breeds in Brazil and correlated their occurrence with environmental variables and the human development index. Herds of purebred zebu cattle (Bos indicus) in Brazil were classified as beef, dairy, and dual-purpose breeds, and all breeds were spatialized in the ArcGIS program. Environmental (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity index) and the human development index (HDI) were examined. We conducted regression and logistic analyses. Zebu cattle showed a lower distribution in the Northeastern states compared to other locations, possibly due to harsh weather conditions, namely long periods of high temperatures and lower precipitation, directly affecting local livestock. Beef breeds were evenly spread throughout the country in regions influenced by environmental variables of higher precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperature, relative humidity (RH), and temperature humidity index (THI), as well as properties without smallholder farmers and rivers and streams with riparian vegetation. The regions for dual-purpose and dairy breeds were predominantly cultivated with cutting forages (e.g., sugarcane - Saccharum officinarum), with the integration of crops, livestock and/or forestry (i.e., combining different activities in the same area) and areas with a rotational grazing system (i.e., grazing management), indicating a higher occupation in fertile lands. The Gir breed, the only dairy breed evaluated in this study, was seen in establishments with smallholder farmers, characterized by small to medium farms, and in regions at higher altitudes.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Global positioning and geographic information systems are essential for studying foraging animal behavior. This study aims to implement a fractal self-similarity and chaos game computational efficient methodology to determine the behavior-associated fractal using GPS data of activity sequences in spatial ranges of livestock movement trajectories in interaction with habitat factors. Six cows were randomly selected with an average weight of 480 kg, maintained under the same conditions, and a GPS-equipped collar was installed, programmed at intervals of 1 min and an average of 9 h daylight. Roughly 192810 registries and an average of 32135 signals per cow from trajectory tracking in spatial activity sequencing were used as a variable of interest in the fractal characterization methodology. Spatial patterns were evaluated using the Morán’s spatial autocorrelation indices, cluster, and non-parametric statistics, evaluating deterministic spatial patterns of preferential activities associated to spatial ranges of less than 7.1 m (resting 42 %, grazing 38 %). GPS information was refined through spatial ranges and changes in activities under resting, eating, traveling, and complementary schemes associated to the fractal displacement behavior of grazing cattle. This information was processed and mapped using fractal self-similarity rules in the Sierpinski triangle to determine the typical fractal of spatial activities per animal in the habitat. The particular fractal record of each bovine as a function of trajectory sequences was mapped for binary image matrices, registering a good classification (83 %) of the animals by breed and climatological cycle, using information from the sequencing of spatial activities associated to the preferred behavior in the habitat.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Determining what and how much each environmental factor affects pregnancy is crucial to the sustainability and management of beef cow herds. The study evaluated through logistic regression the effect of environmental variables on the increase or reduction in the pregnancy rate of beef cows. The average pregnancy rate in the cows was 73 %, with an average age for the herd of 3.7 years. An increase in age of one year represented a 30 % increase in pregnancy, while a reduction of one year reduced the odds of pregnancy in the cows by 23 %. During the lactation period, an extra seven days’ lactation reduced the odds of pregnancy by 12 %. For every seven days that weaning was brought forward, the cows’ pregnancy odds increased by 14 %. An increase of 0.1 kg in average daily gain represented an increase of 17 % and 15 % in the odds of pregnancy during the first 60 days post-partum and 60 days to the end of the reproductive period. On the other hand, the loss of 0.1 kg in average daily gain resulted in a 14 % and 13 % reduction in the cows’ pregnancy odds, respectively. Factors such as age, the precocity of calving in the calving season, the time the calf remains with the cow and better performance in cows between calving and the end of the mating are strategies that increase the chances of pregnancy in beef cows.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a finishing diet added with sugar beet pulp to reduce backfat skatole of entire male pigs, using the optimised high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The study comprised 72 males Pietrain (Large White × Landrace), divided into two groups of 36 animals each. Pigs in group A (treatment) were fed a supplemented formula (addition of 10 % beet pulp). while animals in group B (control) received a commercial feed, both for a period of 14 days before slaughter. The isocratic HPLC method achieved the chromatographic separation of indolic compounds in approximately 3 min. Skatole was significantly lower ( p = 0.002) in group A, showing that beet root supplementation reduced skatole levels in pig fat. In addition, the optimised HPLC method was reliable, less time-consuming, and showed a resolution suitable for small amounts of skatole.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Protein quality is related to amino acid composition and digestibility. Accurate evaluation of apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients in commonly used feedstuffs is paramount for formulating efficient aquafeed. ADCs of soybean meal (SBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) were evaluated using reference diets formulated with two types of ingredients (semi-purified [SP] and practical [P]) for juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus) of the GIFT strain. Groups of 20 juveniles (65.05 ± 12.37 g) were fed twice a day to apparent satiety with one of the four experimental diets (SBM-SP, SBM-P, PBM-SP, and PBM-P) in quadruplicate for 30 days. After the last feeding, feces were collected by siphoning hourly and the ADCs of dry matter, protein, and amino acids (AAs) were calculated. Nile tilapia exhibited a high capacity to digest SBM and PBM, with most ADCs exceeding 90 %. The type of reference diet affected the ADCs of protein and AAs on the test ingredients, with the SP reference diet providing the highest ADC, mainly in SBM. Digestibility data generated with a P-type reference diet demonstrated more practical relevance than those generated with an SP-type reference diet. They can be applied in digestibility studies for Nile tilapia.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT A large set of variables is assessed for progeny selection in a plant-breeding program and other agronomic fields. The meta-analysis of the coefficient of variation (CVe) produces information for researchers and breeders on the experimental quality of trials. This analysis can also be applied in the decision-making process of the experimental plan regarding the experimental design, the number of repetitions, and the treatments and plants/progenies to be measured. In this study, we evaluated the dataset distribution and the descriptive statistics of CVe through the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches, aiming to establish the credibility and confidence intervals. We submitted CVe data of ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) traits reported in 1,068 articles published to the Bayesian and Frequentist analyses. Sample data were analyzed via Gamma and normal models. We selected the model with the lowest Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) value, and then we tested three link functions. In the Bayesian analysis, uniform distributions were used as non-informative priors for the Gamma distribution parameters with three ranges of q~U (a,b,). Thus, the prior probability density function was given by: pθ =1β-α, θ ∈ α,β. The Bayesian and Frequentist approaches with the Gamma model presented similar results for CVe; however, the range Bayesian credible intervals was narrower than the Frequentist confidence intervals. Gamma distribution fitted the CVe data better than the normal distribution. The credible and confidence intervals of CVe were successfully applied to wheat traits and could be used as experimental accuracy measurements in other experiments.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Among the multi-trait models selected to study several traits and environments jointly, the Bayesian framework has been a preferred tool when constructing a more complex and biologically realistic model. In most cases, non-informative prior distributions are adopted in studies using the Bayesian approach. However, the Bayesian approach presents more accurate estimates when informative prior distributions are used. The present study was developed to evaluate the efficiency and applicability of multi-trait multi-environment (MTME) models within a Bayesian framework utilizing a strategy for eliciting informative prior distribution using previous data on rice. The study involved data pertaining to rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes in three environments and five crop seasons (2010/2011 until 2014/2015) for the following traits: grain yield (GY), flowering in days (FLOR) and plant height (PH). Variance components, genetic and non-genetic parameters were estimated using the Bayesian method. In general, the informative prior distribution in Bayesian MTME models provided higher estimates of individual narrow-sense heritability and variance components, as well as minor lengths for the highest probability density interval (HPD), compared to their respective non-informative prior distribution analyses. More informative prior distributions make it possible to detect genetic correlations between traits, which cannot be achieved with non-informative prior distributions. Therefore, this mechanism presented to update knowledge for an elicitation of an informative prior distribution can be efficiently applied in rice breeding programs.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The use of longitudinal measurements is an essential practice both in Psidium guajava L. breeding and in other perennial crops in which covariance structures can be introduced to explain the form of dependence between measurements. Hence, this study aimed to analyze six covariance structures to identify one that best described the correlation between the repeated measurements in time in traits of guava full-sib families. The repeatability coefficient for each trait was estimated and the minimum number of evaluations required for estimates representing the population was determined. The work was performed based on average data of three yield-related variables from nine harvests of a guava tree population evaluated from 2011 to 2018. The best model was chosen based on the Akaike and Schwarz Bayesian information criterion. The autoregressive covariance structure best represented the dependencies among families between crops for all traits. The number of variables of fruits and total yield per plant presented repeatability estimates higher than 0.5 and may be essential traits for indirect selection of others, such as fruit mass, which had an estimated repeatability of 0.24, proving low regularity in the repetition of the character from one cycle to another. It was also possible to define four harvests as the minimum acceptable number of observations necessary on the same individual for these traits; therefore, the repetitions represented the individuals.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Multiplex 330 (MX) is a portable, non-invasive fluorescence sensor that provides different multiparametric indices that are sensitive to the concentration of chlorophylls, flavonols, and anthocyanins on the leaf surface. This study investigated the use of these indices to assess the variability on free volatile composition of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in the field as well as other components of their quality potential in vineyards affected by iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC). Twenty non-irrigated Tempranillo/110 Richter vineyard subzones from non-affected to moderately affected by IDC were monitored in Ribera del Duero area (Spain) during two seasons. The results indicated that MX can characterize the spatial variation of leaf pigment concentrations, agronomic performance, and grape quality in vineyards affected by IDC. The MX indices measured at the leaf level close to harvest had better predictive values for the concentrations of free alcohols, volatile acids, C13-norisoprenoids, esters and acetates in the must than vine vigor, size or degree of technological maturity of the grapes. Our study demonstrates that the MX indices to estimate leaf pigment concentrations can be helpful to assess the technological maturity and free volatile composition of wine grapes in vineyards affected by IDC; nevertheless, the efficacy of the indexes may vary according to the year season.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Over the past decade, the business of producing juice from grapes (Vitis labrusca L. and hybrids) has been expanding in response to increasing consumption encouraged by campaigns promoting the benefits grape juice can have on health. This study aimed to determine the effect of the production cycle, vine training system, and rootstock on the yield and physical and physical-chemical characteristics of ‘BRS Magna’ grapes grown in the Vale do Submédio São Francisco in the northeastern region of Brazil. The study was conducted in Petrolina, Pernambuco, over eight production cycles (2017 to 2020). The grapevines were trained in three vine training trellis systems: espalier, lyre, and pergola; and grafted onto two rootstocks: IAC 572 and IAC 766. The production cycle, training system, and rootstocks affected the yield components, vigor, and physical characteristics of the BRS Magna grapes. The combination of the pergola training system and rootstock IAC 766 stood out from the others, providing mean yields estimated at 26 t ha –1 per production cycle. The soluble solids content (SS), titratable acidity (TA), and SS TA –1 ratio were affected neither by the training system nor the rootstock, and higher values for SS and lower values for TA were obtained in the first, second, fourth and eighth production cycles. Thus, the pergola training system and rootstock IAC 766 are recommended for promoting yield gains in the ‘BRS Magna’ grape in the Vale do Submédio São Francisco.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient considered essential to plants which can be supplied through seed treatment. The treatment of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds with Zn, however, is still not well known as regards the uptake and mobilization dynamics of the nutrient during the germination process. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake and distribution dynamics of Zn applied to soybean seeds at two levels of vigor during germination using X-ray micro-fluorescence spectroscopy (µ-XRF). Zinc treatments corresponded to 0, 2, 4 and 8 g of Zn per kg of seeds. High and low vigor seeds that had been treated were located appropriately so as to promote germination. Zn intensity measurements with µ-XRF were taken in different parts (“regions”) of the seeds (seed coat, cotyledon, and embryonic axis) after 8, 16 and 24 h of imbibition and seedlings (primary root, hypocotyl, plumule, cotyledon, and seed coat) after 48, 72 and 96 h of germination. High vigor seeds showed higher Zn intensity in the embryonic axis in the first 16 h, while low vigor seeds showed higher intensity after 24 h. After 48, 72 and 96 h of germination low vigor seedlings showed higher Zn intensity than high vigor seedlings in the primary root. It was concluded that µ-XRF is an efficient technique for identifying variances in the dynamics of Zn uptake and mobilization during the germination of soybean seeds with different vigor levels.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Black pepper is widely produced in Brazil, though there are few studies related to its water requirements and the effects of water deficit (WD) applied under tropical conditions. The growth, sensitivity to WD, and first-year productivity of irrigated plants from the Bragantina cultivar were evaluated, employing an irrigation system with automatic management. The plants were cultivated in plastic pots installed in the field for 391 days using emitters with different flow rates (2.2 [T1], 3.3 [T2], 4.3 [T3], and 5.3 L h–1 [T4 – control]). Fresh weight of the leaves, stems, and shoots, and dry weight of the leaves, stem, roots, and shoots as well as the total dry weight of the plant, were evaluated. Productivity was determined by evaluating the grains and spikes from a single harvest. Yield results and the actual versus maximum evapotranspiration rate for the entire growing season was used for calculating the Ky coefficient. Despite 1,346 mm of rainfall, the irrigation system was activated 165 times, distributing a mean volume of 19.0 (T1), 28.5 (T2), 37.1 (T3), and 45.8 L per plant (control). All traits were negatively affected by the WD, and the Ky values obtained (from 1.72 to 2.96) indicate the high sensitivity of black pepper to WD. In general, the spikes produced with at least 81 % of the crop water demand were larger and more numerous than those subjected to inferior treatments. WD occurring during the flowering stage severely hampers the size, weight, and quality of the spikes and grains of black pepper.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Although the burrower bug (Cyrtomenus mirabilis) is considered a vitalsoil pest in peanut crops, Arachis hypogaea L., in South America, there is little information on its occurrence and damage characterization. This study aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution and fluctuation of the burrower bug in the soil and the damage this species causes in peanuts. Two peanut cultivars (IAC OL3 and IAC 503) were evaluated in three locations in the state of São Paulo: Pindorama, Ribeirão Preto and Votuporanga, in the 2017/18 and 2018/19 harvests. Trenches were dug 0.5 m long, 0.3 m wide and 0.3 m deep, along plant lines at four spots on each sampling date, and stratified in layers 10 cm deep. Plant samples (0.5 m) were collected and evaluated for number of pods and percentage of kernels with symptoms of insect damage. More than 85 % of the C. mirabilis population was found in depths of up to 10 cm, especially after plant fructification, and an increase in nymphs from 100 days after sowing (DAS) was seen when an increased number of maturing pods was observed. The occurrence of nymphs and adults of C. mirabilis and their damage to peanut kernels was similar in both cultivars (IAC OL3 and IAC 503), when these were harvested according to their developmental cycles.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (F.) is the primary sugarcane pest in Brazil. To estimate the relationship between larvae in sugarcane stalks and captures of male adults of D. saccharalis, we collected samples weekly: (1) adults with one delta trap with three virgin females and three female pupae and (2) larvae in 120 stalks per plot of 12.6 hectares (355 × 355 m). The study was conducted in two sites with five plots each, in the municipalities of Nova Ponte and Tupaciguara, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from July 2016 to May 2017. Relationships between (1) males trapped per week and the number of larvae outside of stalks (LOS) were estimated and (2) we evaluated climate variables, namely average temperature, average relative air humidity, hours with relative air humidity below 30 %, rainfall and number of rainy days, and adults and larvae of D. saccharalis. We obtained generalized linear models for LOS in autumn and for larvae inside the stalks (LIS) in spring and autumn and trapped males in both sites. A significant and direct relationship between LIS and males trapped allows predicting larvae density based on captures of males. In addition, plant damage can be estimated based on accumulated captures of males. There was a negative relationship between hours of air humidity < 30 % and larvae outside of stalks. Densities of LIS can be estimated from male captures and by the humidity variables in the trapping week. Nevertheless, the models require validation in the field.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT In the last decade, other quality attributes have emerged as the main aspects that impact pork consumers acceptance, such as environmentally friendly production, nutritional value, and animal welfare. This study applies a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questionnaire for sensory characterization of loins from genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs fed diets containing either a standard commercial diet with 1.5 % soybean oil (control) or 3 % oil from either soybean oil (SO), canola oil (CO), or fish oil (FO) during the growing-finishing phases. Twenty CATA attributes for loin samples were generated. We interviewed 101 consumers to select all the CATA terms that they considered suitable to characterize sensory attributes of longissimus lumborum muscle samples of pigs from each dietary treatment. The CATA results indicated differences among pork loin samples depending on the source and inclusion level of dietary oil. Loins from pigs fed 3 % SO were characterized by a higher frequency of the “juicy texture” attribute (p < 0.05) and a lower frequency of the “dry texture” attribute (p < 0.05) compared to loins from 3 % FO-fed pigs. Moreover, loins from pigs fed 3 % SO had a lower citation frequency of the “tasteless” attribute (p < 0.05) compared to loins from 3 % FO-fed pigs. The attributes “cooked pork meat-like taste”, “juicy texture”, “tender texture”, and “brightness” were placed close to the overall liking. “Tender texture”, “juicy texture”, “pork meat-like” (odor and taste), and “cooked pork meat-like taste” attributes were considered drivers of liking. Feeding genetically lean immunocastrated male pigs with diets containing 3 % SO may be advisable from a pork sensory quality perspective.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The demand for clean label foods has driven research in the meat product sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of adding L-lysine, wheat fiber (WTF) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in sausage without the addition of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and with reduced salt levels. Eight treatments were produced in total. Three control treatments were: CON1 - 0.5 % sodium tripolyphosphate and 2 % salt; CON2 - without STPP and 2 % salt; CON3 - without STPP and 1 % salt. Five other treatments were carried out without STPP and 1 % of salt: LYS - 0.8 % L-lysine; WTF - 2 % wheat fiber; MCC - 2 % microcrystalline cellulose fiber; LYSWTF - 0.8 % L-lysine and 2 % wheat fiber; LYSMCC - 0.8 % L-lysine and 2 % microcrystalline cellulose fiber. L-lysine and wheat fiber provided good emulsion stability for sausages. L-lysine and MCC increased the yield of the products. Microcrystalline cellulose increased the red color value (a*) of sausages. The intensity of the yellow color value (b*) was significantly affected by the removal of STPP and the reduction of salt levels, but L-lysine and MCC improved this parameter, providing similar results to CON1. Adding of L-lysine and dietary fiber increased hardness in sausages without added STPP and with salt reduction. L-lysine and wheat fiber are promising for reformulating emulsified meat product without phosphate added and with reduced salt levels due to lipid oxidation control and improvement in emulsion stability.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the effect of two thermal concentration systems on bioactive compounds, the sugar content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) pulp, and the carotenoid bioaccessibility of pulp concentrate. The closed processing system ensured a higher retention of phenolic and carotenoid compounds. The bioaccessibility of lycopene in tomato pulp concentrate was relatively low (0.54 %) but higher than in raw tomato pulp (0.15 %), corroborating other results that have reported the low availability of the compound in these matrices. Carotenoid extraction from tomato residue was also evaluated through both conventional (CE) and ultrasound (UAE) extractions together with the stability of extracts over 30 days. UAE promoted a superior release of lycopene and lutein than conventional extraction. Lycopene showed less stability with a reduction of 18 % in 30 days.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Ultra-refined yerba mate (URYM), with a final particle size of 5 to 12 microns, is an innovation in the market that aims to diversify and increase the consumption of yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil) through its practicality and versatility of preparation. The present work seeks to evaluate the potential for applying naturally colored URYM in food products. The nature of this study was exploratory, adopting a chemical approach (analysis of the antioxidant potential); physical approach (color stability) and sensory perception. URYM is a suitable naturally colored food ingredient with natural antioxidant appeal. Methanolic extraction of URYM (MEUR) was more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared with aqueous extract of URYM (AEUR) (959.5 vs . 638.1 µmol Trolox g–1). No differences were found between AEUR and MEUR for total phenolic content in mg GAE g–1 (266.4 and 339.0, respectively) and scavenging of ABTS radicals in µmol Trolox g–1 (1008.9 and 1053.8, respectively). Water was able to extract phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. Ice cream, juice, cake, and cookies emerged as the food products in which consumers used URYM in their homemade foods. With good color stability (no difference between L*, a* and b* parameters during the six-day) and good acceptance, cake with URYM added has a profile described as tasty, sweet, soft, and mate flavor. The results also demonstrated consumer interest in food products and ingredients with a healthy appeal.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Soybean seeds (Glycine max) were dried under real scale conditions to different final moisture content (m.c.) (9.1, 9.7, 10.9 %, and control with 16.2 %) and processed through extruding-expelling. Results indicated that soybean seed m.c. affected the composition of the soybean expeller and, thus, the oil extraction efficiency (OEE), which increased as the seed m.c. decreased. A polynomic model was proposed for predicting OEE as a function of soybean m.c., indicating that drying soybean to 10 % resulted in an OEE of approximately 65 %. A thin layer drying experiment of soybean seeds indicated that the protein dispersibility index (PDI) was not affected as regards drying air temperatures up to approximately 69 °C, and a bi-linear model with a non-pre-established break point was fitted. The real scale drying treatment in a rack type dryer (mixed flow) did not show any effect (p > 0.05) on the PDI at 80 °C, while at 115 °C a reduction (p < 0.05) was observed (PDI reduction was 0.8 and 2.1 percentage points, respectively).
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Increasingly, fast-growing forest plantations are able to support the wood supply but may simultaneously reduce water availability. The trade-off between wood production and water supply is more evident in areas with low water availability, high seasonal variation, or high water demand from local communities. The management regime adopted in forest plantations can either increase or reduce this trade-off. Thus, we assess herein the water and wood supply under different fast-growing forest plantation management regimes to understand how forest management practices can balance the provision of these services. The study was conducted at two catchments with a predominance of fast-growing forest plantations, namely, the mosaic management catchment (MMC) and the intensive management catchment (IMC). Rainfall and streamflow were monitored for three water years. Hydrological indexes were calculated to assess the hydrological regime of both catchments, and make inventories of the forest to assess forest growth rates. MMC had streamflow coefficients, baseflow index and baseflow stability higher than those of IMC. Mean annual wood increment was 32.73 m3 ha-1 yr-1 in MMC, with a mean age of 15 years, and 44.40 m3 ha-1 yr-1 in IMC at coppice in the second year. MMC hydrological indexes remained stable over the period studied, while in IMC the hydrological indexes were affected by climatic variations, mainly in drier years. MMC showed potential for supplying both water and wood. However, in IMC there was a trade-off between wood supply at the expense of the water supply. Thus, the intensity of fast-growing management can be adjusted to achieve a balance between water and wood supply on a catchment scale.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Climate change represents one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. We investigate how climate change will affect the future potential distribution of tree species in subtropical high montane habitats in the Atlantic Forest and identify potential climate refuges for these species. The most frequent and exclusive species in this ecosystem were selected and geographic coordinates were compiled. The maximum entropy algorithm was used for climatic niche modeling. Two scenarios for 2061-2080 were considered for future predictions, one low impact (RCP 4.5) and one high impact (RCP 8.5). Isothermality, mean temperature in the driest quarter, mean temperature in the hottest quarter, rainfall in the driest month, and rainfall in the hottest quarter were the variables that best explained the climatic niche of the majority of species. The areas of potential species occurrence were reduced by 48.37 % (± 13.63 %) (RCP 4.5) and 62.49 % (± 21.87 %) (RCP 8.5) on average. The potential area of Crinodendron brasilense Reitz & L.B.Sm. decreased the most, by 82.11 % (RCP 4.5) and 90.06 % (RCP 8.5), respectively. High elevation areas in the south of Brazil were identified as priorities for conservation to ensure that climate refuges for high montane forest species are maintained in the future. Climate change events may significantly affect the species evaluated in this study.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The Caatinga biome in Brazil comprises the largest and most continuous expanse of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) worldwide; nevertheless, it is among the most threatened and least studied, despite its ecological and biogeographical importance. The spatial distribution of volumetric wood stocks in the Caatinga and the relationship with environmental factors remain unknown. Therefore, this study intends to quantify and analyze the spatial distribution of wood volume as a function of environmental variables in Caatinga vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil. Volumetric estimates were obtained at the plot and fragment level. The multiple linear regression techniques were adopted, using environmental variables in the area as predictors. Spatial modeling was performed using the geostatistical kriging approach with the model residuals. The model developed presented a reasonable fit for the volume m3 ha with r2 of 0.54 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10.9 m3 ha–1. The kriging of ordinary residuals suggested low error estimates in unsampled locations and balance in the under and overestimates of the model. The regression kriging approach provided greater detailing of the global wood volume stock map, yielding volume estimates that ranged from 0.01 to 109 m3 ha–1. Elevation, mean annual temperature, and precipitation of the driest month are strong environmental predictors for volume estimation. This information is necessary to development action plans for sustainable management and use of the Caatinga SDTF in Bahia State, Brazil.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: The selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines based on grain quality and mineral concentration traits will be more efficient if a minimum number of experiments is established. This study was carried out to determine whether grain quality and mineral concentration traits are significantly affected by the genotype × environment interaction; to estimate heritability and genetic gain in individual and combined experiments; and to select superior common bean lines considering a minimum number of experiments. A total of 17 common bean genotypes were evaluated in four experiments. Grain quality was determined through seven traits, and the concentration of six minerals was analyzed by acid digestion. Statistical analyses were completed using data obtained from both individual (I, II, III and IV) and combined (I and II; I, II and III; and I, II, III and IV) experiments. Except for the potassium concentration, all traits showed a significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Heritability and genetic gain estimates of grain quality and mineral concentration traits varied when the data were obtained from one or more experiments. Genetic gain may be inflated because of the data being based on one or two experiments. Four carioca bean (BRS MG Uai, LP 09-33, LEC 01-16 and Pérola) and four black bean (TB 02-19, CHP 04-239-52, TB 03-11 and IAC Netuno) genotypes were selected for their high grain quality and mineral concentration based on four experiments. Data from at least four experiments should be used to select common bean lines superior in grain quality and mineral concentration traits to increase the efficiency of simultaneous selection.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT An approach to the number of experiments that should be used in correlation analyses aimed at increasing efficiency in indirect selection for grain yield is unprecedented for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). We hypothesize that trait correlation estimates vary in response to the growing environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the correlations between plant architecture and yield traits in common bean lines and to determine the minimum number of experiments required by Pearson’s linear correlation analysis to increase efficiency in indirect selection for grain yield. Seventeen common bean genotypes were evaluated for 17 agronomic traits in four experiments. Pearson’s linear correlation analyses were carried out using data from individual experiments and different combinations of growing seasons and years. Ten out of the 17 agronomic traits showed a significant genotype × environment interaction effect, meaning that common bean genotypes exhibited variation for most of the traits evaluated in different growing seasons and years, which resulted in changes in the correlation estimates between these traits. Pearson’s linear correlation estimates obtained between plant architecture and yield traits varied in significance, magnitude, and sign when data from individual experiments and combinations of growing seasons and years were considered. The number of grains per pod is the most promising agronomic trait used in indirect selection for grain yield in common bean lines. Data from at least three experiments should be used in Pearson’s linear correlation analysis to achieve greater efficiency in indirect selection for grain yield in common bean lines.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Tomato genotypes ( Solanum spp.) have genetic variability of most desirable features, such as resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, incompatibility of crosses of wild genotypes with domesticated tomatoes, or even between wild genotypes, hinders the breeding process. Thus, knowledge of the reproductive biology of genotypes and conditions is necessary to maximize the success of artificial crossings. This study evaluated the compatibility of self-pollination, intra- and interspecific controlled crosses, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability in tomato genotypes. We used two commercial genotypes S. lycopersicum (‘RVTM08’ and ‘Redenção’) and seven accessions of wild tomato genotypes (‘AF 26970’, ‘LA-1401’, ‘AF 19684’, ‘LA-1967’, ‘PI-127826’, ‘PI-134417’, and ‘LA-716’). We evaluated all crosses and their reciprocals, besides the self-pollinations. The variables evaluated were fruit index (FI), number of seeds per fruit (SN), and seed germination percentage (GP). Stigma receptivity and grains’ pollen viability index (PVI) were also assessed. The results showed that ‘LA-1967’ was self-incompatible, had a low PVI, and generated fruit without seeds in most crosses. As female parents, ‘RVTM08’, ‘Redenção’, ‘AF 26970’, ‘LA-1401’, and ‘AF 19684’ showed higher FI and SN. There was a wide diversity of reproductive characteristics between the genotypes and crosses that did not influence GP. Compatibility of crosses in tomatoes is determined by the female parent choice and can be affected by stigma receptivity and the PVI.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The mixed-model methodology is an alternative to select genotypes for traits highly influenced by the environment. In addition, this method allows FOR estimating the repeatability coefficient and predicting the number of assessments needed for a selection process to increase reliability. This study aimed to determine the minimum number of evaluations necessary for a reliable selection process and to estimate the variance components used for predicting genetic gains between and within half-sib families of elephant grass ( Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone ) using the mixed-model methodology. Half-sib families were generated using genotypes from the Active Germplasm Bank of Elephant Grass. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design with nine half-sib families, three replicates, and eight plants per plot. We evaluated 216 genotypes (individual plants) of elephant grass. The deviance analysis was carried out, genetic parameters were estimated, gains between and within families were predicted, and repeatability coefficients were obtained using Selegen software. There was genetic variability for selection within the families evaluated. The reliability values found above 60 % for plant height and number of tillers and above 80 % for dry matter yield suggest that only two evaluations are required to select superior genotypes with outstanding reliability. Sixteen genotypes were identified and selected for their productive potential, which can be used as parents in elephant grass breeding programs for bioenergy production.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of potassium and sodium carbonate and bicarbonate, Bacillus subtilis (Cohn, 1872) QST-713, Bacillus pumilus (Meyer & Gottheil, 1901) QST-2808, and crude and roasted coffee oils on the inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination in Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr and the colonization of begonia (Begonia elatior Hort. ex Steud) leaf discs by B. cinerea inoculated before, simultaneously and after with these alternative products. The assays were carried out using the Baladin begonia cultivar. The inhibition of B. cinerea mycelial growth and conidial germination was proportional to increases in the concentration of all the products. The inhibition of conidial germination was directly proportional to the concentrations of B. pumilus QST-2808 and B. subtilis QST-713. Coffee oils were less efficient in inhibiting germination than the other products. The crude and roasted coffee oils, potassium and sodium carbonates and bicarbonates, and B. pumilus and B. subtilis sprayed 24 h before, simultaneously, or 24 h after pathogen inoculation inhibited the colonization of begonia leaf discs by B. cinerea. The positive results for the suppression of B. cinerea by the alternative products tested herein merit scrutiny. There is a pressing need to evaluate these products in the management of gray mold, as the severity of this disease is usually high under favorable conditions in greenhouses.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Tomato fruit blotch virus (ToFBV) is a blunervirus that causes blotches on mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) fruits in Italy and Australia in 2020, and was newly detected in Brazil. A cytological study on pericarp tissues from the blotched areas of infected fruits collected in Brasília, Brazil, revealed characteristic cell alterations. Small and slender bacilliform particles (ca. 25 nm wide × 100 nm long) were found accumulating in the perinuclear space and the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum of the epidermis, peri- and mesocarp cells. No viroplasm-like inclusion was observed either in the nuclei or in the cytoplasm. Such cell alterations are reminiscent of those described in cultured mosquito cells infected by negeviruses, an unofficial group of insect viruses. Negeviruses and some other arthropod-borne viruses shared a common ancestor in the RdRp gene with kitavirids, including blunerviruses. Although additional detailed studies are required, we show evidence that ToFBV particles are enveloped and bacilliform, and that such similarity in cytopathology seems to support the evolutionary relationship between plant kitavirids and insect negeviruses.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Salinity is an abiotic stressor that greatly influences crop growth and yield. Scientists are always exploring diverse methods to combat salinity depression. Here, we conducted a greenhouse experiment to study the effects of NaCl salinity (0, 50, and 100 mM) under the foliar spray with zinc-oxide, nano zinc-oxide, iron-chelate, magnetized-Fe, and graphene-oxide on tarragon. The results revealed that the treatment with foliar spray of graphene showed the highest K+/Na+. Salinity of 50 and 100 mM × all foliar applications increased superoxide dismutase activity, whereas 100 mM NaCl raised the malondialdehyde content to its highest level. All salinity levels × Zn foliar spray improved the catalase activity. The foliar spray and salinity experiment exposed to Zn-treated plants attained the highest contents of essential oils. Proline and total phenolics showed the greatest amounts with 50 and 100 mM of NaCl, respectively. The GC/MS analysis revealed 38 compounds in the oil of Artemisia dracunculus L. as estragole (81-91.8 %) was the most dominant constituent. The highest amounts of estragole were found at 50 and 100 mM NaCl foliar sprayed with ZnO. Cis-Ocimene (0.1-6.4 %) was another major constituent with a high variation between the treatments. The highest cis-ocimene content was recorded at 100 mM NaCl × foliar Fe-chelated and in the graphene treatment. Overall, salinity adversely affected the physiological responses of tarragon; however, foliar spray with both forms of Fe and Zn partially ameliorated the adverse salinity effects.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT: Enhanced efficiency potassium fertilizers can be a management tool that is crucial to crop sustainability in maize (Zea mays L.). However, there is a need for studies aimed at validating the use of these fertilizers in different production environments. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of maize under sources and rates of K through conventional and enhanced efficiency fertilizers in soil with high available K content. The experiment was carried out for two years in an Oxisol (605 g kg–1 of clay) with high K content (6.7 mmolc dm–3). Three sources were used, one conventional (KCl), one obtained by additives sprayed on the fertilizer surface (KCl-C), and one obtained by compacting KCl powder and adding additives (KCl-CC), associated with three K2O rates as top-dressing (50, 100, 150 kg ha–1) and a control without K2O. In all treatments, 48 kg ha–1 of K2O was applied in the sowing furrow. In the first year, maize yield increased linearly for both the KCl and KCl-C sources. The maximum yield (7,967 kg ha–1) for the KCl-CC was obtained at 88 kg ha–1. In the second year, the maximum yields for the KCl (7,553 kg ha–1) and KCl-C (8,166 kg ha–1) were obtained with 20 and 67 kg ha–1 K2O, respectively, while for the KCl-CC maize yield did not change. Enhanced efficiency K sources promote increases in maize yield ranging from 4.3 % to 7.1 %. Top-dressing K fertilization in high-fertility soils is a viable alternative for producers focused on increasing maize yield, mainly when enhanced efficiency sources are used.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Evaluating the effects of N and K supply on grapevines ( Vitis vinifera L.) and the techniques for nutritional diagnosis is of great importance for fertigation management of this crop. This study evaluated the effects of N and K fertigation on the soluble concentrations of NO 3 – and K + in the petiole sap and on the leaf chlorophyll index in drip irrigated ‘Syrah’ grapevine (from 17 June 2013 to 25 Nov 2014). The treatments consisted of five levels of N (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha –1 ) and K 2 O (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha –1 ), combined in an incomplete 5 2 factorial scheme in 13 combinations and arranged in randomized blocks with four replications. We determined NO 3 – and K + concentrations in petiole sap, leaf chlorophyll index, grapevine cluster mass and number per plant, mean grapevine cluster mass, and phenolic composition. High NO 3 – concentrations contributed positively to grapevine yield; however, increased K+ concentrations caused a negative response of sap. For 120 kg N ha –1 rate, NO 3 – in the sap and chlorophyll index showed higher values at the flowering stage, while high values for K + were observed during the grape-ripening stage.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) reduces NH3 losses from urea (UR) surface-applied to soils, but its efficacy may be lower in acidic soils. The period when urease inhibition occurs efficaciously may change with soil pH. This needs to be clarified in tropical soils which are commonly acidic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of NBPT-treated urea to delay and reduce ammonia volatilization in two soils at three pH levels. Two experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions in soils with different textures (sandy-clay and clay). The treatments consisted of three soil pH levels and two N sources (UR and UR + NBPT), with five replicates. The soil pH values were adjusted and reached values of 4.5, 5.6, and 6.4 in the sandy-clay, and 4.5, 5.4, and 6.1 in the clay soil. Ammonia volatilization was measured using glass chambers (1.5 L). In the sandy-clay soil, NH3 losses were 40-47 % of the UR-N. In the clay soil, losses were 26-32 %. The addition of NBPT to UR reduced the NH3 volatilization by 18-53 %; the inhibitor decreased the N losses under all soil pH conditions but was significantly less efficient in acidic soils (pH 4.5). The lower efficiency of the inhibitor under acidic conditions was more evident in the first few days: 50 % of the total NH3 losses occurred in less than four days in soils with pH 4.5, but in 8-11 days in soils with pH above 5.4. The rapid loss in efficiency in more acidic soils is a drawback. Using NBPT in severely acidic soils showed a relatively small advantage over untreated UR as the inhibitor did not provide extra time for fertilizer incorporation and further reduction of NH3 losses.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Slash-and-burn is a traditional agricultural system still widely used in Brazil. The variation in temperature during fires results in different levels of physical, chemical, and biological changes in the soil, which makes it necessarily better to understand the dynamics of fire severity in this system. The aim of this study was to make an analytical comparison of the variation in the temperature reached in the soil during fires in slash-and-burn agriculture. Temperature data were measured in burnt areas with similar fallow times at the following soil depths 0; 2.5 and 5 cm and compared with secondary data from other studies in the same slash-and-burn system in southern Brazil. The peak temperature showed more significant variations in the surface (0 cm) of different soils and different types of regeneration vegetation in each area. Overall, the peak temperatures ranged from 32 to 673 ºC across the three depths. The peak temperature reduction in the 5 cm layer was 88 % compared to the surface and 30 % compared to the 2.5 cm layer. The sandier soils showed greater thermal conductivity at depth. The surface litter seems to exert a more significant influence on the burning severity than the biomass load cut for burning, suggesting that the characteristics of the litter layer on the surface should be better characterized in future studies on fire severity.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The Ethiopian Drylands are rich in their variety of local earthworm species. However, the category of species, and the effect of their performance on additions to plant nutrients have not been adequately evaluated. Thus, local earthworm samples were collected from the three major agroecological zones (highland, midland, and lowland) in Tigray (northern Ethiopia) and classified down to species level. Moreover, a vermicomposting experiment with four treatments (three local earthworm species, Eisenia fetida , and a conventional composting method) and three replications was established. Finally, each bin’s mature compost sample was taken to analyze plant nutrient content. The study results indicated that earthworm species in the highland, midland and lowland agroecological zones were Dendrobaena veneta, Eisenia andrie and Lumbricus rubellus , respectively. The use of these earthworms in the composting process (average of the four earthworm species) yielded higher nutrient content, ranging from 21.9 % for Sodium to 3300 % for Boron, compared to the conventional one. The highest total nitrogen (an increase of 44.4 %) and organic carbon (an increase of 33.4 %) were recorded in the Eisenia fetida and Dendrobaena veneta treated bins, respectively. Composting with Eisenia andrie has resulted in increases in P (96.1 %), K (125 %), Mg (83 %) and all micro-nutrients (between 91 % for Zn and 4400 % for B). Both Eisenia andrie and Lumbricus rubellus species contributed to the increased additions of Sulfur (85.7 %) compared to the control. It can be concluded that the use of local earthworms (particularly Eisenia andrie) in the composting process plays a significant role in plant nutrient addition.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Stony soils have been increasingly used for agriculture production; however, little is known about their hydraulic properties due to problems, such as sample deformation and hydraulic continuity between samples and suction devices when the sampling and measurements are accomplished with traditional techniques. In this study, the traditional ring sampling technique was replaced by the sampling of undisturbed soil blocks coated with paraffin wax to preserve their structure. A saturated paste of fine-grained mineral particles was used to ensure contact and hydraulic continuity between samples and suction devices (sand table and ceramic plates). This allowed us to determine 30 water retention curves for three stony soils with coarse particle contents (> 2 mm) ranging from zero to 69 %. The van Genuchten model was fitted to the measured retention data and the root mean square errors were between 0.0034 and 0.0331 m3 m–3, with no outliers or odd behavior in the retention curves. These results showed that consistent water retention curves for stony soils can be determined with the technique proposed. Fine-grained minerals sandwiched between the surface of suctions sources and sampled blocks improve hydraulic continuity between them. These techniques can be applied to determine water retention properties in structured soil samples with coarse particles where it is unfeasible to collect structured soil samples with metal sampling rings.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Termites can create structures that alter the physical and chemical properties of soils. In this process, termites are selective about the soil constituents they will use to construct their mounds. Considering the common occurrence of termite mounds in Brazilian soils, this study aimed to investigate the selective action of termites in the mound building process. Samples were collected from six termite mounds and control soils (at a distance of 15 to 30 m from the termite mound) in different regions in Brazil to analyze the fine earth fraction. The content of clay fraction, organic C and Fe in pedogenic iron oxides increased in the mounds resulting in specific surface area increments. X-ray diffraction indicated a selectivity of termites by clay-sized particles such as kaolinite, gibbsite and iron oxides (hematite and goethite) rather than larger particles such as quartz. The proportion of low-crystalline iron oxides and the maghemite amount decreased in the mounds. The change of color parameters in the termite mounds was due to a combination of increase in clay fraction, organic carbon and iron oxides. The techniques used were sensitive, indicating changes and similarities between the control soils and the termite mounds.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants showing symptoms of chlorosis, mosaic, chlorotic ringspot, and necrosis on younger leaves were found in a small experimental plot in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Preliminary examinations by transmission electron microscopy of symptomatic leaf tissue revealed flexuous filamentous particles 13-15 nm wide and 700-750 nm long, and cytoplasmatic cylindrical inclusions typical of those found in plant cells infected by members of the Potyvirus genus. Total RNA extracted from symptomatic leaves and subjected to RT-PCR followed by partial nucleotide sequencing confirmed the presence of a potyvirus in the affected plants, which was identified as sunflower chlorotic mottle virus (SuCMoV), a member of the Sunflower chlorotic mottle virus (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) species. Mechanical transmission assays with extracts of symptomatic sunflower leaves reproduced the original symptoms in sunflowers, mosaic symptoms in Zinnia elegans, and chlorotic local lesions in Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Sunflower and zinnia plants became infected after aphid transmission experiments with Myzus persicae. RT-PCR tests using specific primers for SuCMoV confirmed the presence of this virus in experimentally infected plants, meeting the criteria of Koch’s postulate. This is the first report of SuCMoV infecting sunflower plants in Brazil.