A new subgenus and species of Neotropical Trichomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Maíra Xavier Araújo Freddy Bravo About the authors

Abstract

A singular group of 19 species of Neotropical Trichomyia Haliday in Curtis, 1839 presents four segments in the palpus, the first two partially fused; five of these species were included in the subgenus Opisthotrichomyia Bravo, 2001 and seven in the subgenus BrachiotrichomyiaBravo & Araújo, 2013. A new species from Brazil is described and a new subgenus proposed for four Neotropical species of this morphological group: T. biloba Quate, 1999 from Panama, and T. onorei Bravo, 2002, T. queirozi Bravo, 2002 and T. horrida sp. nov. from Brazil. Syntrichomyia subgen. nov. can be recognized by its fused gonocoxites and gonostyli, and by its bilobed hypoproct. A key to the known species (males) of this new subgenus is presented.

Brazil; Neotropics; Syntrichomyia subgen. nov; taxonomy; Trichomyiinae


TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

A new subgenus and species of Neotropical Trichomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Maíra Xavier AraújoI,* * Corresponding author. E-mail: mah.biology@gmail.com ; Freddy BravoII

IPrograma de Pós-graduação em Entomologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. Caixa Postal 19020, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil

IIPrograma de Pós-graduação em Zoologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Avenida Transnordestina, Novo Horizonte, 44036-900 Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil

ABSTRACT

A singular group of 19 species of Neotropical Trichomyia Haliday in Curtis, 1839 presents four segments in the palpus, the first two partially fused; five of these species were included in the subgenus Opisthotrichomyia Bravo, 2001 and seven in the subgenus BrachiotrichomyiaBravo & Araújo, 2013. A new species from Brazil is described and a new subgenus proposed for four Neotropical species of this morphological group: T. biloba Quate, 1999 from Panama, and T. onorei Bravo, 2002, T. queirozi Bravo, 2002 and T. horrida sp. nov. from Brazil. Syntrichomyia subgen. nov. can be recognized by its fused gonocoxites and gonostyli, and by its bilobed hypoproct. A key to the known species (males) of this new subgenus is presented.

Key words: Brazil; Neotropics; Syntrichomyia subgen. nov.; taxonomy; Trichomyiinae.

Trichomyia Haliday in Curtis, 1839 is a cosmopolitan genus of Psychodidae comprising approximately 146 extant described species. It is the only genus of extant Trichomyiinae species. Eighteen fossil species of Trichomyiinae have been described. According to Wagner & Ibáñez-Bernal (2009), a revision of this group is urgently needed. The first classification of the species of Trichomyia was proposed by Duckhouse (1965), who recognized two informal categories: group A, composed of the more 'primitive' and usually larger species with palpus with four segments; and group B, composed of more specialized and usually smaller species with three segments in the palpus. Later, Duckhouse (1978) pointed out a number of problems with his own early classification, particularly because some Neotropical species could not be assigned to either group.

In order to improve the classification of Trichomyia, Duckhouse (1978) proposed three subgenera for the species in group B that occur in Australia and New Guinea: Apotrichomyia Duckhouse, 1978, Dactylotrichomyia Duchouse, 1978, and Dicrotrichomyia Duckhouse, 1978. Two years later, he created the subgenus Gondwanotrichomyia Duckhouse, 1980 for the species of group A from southern Africa and New Zealand. Bravo (1999, 2001a) and Bravo & Araújo (2013) proposed three subgenera, Septemtrichomyia Bravo, 1999, Opisthotrichomyia Bravo, 2001 and BrachiotrichomyiaBravo & Araújo, 2013 for the Neotropical species.

The Neotropical fauna of Trichomyia includes 74 extant species and one species inquirenda (Duckhouse 1972, 1973, Wagner 1993, 1999, Wagner & Masteller 1996, Quate 1996, 1999, Bravo 1999, 2000, 2001a, b, c, 2002, Alexander et al. 2001, Ibáñez-Bernal 2004, Bejarano et al. 2009 a, b, 2010, Pérez-Doria et al. 2010, Araújo & Bravo 2012, 2013, Santos & Leite 2012), 12 of which have been included in the three subgenera proposed by Bravo (1999, 2001a) and Bravo & Araújo (2013). Herein we describe a new subgenus and a new species of Trichomyia for the Neotropical region.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

We have examined one male specimen of the new species from the Brazilian Amazon, housed in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil (INPA), as well as the type specimens of two species of Trichomyia (Opisthotrichomyia) deposited in the Prof. Johann Becker Entomology Collection of the Zoology Museum of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil (MZFS). The specimen from the Brazilian Amazon (preserved in 70% alcohol) was treated with 10% KOH, dehydrated, and mounted in Canada balsam. The terminology for most morphological characters follows Cumming & Wood (2009) with the following exceptions: the terminology for the antennal segments follows (Ibáñez-Bernal 2004), the terminology for the wing venation follows (Duckhouse 1972), and the terminology for the male terminalia follows Sinclair (2000). Label data are cited in full, with the original spellings, punctuation marks, and dates. Information presented within square brackets is complementary data not included on the labels.

TAXONOMY

Syntrichomyia subgen. nov.

Type species. Trichomyia queirozi Bravo, 2002: 60-61, figs 14-21 (type deposited in MZFS).

Diagnosis. Palpus four-segmented, first two segments partly fused. Gonocoxites and hypandrium fused, plate-like, with lateroposterior bristles, some bristles embedded in the lateral arms. Gonostyli fused basally and divergent apically, little sclerotized. Hypoproct bilobed.

Description. Male. Head subcircular, eyes without eye bridge. Antenna. Scape similar in length to pedicel; flagellum with 13 flagellomeres, with pair of simple ascoids, C-shaped; basal flagellomere pyriform, approximately the same length as second; following flagellomeres slightly asymmetrical; apical flagellomeres elongated; terminal flagellomere with apiculus. Palpus four-segmented, first two segments partially fused. Wing. Length 2.00-2.26 times width, with rounded apex; Sc ending at C; sc-r ending at R1; apex of Sc and base of R thickened; r-m and m-cu absent. Male terminalia. Hypandrium fused with gonocoxites, forming plate-like sclerite (gonocoxal plate) with set of bristles on lateroposterior margin, some embedded in the lateral arms; gonostyli fused basally and divergent apically, unsclerotized; cerci short and compact, wider than long; epandrium wider than long; hypoproct weakly or strongly bilobed.

Female. Only a female specimen of T. biloba is available. According to Quate (1999), it is similar to the male. Characteristics of the female genitalia will not be discussed here because we only have one representative of one species.

Etymology.Syn, a Greek prefix meaning 'together', alludes to the basal fusion of the gonostyli.

Remarks. Species of Trichomyia with a four-segmented palpus, the first two segments separated by a small articular area (partly fused according to Duckhouse 1978), are known only from the Neotropical region, and were not classified in the artificial groups A or B proposed by Duckhouse (1965). According to Bravo (2000), these Neotropical species should be considered an independent lineage of Trichomyia, but there are no phylogenetic studies to support this hypothesis. Currently, 18 species have been classified into this Neotropical group (Barreto 1954, Satchell 1956, Duckhouse 1974a, b, Quate 1996, Wagner & Masteller 1996, Bravo 2001a, 2002, Ibáñez-Bernal 2004, Bejarano et al. 2009a, b, 2010) and only one subgenus, Opisthotrichomyia, was proposed, comprising five species with a four-segmented palpus, the first two segments partly fused (Bravo 2001a).

We propose an additional subgenus, Syntrichomyia, for the Neotropical group of species with four-segmented palpi. It can be recognized by the presence of three characters which are not present in other species of Trichomyia: gonocoxal plate with a characteristic group of posterolateral bristles; gonostylus unsclerotized, fused basally; hypoproct bilobed. These characteristics are putative synapomorphies of the group, which need to be tested within the context of a broad quantitative phylogenetic analysis.

Species included: T. biloba Quate, 1999, T. onorei Bravo, 2002, T. queirozi Bravo, 2002, and T. horrida sp. nov.

Key for males of Syntrichomyia

1. Gonocoxal plate with short or long lateral arms on posterior margin, crowned with a set of bristles; median surface of gonocoxal plate with bristles (Fig. 5; Quate 1999: fig. 1D) ........................................................................................2 1'. Gonocoxal plate with posterior margin straight, without arms, and a set of bristles on posterolateral margin; surface of gonocoxal plate without bristles (Bravo 2002: figs 11 and 21) ......................................................................................3 2. Gonocoxal plate with short lateral arms, 0.2 times the length of gonostylus, with approximately six bristles; gonostylus (= aedeagus of Quate 1999: fig. 1D) acute apex, without bristles. Distribution: Panama, Barro Colorado Island .................... .....................................................................Trichomyia biloba Quate, 1999 2'. Gonocoxal plate with long lateral arms, 0.6 times the length of gonostylus, with four bristles; gonostylus rounded at apex, with apical bristles (Fig. 5). Distribution: Brazil, state of Amazonas .....................................Trichomyia horrida sp. nov. 3. Ejaculatory apodeme short, 0.5 times the length of gonostylus (Bravo 2002: fig. 11); cerci joined by sclerotized bridge (Bravo 2002: fig. 12); M2 incomplete, separated from M1 (Bravo 2002: fig. 9). Distribution: Brazil, state of Bahia .....................................................................Trichomyia onorei Bravo, 2002 3'. Ejaculatory apodeme long, approximately the same length as gonostylus (Bravo 2002: figs 19 and 21); cercus without sclerotized bridge (Bravo 2002: fig. 20); M2 complete (Bravo 2002: fig. 18). Distribution: Brazil, state of Bahia .................... ..................................................................Trichomyia queirozi Bravo, 2002

Trichomyia (Syntrichomyia) queirozi Bravo

Trichomyia queirozi Bravo, 2002: 60-62, figs 14-21.

Remarks. The males of T. queirozi can be easily recognized by: 1) M2 articulated with M1 (Bravo 2002: fig. 18); 2) gonocoxal plate without lateral arms (Bravo 2002: fig. 21); 3) ejaculatory apodeme ending before anterior margin of gonocoxal plate, curved in lateral view (Bravo 2002: figs 20 and 21); 4) cercus with medial bridge.

Material examined. Holotype male labeled: "Brasil, BA [Bahia] Serra da Jibóia[,] 01.IV.2001, lg. I. Castro" (MZFS). Holotype condition: mounted in a permanent slide; the head and the male terminalia are turned.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality.

Trichomyia (Syntrichomyia) onorei Bravo

Trichomyia onorei Bravo, 2002: 59-60, figs 7-13.

Remarks. The males of T. onorei can be easily recognized by: 1) M2 not articulated with M1 (Bravo 2002: fig. 9); 2) gonocoxal plate without lateral arms (Bravo 2002: fig. 11); 3) ejaculatory apodeme ending beyond anterior margin of gonocoxal plate (Bravo 2002: figs 10 and 11); 4) cercus with medial bridge (Bravo 2002: fig. 12).

Material examined. The holotype male is labeled "Brasil, BA[Bahia], Itabuna[,] Reserva Ecológica CEPEC[,] Mata - Light trap[,] 04.VI.1984[,] Paulo S. Terra col." (MZFS). Holotype condition: mounted in a permanent slide; the male terminalia structures are very clear, but the characters can be observed.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality.

Trichomyia (Syntrichomyia) biloba Quate

Trichomyia biloba Quate, 1999: 413, figs 1A-D.

Remarks. The males of T. biloba can be easily recognized by: 1) M2 not articulated with M1 (Quate 1999: fig. 1A); 2) gonocoxal plate with short lateral arms (Quate 1999: fig. 1D); 3) ejaculatory apodeme ending beyond anterior margin of gonocoxal plate (Quate 1999: fig. 1D).

The type specimen was not examined.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality in Panama.

Trichomyia (Syntrichomyia) horrida sp. nov. Figs 1-7


 










Diagnosis. Gonocoxal plate with long lateral arms, 0.6 times length of gonostylus, crowned with elongated bristles; with bristles on median surface of gonocoxal plate; gonostyli unsclerotized, claviform, with apical bristles.

Description. Male. Antenna incomplete in the specimen studied. First flagellomere pyriform, with paired ascoids, 1.25 times length of flagellomere (Fig. 1). Palpus four-segmented, first two segments with sensorial setae inside pits; palpus formula 1.0:0.8:1.3:2.0 (Fig. 2). Wing (Figs 3 and 4). Right and left wings with wing membrane outside C vein, certainly an anomaly; length 2.2 times width, R5 complete at base, M2 unsclerotized at base. Male terminalia. Gonocoxal plate with lateral arms, 0.6 times length of gonostylus, each with four apical bristles; with bristles on median surface of gonocoxal plate (Fig. 5). Gonostyli unsclerotized, claviform, with apical bristles (Figs 5 and 7). Parameres fused, slightly smaller than gonostylus, with sclerotized, U-shaped apical margin (Figs 5 and 7). Aedeagus short, 0.4 times length of gonostylus (Fig. 7). Ejaculatory apodeme 0.5 times length of gonostylus (Figs 5 and 7). Epandrium wider than long (Fig. 6). Hypoproct unsclerotized, slightly bilobed at apex (Fig. 6).

Female. Unknown.

Material examined. The holotype male is labeled "Brasil, AM [Amazonas] Pururu, Est.[Estrada] Nunes de Melo, CDC[light trap,] Km 8-12[,] 26.XI.1998 [without name of collector]" (INPA). Holotype condition: mounted in a permanent slide; some flagellomeres lost.

Etymology. The Latin epithet horridus refers to the many bristles present on the male terminalia.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Maíra Xavier Araújo received a fellowship from CNPq. Freddy Bravo received financial support from CNPq (471199/2009-5) and has a fellowship from CNPq (302120/2009-2). We are grateful to Dr. Augusto Loreiro, curator of the institution that loaned the specimen,(INPA), and to two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments.

LITERATURE CITED

Submitted: 23.X.2012; Accepted: 02.XII.2013.

Editorial responsibility: Gabriel L.F. Mejdalani

  • *
    Corresponding author. E-mail:
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    * Corresponding author. E-mail: mah.biology@gmail.com

    Publication Dates

    • Publication in this collection
      06 Sept 2013
    • Date of issue
      Aug 2013

    History

    • Received
      23 Oct 2012
    • Accepted
      02 Dec 2013
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