Abstract in English:The Scinax perpusillus species group consists of thirteen bromeligenous treefrogs, of which only six have had their acoustic parameters appropriately described. In this work, we present the vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Peixoto, 1988) based on recordings obtained from three different populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Based on our observations we suggest that the vocal repertory of S. littoreus is composed of two distinct types of calls. The call named type A, which corresponds to a long series of multipulsed notes, is likely to have a mating function. This type of call is similar to that reported for Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002, Scinax peixotoi Brasileiro, Haddad, Sawaya & Martins, 2007, and Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939). However, the type A call of S. littoreus is nonetheless readily distinguishable from the comparable call observed in other congeneric species. The call named type B, which exhibits a multipulsed structure, presumably has an aggressive function. We observed that different types of calls could be emitted alone or combined according to the social context. Additionally, we discuss problems involving comparisons of call parameters among species belonging to the S. perpusillus species group, provide an updated geographic distribution map, discuss the conservation status of the included species, and emphasize the importance of acoustic data for the recognition of species groups within Scinax.
Abstract in English:This study describes the life cycle of Agrotis malefida Guenée, 1852 (Noctuidae: Noctuinae) under laboratory conditions. The insects were reared in a controlled environment (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours photo phase) and observed daily. The larvae were fed Greene's artificial diet and adults were offered a 10% sucrose solution. The viability and duration of immature stages were assessed. The experiment initiated with 2,410 eggs. Larvae were isolated shortly after hatching. Longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition, fecundity and fertility of 13 adult couples were also evaluated. The viability of eggs, larvae, pupae and pre-pupae was 96.72, 91.25, 78.37 and 95.26%, respectively. The average duration of egg, larva, pre-pupa, pupa and adult was 7.93, 54.26, 61.61, 37.43 and 12.85 days, respectively. The immature stage of A. malefida lasted an average of 161.29 days, ranging from 102 to 227 days. The life cycle of A. malefida is much longer than that of congeners. The mean fecundity was 1,696.77 eggs and fertility 1,641.15 larvae per female. Under the conditions in which the study was conducted, the biotic potential of A. malefida was of 606,666.59 individuals/female/year. The results also indicated that this species goes through larval (pre-pupae) and pupal diapause.
Abstract in English:We used data from VHF and GPS radio-tagged jaguars, Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) to quantify jaguar habitat selection and how adult individuals in the Upper Paraná River region selected among the available habitat types. We followed the framework in which animals make decisions about resource use at hierarchical stages, namely selection of home range within a study area (second-order selection) and selection of patches within a home range (third-order selection). We quantified habitat preferences at two orders of selection with respect to habitat types and to test the null hypothesis that habitat utilization by jaguars was random at both study sites. Using compositional analysis, we assessed habitat selection by jaguars at second- and third-orders of selection. Jaguars consistently preferred dense marshes and primary forests, and avoided human-dominated areas such as intensively managed open pastures. Although the avoidance of disturbed and developed habitat types by jaguars is not surprising, this is the first study to document it. If small protected areas, such as the ones already existing in the Upper Paraná region, are to sustain jaguar populations they, must include and protect as many primary forests and marshlands as possible, so that jaguars can disperse, hunt wild prey and take care of their cubs without being disturbed. What is urgently needed in these jaguar-protected areas is the creation of larger protected areas that can sustain jaguars in their favored habitat.
Abstract in English:We describe the breeding biology and the advertisement call of the horned leaf-frog, Proceratophrys appendiculata (Günther, 1873) in the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, municipality of Teresópolis. The reproductive period of P. appendiculata is short and is associated with the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring, when males call night and day under large rocks in sandy bottom rock streams. The amplexus is axillary and one female laid about 656 viscous eggs. The advertisement call of P. appendiculata is unique among congeners. The call lasts approximately two seconds, with about 85 pulses/call at a rate of 45 pulses/s and frequency around 0.620 kHz. It is one of the longest calls and lowest in dominant frequency. Moreover, the call of P. appendiculata is characterized by the greatest number of pulses so far registered, reaching 129 pulses in a single call.
Abstract in English:Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1) among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2) within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance) in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.
Abstract in English:Urticating setae are exclusive to New World tarantulas and are found in approximately 90% of the New World species. Six morphological types have been proposed and, in several species, two morphological types can be found in the same individual. In the past few years, there has been growing concern to learn more about urticating setae, but many questions still remain unanswered. After studying individuals from several theraphosid species, we endeavored to find more about the segregation of the different types of setae into different abdominal regions, and the possible existence of patterns; the morphological variability of urticating setae types and their limits; whether there is variability in the length of urticating setae across the abdominal area; and whether spiders use different types of urticating setae differently. We found that the two types of urticating setae, which can be found together in most theraphosine species, are segregated into distinct areas on the spider's abdomen: type III occurs on the median and posterior areas with either type I or IV surrounding the patch of type III setae. Morphological intermediates between types I and III, as well as between III and IV, were found. We propose that type III urticating setae have evolved through modifications of body setae on specific areas of abdomen dorsum and subsequently gave independent origin to areas having either type I or IV. A parallel evolution seems to have occurred in some aviculariine genera in which type II setae evolved also from body setae from specific areas of abdomen dorsum. Concerning the length of the setae, we observed that towards the median and posterior areas of the abdomen the length of the urticating setae increases. These long setae are cast by the spider as part of an active defensive behavior against vertebrate predators. We propose that spiders use the various types of urticating setae differently and according to their different targets: type I setae, when incorporated either into the molting web or eggsac, is more effective against invertebrates (ants or phorid fly larvae) than type III. The latter seems to be used mainly against vertebrate predators.
Abstract in English:Glossophaga soricina soricina (Pallas, 1766) plays an important role in the ecosystems where it is found, taking part in the pollination of hundreds of plant species. Here, we statistically compared 12 external characters of 169 specimens collected in three Brazilian biomes: 82 in the Pantanal (Mato Grosso), 45 in the Atlantic Forest (Ilhéus, Bahia) and 42 in the Caatinga (Chapada Diamantina, Bahia). Each character was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The t-test didn't detect any differences between males and females of each population. The ANOVA with a posteriori Tukey test showed significant results for all traits (Forearm length, Calcar length, Body length, Tail length, Hindfoot length, Ear length, Tragus length, Thumb length, Noseleaf length, Noseleaf width and Horseshoe width) except for Tibia length. The discriminant analysis showed distinct clusters representing the populations of each biome. The tests demonstrated that the three populations are significantly different from one another and that the specimens of the population from the Caatinga, on average, are larger than those from the Pantanal, which are larger than those from the Atlantic Forest, confirming the possible existence of intra-specific geographic variation.
Abstract in English:The Coscoroba Swan, Coscoroba coscoroba (Molina, 1782), is a poorly known aberrant Anserine endemic to South America. We captured adult birds (189 male, 157 female) from the largest population in Brazil at the Taim Ecological Reserve, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Different patterns between sexes can reflect differences in selection, and positive allometry may indicate that a character is sexually selected. We used body weight and 10 morphological measurements to examine allometric differences between males and females of C. coscoroba. Males were consistently larger than females. Analysis of scaling relationships against body mass showed that nostril, tail, wing and bill height were positively allometric (i.e., heavier birds had relatively larger character lengths), but there were no sexual differences in allometric slopes. However, for a given mass, mature females had longer tails, longer wings (up to metacarpophalangeal articulation) and shorter heads than males. In the light of current debate in the literature, we discuss whether such positively allometric traits and sexual differences in scaling may be indicative of sexual selection. Although Coscoroba Swan is a monogamous species, increasing the size of some attributes may confer some advantage for mate selection or male-male competition and, contrary to other studies, we suggest that positively allometric slopes alone should not be considered as evidence for sexual selection of the considered traits.
Abstract in English:Phalotris concolor Ferrarezzi, 1994 is a poorly known species described on the basis of a single female from municipality of Cristália, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Based on two recently collected specimens, we expand the knowledge of P. concolor with new morphological data, including the description of its hemipenis and color in life. A summary of comparative data between species of the P. nasutus group is present to aid the identification of new specimens. The new findings are important for a better understanding of the taxonomy of Phalotris.
Abstract in English:A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from Manaus, Brazil, Masteria manauara sp. nov., is herein described. The specimens were collected by hand or using litter bags in the leaf litter around Attalea attaleoides (Barb. Rodr.) palm trees. The new species resembles Masteria colombiensis Raven, 1981 by lacking paraembolic apophysis on male copulatory organs and having spiniform apophysis on the ventral metatarsus I. It differs in the tibial spur, made of two subdistal, spiniform and converging spurs. Females are unique in having two spermathecae with slender helicoidal stalks. Males and females have only six eyes, and are tiny, even when compared with other Masteria species.
Abstract in English:A new species of harvestman, Paecilaema batman, from Brazilian limestone caves of the state of Goiás, is described, and a remarkable intraspecific color patch variation is discussed. Paecilaema batman sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the following combination of features: chelicera similar in both sexes; prosoma without color patches; typical color patches on area I; and area III with two high spines. The new species is considered troglophilous.
Abstract in English:Costatrichia Mosely, 1937 is a Neotropical genus included in the subfamily Leucotrichiinae. Previously, this genus included 14 described species, two from Brazil and eight from Costa Rica. Based on recent specimens collected with light traps in the Brazilian Amazon and Costa Rica, we describe two new species: Costatrichia ipixuna sp. nov. from the state of Amazonas, Brazil (C. lodora group) and C. falsa sp. nov. from Puntarenas, Costa Rica (C. simplex group). Costatrichia ipixuna sp. nov. is most similar to C. noite Angrisano, 1995, but can be distinguished by the shallower U-shaped incision on posterior margin of sternum VIII, by the absence of the lateral projection of the same segment bearing very long setae, and by the phallus with a pair of spine-like sclerotized processes apically. Costatrichia falsa sp. nov. is most similar to C. zopilote Harris & Holzenthal, 1999, but differs from it by the median pair of spines of segment VIII, directed mesad and curved posteriorly crossing over each other; by the irregular posterior margin of segment VIII, in ventral view; by the segment X without short lateral paired spines; and by the flange-like apical processes on phallus. In addition, we provide the first record of C. noite Angrisano, 1995 from Brazil (state of Amazonas).
Abstract in English:A new amphipod species of Bogidiellidae Hertzog, 1936 is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from bore wells in the state of Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. The new species is closely related to those belonging to a group of Bogidiella species with inner rami of pleopods reduced or absent. Bogidiella totakura sp. nov. differs from all the other species in the group mainly by the shape, size and ornamentation on gnathopods and telson. This is the second Indian species of Bogidiella.
Abstract in English:A singular group of 19 species of Neotropical Trichomyia Haliday in Curtis, 1839 presents four segments in the palpus, the first two partially fused; five of these species were included in the subgenus Opisthotrichomyia Bravo, 2001 and seven in the subgenus BrachiotrichomyiaBravo & Araújo, 2013. A new species from Brazil is described and a new subgenus proposed for four Neotropical species of this morphological group: T. biloba Quate, 1999 from Panama, and T. onorei Bravo, 2002, T. queirozi Bravo, 2002 and T. horrida sp. nov. from Brazil. Syntrichomyia subgen. nov. can be recognized by its fused gonocoxites and gonostyli, and by its bilobed hypoproct. A key to the known species (males) of this new subgenus is presented.
Abstract in English:We introduce a new, high quality, low cost and versatile LEDs-based handset device that emits high power UV and white light, which can be used interchangeably. It offers power control and has long battery life. Even though it is optimized to detect and collect scorpions under low light conditions, it can also be used with other groups of fluorescent organisms. The device achieved superior performance in field and laboratory trials when compared with a 12 LEDs low power UV flashlight, and a 46 W black fluorescent light lamp, to locate Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922.
Abstract in English:We analyzed the frequency of tail autotomy, toe amputation and integument scars in three sympatric lizard species, Ameivula ocellifera, Tropidurus hispidus and T. semitaeniatus, from a Neotropical area of semi-arid Caatinga, in northeastern Brazil. We evaluated intraspecific differences in the frequency of injuries between the sexes within each species. Only in A. ocellifera there were differences in frequency of toe amputation and integument scars between males and females, with more injured females than males. This highest frequency of body injuries in females of A. ocellifera might be attributed to the mating behavior of the species, in which males bite and scratch the females. None of the species analyzed presented intersexual differences in frequency of tail autotomy. These findings might be due to similar predation pressure upon males and females as suggested for other lizards species.