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Biota Neotropica

On-line version ISSN 1676-0611

Biota Neotrop. vol.2 no.1 Campinas  2002

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032002000100008 

ARTICLES

 

Effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the establishment of seedlings of Jatobá, Hymenaea Courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)

 

 

Aidar, M.P.M.I; Martinez, C.A.II; Costa, A.C.III; Costa, P.M.F.I; Dietrich, S.M.C.I; Buckeridge, M.S.I, *

ISeção de Fisiologia e Bioquímica de Plantas, Instituto de Botânica, CP4005 CEP 01061-970, São Paul
IIDepartamento de Biologia, FFCLRP, USP, 14040-901, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo
IIIDepartamento de Biologia Vegetal, UFV, 36571-000, Viçosa, Minas Gerais

 

 


ABSTRACT

Plants grown in elevated CO2 environments may exhibit photosynthetic acclimation or down regulation, which is characterised by reduced rates of photosynthesis. In most cases of CO2-induced photosynthetic acclimation, the reduced rates of photosynthesis were still higher than those detected in plants growing at ambient CO2 concentrations. In this work we present a study on the behaviour of seedlings of Hymenaea courbaril, a late secondary/climax species that is one of the most important trees in mature tropical forests of the Americas. After germination, the seedling of H. courbaril increases its rate of growth due to the mobilisation of massive amounts of a storage cell wall polysaccharide (xyloglucan) from its cotyledons. In our experiments, germinated seeds were incubated in open top chambers with increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 (720 ppm) (control at 360 ppm). To test the effects of the presence of the storage compound on the responses of growing seedlings, cotyledons were detached before the start of polysaccharide mobilisation and parameters such as dry mass, leaf area, CO2 assimilation rates and chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured during 98 days. A comparison between 360 and 720ppm growing seedlings showed a significant increase in leaf area only in metaphylls of seedlings growing under higher CO2. However, a marked and persistent increase (2 fold) in photosynthesis (CO2 assimilation) was observed in all cases (with or without cotyledons). Changes in the levels of sucrose have been suggested to act as a signalling mechanism that switches on/off the storage or development mode in plant tissues. Thus, the explanation for our general observation that the differential response in terms of growth of seedlings ceases to exist when storage mobilisation is functioning, might be related to the fact that higher levels of sucrose are produced as a result of carbon storage compounds degradation. By the results obtained, it appears that plants grown under enriched CO2 did not acclimate and therefore under the climatic conditions forecasted on the basis of the present carbon dioxide emissions, Hymenaea courbaril should establish faster in its natural environment and might also serve as an efficient mechanism of carbon sequestration within the forest.

Key Words: Photosynthesis; CO2 enrichment; Hymenaea courbaril; storage mobilisation; root:shoot ratio; seedling growth; cotyledons; open top chamber; xyloglucan; biodiversity


RESUMO

Plântulas de jatobá crescidas em ambiente com concentrações elevadas de CO2 podem exibir aclimatação fotossintética ou retro-inibição, a qual é caracterizada pela redução das taxas fotossintéticas. Em muitos casos de aclimatação induzida por alto CO2, taxas reduzidas de fotossíntese são observadas, mas ainda são mais altas que aquelas detectadas em plantas crescendo em concentrações atuais de CO2 atmosférico (360ppm). No presente trabalho, realizamos um estudo do comportamento de plântulas de Hymenaea courbaril, uma espécie secundária tardia/clímax de grande importância em florestas tropicais maduras nas Américas. Em nossos experimentos, sementes recém germinadas foram cultivadas em câmaras de topo aberto com concentrações alteradas de CO2 (720 ppm e controle a 340 ppm). Para testar os efeitos da presença de compostos de reserva sobre as respostas de plântulas em crescimento, cotilédones foram destacados antes do início da mobilização do polissacarídeo de reserva (xiloglucano) e parâmetros tais como massa seca, área foliar, assimilação de CO2 e fluorescência da clorofila a, foram medidos durante 98 dias. A comparação entre plântulas crescendo em atmosfera de CO2 a 360 e 720 ppm, mostraram aumento siginificativo em área foliar apenas nos metáfilos de plântulas crescendo nas concentrações mais altas. No entanto, um efeito marcado e consistente de aumento na fotossíntese (assimilação de CO2) foi observado em todos os casos (com e sem cotilédones). Acredita-se que as variações nos níveis de sacarose podem funcionar como um mecanismo sinalizador de alterações nos estados de armazenamento ou desenvolvimento de tecidos vegetais. Portanto, uma possível explicação para nossas observações gerais de que uma resposta diferencial em termos de crescimento de plântulas deixa de existir quando a mobilização de reservas está em curso, pode estar relacionada com o fato de que altos níveis de sacarose são produzidos quando há degradação de compostos de reservas. De acordo com nossos resultados, parece que as plantas crescidas sob concentrações enriquecidas de CO2 não aclimataram e portanto, sob as condições climáticas previstas com base nos níveis atmosféricos atuais, plântulas de Hymenaea courbaril deverão estabelecer mais rapidamente em seu ambiente natural e podem também servir como um mecanismo eficiente de seqüestro de carbono pela floresta.schottiana Mart.. Phytoseiidae foi a segunda família mais numerosa (11,2% dos ácaros coletados), sendo a mais abundante em folíolos.

Palavras-chave: Fotossíntese; enriquecimento CO2 atmosférico; Hymenaea courbaril; mobilização de reservas; razão raíz:parte aérea; crescimento e estabelecimento de plântula; cotilédones; câmara de topo aberto; xiloglucano; biodiverisdade


 

 

Full text available only in PDF format.

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by BIOTA-FAPESP (grant number 98/05124-8). MSB and SMCD acknowledge a research productivity fellowship by CNPq. PFC acknowledges a MSc fellowship by CNPq. Authors acknowledge the Federal University of Viçosa for the use of the CO2 research facilities.

 

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Date received: June,08, 2002 - Accepted: June, 30, 2002

 

 

* Corresponding author: msbuck@usp.br

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