Abstract in English:After verifing the presence of the cupuliform organ on the seedlings from 105 species of Eucalyptus (ACCORSI, 1955-56), the author concluded that it is a morphological characteristic of the genus, which is peculiar to the plants only in first stages of their life. In this paper, the author resumes his study carried out on 20 species of Myrtaceae, distributed among 13 genus and he could certify, until now, that, in relation to the cupuliform organ, they may divided in three groups: 1.° Group - Without cupuliform organ 1. Campomanesia aurea Berg 2. Eugenia campestris DC. 3. Eugenia tomentosa Camb. 4. Eugenia uniflora L. 5. Myrciaria edulis Berg 6. Myrciaria trunciflora Berg 7. Pitangueira-gigante - As it was difficulty to identify this species, I use its common name. 2.° Group - With rudiment of cupuli orm organ 1. Eugenia uvalha Camb. 2. Jambosa vulgaris DC. 3. Myrciaria cauliflora Berg 3.° Group - With full cupuliform organ 1. Amomyrtus luma (Mol) Legr. et Kaus. 2. Blepharocalyx angustifolius Berg 3. Britoa acida Berg 4. Callistemon speciosus DC. o. Callistemon viminalis Cheel. 6. Feijoa sellowiana Berg 7. Myrceugenia glaucescens (Camb.) Legrand 8. Myrrhinium rubriflorum Berg 9. Psidium guayava Raddi 10. Psidium littorale Raddi During his observations, he could identify also in many, seeds an "operculum", further observations about it will be published opportunely.
Abstract in English:The present work was carried out in order to study: (1) the symptoms of deficiency and excess of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, S, Mg) in the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L. var. Mundo novo); (2) the modifications induced by those treatments in the hystological make up of the leaves; (3) the effects of deficiency and excess on the growth and in the chemical composition of the plants. Young coffee plants were grown in nutrient solution, three treatments being used, namely: complete solution (HOAGLAND & ARNON, 1950), deficient solution, in which a giVen element was omitted, and solution with 3 times the concentration of the element under study. The main conclusions can be summaryzed as follows. 1. SYMPTOMS. Clear cut symptoms of malnutrition were observed in the treatments: -N, -P, +P, -Ca, -Mg, -S and +S; the signals - and + stared respectively for deficient and excess level. 2. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS. The most definite alterations took place in the treatments +P, -Mg and +S. Usually the characteristics of the chloroplasts were affected: loss of the green color and coalescence into irregular bodies.
Abstract in Portuguese:1. No presente trabalho foram abordados diversos aspectos relacionados com a aplicação dos inseticidas sistêmicos no algodoeiro. 2. A variedade utilizada nas experiências relatadas foi a I. A. Campinas 817 e os ensaios, tanto de laboratório como de campo, foram relacionados em detalhe. 3. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os sistêmicos utilizados não afetaram, em ensaios com germinador, a capacidade de germinação das sementes. Também os resultados do ensaio de campo indicaram que as plantas, no que se refere ao florescimento, ao número de capulhos, ao pêso, à produção e à capacidade de germinação das sementes bem como às características das fibras, comprimento, uniformidade, resistência, finura, maturidade, porcentagem e índices de fibra e de sementes, não foram afetadas pelos tratamentos. 4. Em face dos dados de germinação concluiu-se que a baixa porcentagem de germinação das sementes, no campo, muitas vêzes observadas após serem elas tratadas pelos sistêmicos, deve ser atribuída a fatôres extranhos ao tratamento e que os sistêmicos estudados não afetaram o desenvolvimento das plantas.
Abstract in English:1 - This paper deals with several aspects related to the aplication of systemic insectisides on cotton. 2 - The I. A. Campinas 817 variety was used in the experiments carried on. Both laboratory and field and all the experiments were related in detail. 3 - The results obtained showed that utilization of systemic insectisides did not affect the seed germination capacity in tests made in germination apparatus. 4 - The field experiment results indicated that plants, as to blooming, bolls number, weigth, yeld and seed germination capacity as well as to fibers properties (lenght, lenght uniformity, strength, fineness, maturity) were not affected by the treatments. 5 - According with the data obtained we may conclued that the low percentage of seed germination in the field, as has been related by others must be due to factors not connected with the seeds treatments and that the systemics used did not affect the plant development.
Abstract in English:Due to the great importance of coffee to the Brazilian economy, a good deal of the work carried out in the "Laboratório de Isótopos", E. E. A. "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba, S. Paulo, Brazil, was dedicated to the study of some problems involving that plant. The first one was designed to verify a few aspects of the control of zinc deficiency which is common in many types of soils in Brazil. An experiment conducted in nutrient solution showed that the leaf absorption of the radiozinc was eight times as high as the root uptake; the lower surface of the leaves is particularly suited for this kind of absorption. Among the heavy metal micronutrients, only iron did not affect the absorption of the radiozinc; manganese, copper, and molybdenum brought about a decrease of fifty per cent in total uptake. In another pot experiment in which two soils typical of the coffee growing regions were used, namely, a sandy soil called "arenito de Bauru" and a heavy one, "terra roxa", only O.l and 0.2 per cent of the activity supplied to the roots was recovered", respectively. This indicates that under field conditions the farmer should not attempt to correct zinc deficiency by applying zinc salts to the soil: leaf sprays should be used wherever necessary. In order to find out the most suitable way to supply phosphatic fertilizers to the coffee plant, under normal farm conditions, an experiment with tagged superphosphate was carried out with the following methods of distribution of this material: (1) topdressed in a circular area around the trees; (2) placed in the bottom of a 15 cm deep furrow made around the plant; (3) placed in a semicircular furrow, as in the previous treatment; (4) sprayed directly to the leaves. It was verified that in the first case, circa 10 per cent of the phosphorus in the leaves came from the superphosphate; for the other treatments, the results ware, respectively: 2.4, 1.7, and 38.0 per cent. It is interesting to mention that the first and the last methods of distribution were those less used by the farmers; now they are being introduced in many coffee plantations. In a previous trial it was demonstrated that urea sprays were an adequate way to correct nitrogen deficiency under field conditions. An experiment was then set up in which urea-C14 was used to study the metabolism of this fertilizer in coffee leaves. In was verified that in a 9 hours period circa 95 per cent of the urea supplied to the leaves had been absorbed. The distribution of the nitrogen of the urea was followed by standard chemical procedures. On the other hand the fate of the carbonic moiety was studied with the aid of the radiochromatographic technique. Thus, the incorporation of C14 in aminoacids, sugars and organic acids was ascertained. Data obtained in this work gave a definite support to the idea that in coffee leaves, as in a few other higher plants, a mechanism similar to the urea cycle of animals does exist.
Abstract in English:This paper deals with anatomical descriptions of some types of nectaries in 27 species of honey plants of Piracicaba, S. P. The material studied was divides in two groups: a) Extra-floral nectaries; b) Floral nectaries. Euphorbia pulcherrima, Willd; showed to belonging to the first group: its nectaries tissue consist of an epidermal layer of cell without stomata and with true gland, with subepidermal cells diferentiated by the thickness of the wall. Among the plants with floral nectaries, the following types has been listed, according the location of the nectary in the flower: 1 - with true glands: a) in sepals, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, L.; Dombeya Wallichii, Bth. e Hk; b) in the stamens tube, Antigonum leptopus, Hook e Arn.; 2 - on the receptacle with nectariferous tissue in the epidermal cell with: a) thickness wall with stomata, Prunus persical, L.; b) thin wall without stomata, Crotalaria paulinia, Shranck; Caesal-pinia sepiaria, Roxb; Aberia caffra; 3 - with a disc located in the receptacle with: epidermal: a) with stomata, Coffea arábica, L. var. semper florens; Citrus aurantifolia, Swing; Cinchona sp.; Pryrostegia ignea, Presl.; b) without stomata and with thin wall, Leojurus sibiricus, L.; Bactocydia unguis, Mart., Ipomoea purpurea, L.; Greviüea Thelemanniana, Hueg.; Dolichos lablab, L.; Vernonia polyanthes, Less., Montanoa bipinatifida, C. Koch., Eruca sativa, L. Brassica Juncea, Co; Eucalyptus tereticomis, Smith.; Eucalyptus rostrata, Schleche; Salvia splendens, Selow.; 4 - in the basal tissues of the ovary, Budleia brasiliensis, Jacq F.; Petrea subserrata, Cham.; 5 - in the base of stamens, Per sea americana, Mill. On the anatomical point of view, most of the types of nectary studied has external nectariferous tissues, located on the epidermal cells with thin periclinal wall and without stomata. The sub-epidermal layer were rich in sugar. Short correlation was found between the structure of the nectary and the amount of nectar secretion. So, in the nectary with true glands, in those with thin wall and without stomata on epidermal cells and in those with stomata, the secretion was higher than in the other types listed.
Abstract in English:In order to find out the best way to supply phosphorus to coffee plants when growing in "terra roxa misturada", a red soil with a high fixing capacity, tagged superphosphate was applied by the following procedures: (1) topdressed in a circular strip around the trees; (2) placed in the bottom of a circular furrow 15 cm deep; (3) placed in a semicircular furrow also 15 cm deep; (4) sprayed directly to the leaves. In each case 150 gms. of ordinary superphosphate tagged with H3 P32 O4 to give 5 X 10(9) c.p.m. were given to the two and half year old coffee plants. It was found that for the several treatments of the total phosphorus in the leaves the following values, on a per cent basis, came from the applied superphosphates: (1) topdressed 10.2 per cent, (2) circular furrow 2.4 per cent, (3) semicircular furrow 1.7 per cent, (4) sprayed 38.0 per cent; one can see, then, that methods (2) and (3) commonly used by the coffee planters are a very inefficient way to supply phosphorus in this type of soil. The remarkable foliar absorption was checked twice: a water culture experiment was carried out, the radiophosphorus being supplied by brushing it in the upper and lower surfaces of a given leaf; radioactivity was detected all over the plant as a result both of absorption and translocation; on the other hand, leaves collected from the sprayed trees were radioautographed; the radioautographs showed the pattern of distribution of the P32 which indicates true absorption rather than a surface contamination. In another locality, an experiment was caried out with 8 year old plants growing in "arenito de Bauru" which is a sandy soil with much less phosphorus fixing capacity. In this experiment the aim was to compare absorption of tagged superphosphate by trees growin under mulch against plants not receiving this treatment, The uptake of phosphorus was the same for both sets of plants. In both field experiments soil samples down to 15 cm in the profile were collected and its 0.2NHC1 soluble phosphorus was counted; rather significant values were observed mainly in the upper 5 cm layers.
Abstract in English:23 isolates from root nodules of 13 leguminous species were tested in laboratory for cultural and physiological characteristics. The following conclusions can be drawn: 1 - The cultural and physiological characters were not enough to identify the different isolates. 2 - The data from cultural and physiological tests help the identification of the bacteria, when checked with data from cross-inoculation tests reported elsewhere (GALLI, 1958). The bacteria studied herein may be grouped as the following: a) nodule bacteria from Vigna sinensis, Calopogonium muconoides, Centrosema pubescens, Desmodium adscendens, D. discolor, Indigofera mucronata, I. subulata, I. sumatrana, Stylosanthes guyanensisA Tephrosia cândida and Teramnus uncinatus: bacteria with scanty growth; alcaline reaction in milk-brom cresol purple; no acid production in medium with any of the carbohydrates used. b) nodule bacteria from pea and from Vicia obscura: bacteria with moderate growth; alcaline reaction, with serum zone, in milk-brom cresol purple; acid production in medium with all the carbohydrates used. c) nodule bacteria from Leucaena glauca: bacteria with moderate growth; alcaline reaction, with serum zone, in milk-brom cresol purple; acid production from rafinose and manitol. d) nodule bacteria from Cratylia floribunda: bacteria with scanty growth; alcaline reaction in milk-brom cresol purple; acid production from mannose and ramnose.
Abstract in English:This paper deal with one experiment carried out in order to study the correlation between petioles analysis and seed cotton yield. A 3X3X3 factorial with respect to N, P2 0(5) and K2 O was installed in a sandy soil with low potash content and medium amounts of total N and easily extractable P. Two kinds of petioles, newly mature were collected for analysis: those attached to fruit hearing branches, and petioles located on the stem; the first group is conventionally named "productive petioles"; The second one is called "not productive petioles". Petioles' sampling was done when the first blossoms appeared. Yield date showed a marked response to potash, both nitrogen and phosphorus having no effect. Very good correlation was found between petioles potash and yield. Both types of petioles samples were equally good indicators of the potash status of the plants. By mathematical treatment of the date it followes that the highed yield which was possible under experimental conditions, 1.562 kg of seed cotton per hectare would be reacher by using 128 kg of K2O per hectare. With this amount of potash supplied to the plants the following K levels would be expected in the petioles: "productive petioles" "not productive petioles" 1,93 % K 1,85 % K
Abstract in English:The authors studied the rainfall in Pesqueira (Pernambuco, Brasil) in a period of 48 years (1910 through 1957) by the method of orthogonal polynomials, degrees up to the fourth having been tried. None of them was significant, so that it seems that no trend is present. The mean observed was 679.00 mm., with standard error of the mean 205.5 mm., and a 30.3% coefficient of variation. The 95% level of probability would include annual rainfall from 263.9 up to 1094.1mm.
Abstract in English:The present paper discusses the data obtained in shade and unshaded coffee plots at Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The results, analysed statistically, can be summarized as follows: a) unshaded plots produced 17% more than shaded ones; b) the percentage of coffee berry borer infestation was higher in shaded plots as compared with unshaded ones; c) the percentage of green (not ripened fruits) depends of the harvest time. When the harvest was retarded, the percentage of green fruits was higher in the shaded plots. When the percentage of green fruits was the same, both in shaded and unshaded plots, the percentage of ripened was higher and the percentage of dried fruits was lesser in the shaded plots as compared with unshaded ones; d) other comparisons as production of dried grains by the field fruits, relation between dried fruits and dried grains and cup-test by expert coffee-taster, did not show differences among shaded and unshaded plots.
Abstract in English:This paper describes the data obtained for the growth of sugar cane, Variety Co 419, and the amount and rate of absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and silicon, according to the age of the plant, in the soil and climate conditions of the state of S. Paulo, Brazil. An experiment was installed in the Estação Experimental de Cana de Açúcar "Dr. José Vizioli", at Piracicaba, state of S. Paulo, Brazil, and the soil "tèrra-roxa misturada" presented the following composition: Sand (more than 0,2 mm)........................................................................ 8.40 % Fine sand (from 0,2 to less than 0,02 mm)................................................. 24.90 % Silt (from 0,02 to less than 0,002 mm)...................................................... 16.40 % Clay (form 0,002 mm and less)................................................................ 50.20 % pH 10 g of soil and 25 ml of distilled water)..................................................... 5.20 %C (g of carbon per 100 g of soil)................................................................. 1.00 %N (g of nitrogen per 100 g of soil)............................................................... 0.15 P0(4)-³ (me. per 100 g of soil, soluble in 0,05 normal H2SO4) ............................... 0.06 K+ (exchangeable, me. per 100 g of soil)....... 0.18 Ca+² (exchangeable, me. per 100 g of soil)...... 2.00 Mg+² (exchangeable, me. per 100 g of soil)...... 0.66 The monthly rainfall and mean temperature from January 1956 to August 1957 are presented in Table 1, in Portuguese. The experiment consisted of 3 replications of the treatments: without fertilizer and with fertilizer (40 Kg of N, from ammonium sulfate; 100 Kg of P(2)0(5) from superphosphate and 40 Kg K2 O, from potassium chloride). Four complete stools (stalks and leaves) were harvested from each treatment, and the plants separated in stalks and leaves, weighed, dried and analysed every month from 6 up to 15 months of age. The data obtained for fresh and dry matter production are presented in table 2, and in figure land 2, in Portuguese. The curves for fresh and dry matter production showed that fertilized and no fertilized sugar cane with 6 months of age presents only 5% of its total weight at 15 months of age. The most intense period of growth in this experiment is located, between 8 and 12 months of age, that is between December 1956 and April 1957. The dry matter production of sugar cane with 8 and 12 months of age was, respectively, 12,5% and 87,5% of the total weight at 15 months of age. The growth of sugar cane in relation to its age follows a sigmoid curve, according to the figures 1, 2 and 3. The increase of dry matter production promoted by using fertilizer was 62,5% when sugar cane was 15 months of age. The concentration of the elements (tables 4 and 5 in Portuguese) present a general trend of decreasing as the cane grows older. In the stalks this is true for all elements studied in this experiment. But in the leaves, somme elements, like sulfur and silicon, appears to increase with the increasing of age. Others, like calcium and magnesium do not show large variations, and finally a third group, formed by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium seems to decrease at the beginning and later presents a light increasing. The concentration of the elements was higher in the leaves than in the stalks from 6 up to 15 months of age. There were some exceptions. Potassium, magnesium and sulfur were higher in the stalks than in the leaves from 6 up to 8 or 9 months of age. After 9 months, the leaves presented more potassium, magnesium and sulfur than the stalks. The percentage of nitrogen in the leaves was lower in the plants that received fertilizer than in the plants without fertilizer with 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 and 13 months of age. This can be explained by "dilution effect". The uptake of elements by 4 stools (stalks and leaves) of sugar cane according to the plant age is showed in table 6, in Portuguese. The absorption of all studied elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and silicon, was higher in plants that received fertilizer. The trend of uptake of nitrogen and potassium is similar to the trend of production of dry matter, that is, the maximum absorption of those two nutrients occurs between 9 and 13 months of age. Finaly, the maxima amounts of elements absorbed by 4 stools (stalks and leaves) of sugar cane plants that received fertilizer are condensed in the following table: Element Maximum absorption in grams Age of the plants in months Nitrogen (N) 81.0 14 Phosphorus (P) 6.8 15 Potassium (K) 81.5 15 Calcium (Ca) 19.2 15 Magnesium (Mg) 13.9 13 Sulfur (S) 9.3 15 Silicon (Si) 61.8 15 It is very interesting to note the low absorption of phosphorus even with 100 kg of P2O5 per hectare, aplied as superphosphate. The uptake of phosphorus was lower than calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Also, it is noteworthy the large amount of silicon absorbed by sugar cane.
Abstract in English:The authors discuss a formula for the determination of the most profitable level of fertilization (x*). This formula, presented by CAREY and ROBINSON (1953), can be written as: x*= (1/c) log cx u L10 + (1/c) log wu _______ ___ 1-10 x u t being c the growth factor in Mitscherlich's equation, x u a standard dressing of the nutrient, L 10 the Naeperian logarithm of 10, u the response to the standard dressing, w the unit price of the crop product, and i the unit price of the nutrient. This formula is a modification of one of the formulas of PIMENTEL GOMES (1953). One of its advantages is that is does not depend on A, the theoretical maximum harvest, which is not directly given by experimental data. But another advantage, proved in this. paper, is that the first term on the right hand side K= 1(/c) log cx u L 10 ____________ 1 - 10-cx u is practically independent of c, and approximately equivalent to (1/2) x u. So, we have approximately x* = (1/2) x u + (1/c) log wu . ____ x u t With experimental data we compute z = wu ____ x u t then using tables 1, 2 and 3, we may obtain Y - (1/c) log z and finally x* = (1/2) x u + Y. This is an easy way to determine the most profitable level of fertilization when experimental data on the response u to a dressing x u are available. Tables for the calculation of Y are included, for nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and manure.
Abstract in English:The authors carried out joint analyses of data referring to six experiments with varieties of sugar cane, carried out by SEGALLA and ALVAREZ in six locations in the State of S. Paulo, Brasil. The analyses showed that for cane or sugar yield, either for plant-cane or for plant-cane together with the first two ratoons, the best five varieties were CB 40-69, CB 41-76, CB 40-13, CB 40-19 and Co 419. The yield of sugar cane/for all varieties studied is given below, in metric tons produced in plant cane and the first two ratoons. Varieties Yield of sugar cane (tons/hectare) CB 40-69 205.2 CB 41-76 204.5 CB 40-13 199.4 CB 40-19 192.4 Co 419 192.1 CB 38-30 182.1 CB 41-70 181.5 Co 413 177.5 CB 38-22 174.4 CB 36-14 172.8 Co 290 166.6 CB 41-35 147.9 The least significant difference by Tukey's test, at the 5% level of probability, is A = 28.3 metric tons/hectare.
Abstract in Portuguese:Num ensaio de adubação com N, P, K e estêrco (E) de mudas de eucalipto (Eucalyptus saligna Sm.) em "torrão paulista" nos viveiros da Cia. Paulista de Estrada de Ferro, em Rio Claro, SP, foi usado um delineamento fatorial de 3x3x3x2, com resultados estatisticamente significativos para N, P e estêrco. As alturas médias das mudas, em centímetros, 3(1/2) meses após a repicagem para os torrões, foram as seguintes. N0 42,4 ± 1,5 P0 56,4 ± 1,5 E0 54,9 ± 1,2 N1 62,8 ± 1,5 P1 58,4 ± 1,5 E1 64,0 ± 1,2 N2 73,2 ± 1,5 P2 63,6 ± 1,5 As médias de algumas combinações interessantes de tratamentos são dadas a seguir, em centímetros. N0PoK0Eo 41,3 ± 6,2 N2P2K0E1 83,0 ± 6,2 N2P0K0E0 59,6 ± 6,2 N2P2K2E1 87,4 ± 6,2 N2P2K0E0 64,0 ± 6,2
Abstract in English:This paper deals with a3 X 3 X 3 X 2 factorial experiment with N, P, K, manure, applied to seedlings of Eucalyptus saligna Sm., planted in pots of the type known as "torrão paulista". Results were statistically significant for N, P and manure. The average heights of plants, 3½ months after planting in the pots were, in centimeters, the following: N0 42,4 ± 1,5 P0 56,4 ± 1,5 E0 54,9 ± 1,2 N1 62,8 ± 1,5 P1 58,4 ± 1,5 E1 64,0 ± 1,2 N2 73,2 ± 1,5 P2 63,6 ± 1,5 The averages corresponding to some more interesting treatment combinations are given below: N0PoK0Eo 41,3 ± 6,2 N2P2K0E1 83,0 ± 6,2 N2P0K0E0 59,6 ± 6,2 N2P2K2E1 87,4 ± 6,2 N2P2K0E0 64,0 ± 6,2
Abstract in English:Three groups of 6 pigs, three months old, were fed the same basal ration of corn and mineral mixture ad libitum. The control group received soybeans oil meal (solvent proc.), the second group raw soybeans and the third one, sprouted soybeans. The feed intake, daily gain and conversion were practically the same in the three groups as the analisis of variance revealed. Conclusion is it does not pay to sprout soybeans for pigs.
Abstract in English:The A. studied the use of "crescilin", a residual byproduct of penicillin manufacture. It has been recommended the proportion of 1 per cent and proclaimed to supply 400,000 U. O. per kg. The results obtained permited to conclude that 1 per cent of crescilin did not increase the growth of pigs.
Abstract in English:Bacta-mon, produced by Bacta-mon S. A., São Paulo, Brazil, is recommended as a microbiological, and suggested as a supplement for animal rations. This experiment deals with this product in chicken feeding. Four lots of baby chicken received, during 6 weeks the following treatments: a control ration Rl; a ration R2 containing 10 per cent of wheat standard middlings fermented by Bacta-mon, substituting equal weight of wheat standard middlings of the control ration Rl; two rations R3 and R4, both without meat meal and containing 10 per cent of wheat standard middlings fermented respectively by Bactamon and fresh cow manure, substituting equal weight of wheat standard middlings of the control. The results may be so summarized: (1) On the basis of the weights of the chicks at 6 weeks age, we concluded that there was not any advantage in the addition of the wheat standard middlings fermented by Bacta-mon. (2) The rations R3 and R4 were considered statistically equivalents and lower the control ration Rl. (3) It seems that the main difference observed in these results may be atributed to lack of animal protein. (4) The highest mortality and the lowest consumption of feed by the lots receiving ration R3 and R4, seem to indicate, in addition, that this prejudice was due the lack of animal protein and the unpalatability of these rations.
Abstract in English:Searching for a substitute of wheat bran and wheat standard middlings in chick mashes, three experiments were carried out using ground sorghums. In the first one, 30% of Atlas, Kafir e White Afrikan x Sumac (seed chops) were substituted for 30% of wheat by-products. All the rations with sorghum grain gave inferior results. In another experiment, 7, 14, 20 and 30% of sorghum substituted equal percentages of those wheat by-products, the best results having been obtained with 7% of Atlas and 23% of wheat by-products. Finally, in a third experiment, 5% of dried cow manure plus 10, 20 and 30% of ground Atlas sorghum were substituted for 5% of alfalfa hay meal plus, respectively, 10, 20 and 30% of wheat by-products. All results obtained from rations containing sorghum were as good as or better than that given by the ration including alfalfa hay meal and only wheat by-products. Under the conditions of this experiment, 5% of cow manure plus 12,25% of sorghum and 17,75% of wheat by-products is supposed to be the best combination to be recommended, this result having been attained through the study of the regression equation.
Abstract in English:This paper deals with the study by orthogonal polynomials of trends in the mean annual and mean monthly temperatures (in degrees Centigrade) in Campinas (State of São Paulo, Brasil), from 1890 up to 1956. Only 4 months were studied (January, April, July and October) taken as typical of their respective season. For the annual averages both linear and quadratic components were significant, the regression equation being y = 19.95 - 0.0219 x + 0.00057 x², where y is the temperature (in degrees Centigrade) and x is the number of years after 1889. Thus 1890 corresponds to x = 1, 1891, to x = 2, etc. The equation shows a minimum for the year 1908, with a calculated mean y = 19.74. The expected means by the regression equation are given below. Anual temperature means for Campinas (SP, Brasil) calculated by the regression equation Year Annual mean (Degrees Centigrade) 1890 19.93 1900 10.78 1908 19.74 (minimum) 1010 19.75 1920 19.82 1930 20.01 1940 20.32 1950 20.74 1956 21.05 The mean for 67 years was 20.08°C with standard error of the mean 0.08°G. For January the regression equation was y = 23.08 - 0.0661 x + 0.00122 x², with a minimum of 22.19°C for 1916. The average for 67 years was 22.70°C, with standard error 0.12°C. For April no component of regression was significant. The average was 20.42°C, with standard error 0.13°C. For July the regression equation was of first degree, y = 16.01 + 0.0140X. The average for 67 years was 16.49°C, with standard error of the mean 0.14°C. Finally, for October the regression equation was y = 20.55 - 0.0362x + 0.00078x², with a minimum of 20.13°C for 1912. The average was 20.52°C, with standard error of the mean equal to 0.14°C.
Abstract in English:The author studied the storage of seeds of mango trees with the aim of Keeping high its ability of germination. Seven means of storage were tried, with two temperatures: environment temperature (22 to 27 degrees Centigrade) and cold store room (5 degrees centigrade). The methods of storage tried were: 1 - The frewit kept complete. 2 - Seeds taken within the stone. 3 - Seeds taken out of the stone. 4 - Stones heated with a Fungicida (Zineb). 5 - Stones cut laterally and heated with a fungicide (Zineb). 6 - Seeds (out of sones) heated with Zineb. 7 - Stones steatified with sand. The best results were obtained for seeds kept within whole fruits, probably owing to protection provided by outer layers. The use of fungicide imposed the sanitary aspect of seeds and stones. Storage in cold store room (5 degrees Centigrade) injured the seeds and stones in all cases. Germinating power was kept high up to 70 days for complete fruits. It seems that biggers fruits were more favorable to keep high the ability of theirs seeds to germinate.
Abstract in English:The authors study the insect population that visit the mango trees and search for their pollinizing activity. Prior operations showed that very few bees (Apis mellifera) visited the flowers of mango trees. It was known that the percentage of fecundation is low (Simão 1955), Popenoe (1929), Spencer and Kennard (1955), Lynch and Mustard (1955), Ruehle and Ledin (1955), so that the authors wented to Know if insects could be responsible for this. Insects were collected from mango trees, belonging to 10 orders, which, on the whole are not pollinizing agents. Bees were not collected, 21% were Hymenoptera, 20% were Diptera, 13% Hemiptera, 10% Coleoptera, 3% Blattariae and smoller percentages belonged to other orders.
Abstract in English:The author studied the possibility of propagating "Samambaia de Metro" Polypodium Subauriculatum, by means of spores, since vegetative multiplication is hard to obtain for large numbers of plants. Five treatments were tried, with 4 replications. I - Coarse "Flores Floor" and fine "Flores Floor". II - Coarse Flores Floor and moss. III - Coarse sand, Flores Floor and brick powder VI - Coarse sand, Flores Floor and brick powder V - Coarse sand and Flores Floor. The best germination was obtained with treatment V (Coarse sand et the boltom), topesed by Flores Floor. The pots were permanently kept on a tray pul of water, in a Greenhouse. This method provided over 4.000 offspring, which at 2 ½ years of age were of a size mitable for ornamental use.
Abstract in English:The author has studied the domatia appearing in the Rubiaceae family by examining 622 species distributed among 113 genera; and has verified that 88 species belonging to 35 genera have domatia fitting in the "touffe de poils", "en pertuis" and "em pochette" types according to the Chevalier's Classification. 39 species present domatia that display chamber, duct and outlet orifice. The other 46 species present domatia either as hair-agglomerates, hair-clusters or scattered hairs. The domatia in Paveta indica L. and Vangueria edulis Vahl. are in the shape of a little holow in the blade tissue and have no hairs. In Borreria verbenoides Cham & Schl. the domatia are formed by an elevation in the limb and presents abundant and short hairs. In Bqthryopora corymbosa Hook f. and Gardenia Thumbergii L. the domatia appear also in the nervure axils of several orders and also in Rudgea lanceolata Benth., Rudgea subsessilis Benth. and Rudgea gardenoides Muell. Arg. are they located7 in the axilla of the angle directed toward the leaf base.