Almanack, Issue: 28, Published: 2021
  • ¿El constitucionalismo popular tiene una historia latinoamericana? A vueltas con sus orígenes decimonónicos Palabras Para Debate

    Garriga, Carlos
  • LAS NUEVAS GRAMÁTICAS DE LA MOVILIZACIÓN POLÍTICA LOCAL Dossier

    Ayrolo, Valentina; Hébrard, Véronique
  • “ACCORDING TO THE CUSTOM”: TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE CABILDO ABIERTO IN AREQUIPA CITY (1780-1824) Dossier

    Valenzuela, Fernando Calderón

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El cabildo abierto fue uno de los mecanismos de gobierno local introducido en América por los españoles en el siglo XVI. En este artículo demuestro la vigencia que mantuvo este mecanismo en la ciudad de Arequipa, en el Virreinato de Perú, a fines del siglo XVIII; siendo utilizado por los corregidores para obtener el respaldo de las élites y luego por los intendentes para recaudar dinero. Además, señalo las transformaciones que experimentó durante la crisis de la Monarquía Hispánica, cuando el cabildo abierto fue convocado con fines político-militares. La desaparición de este tipo de asambleas públicas tras la restauración del sistema absolutista fue resultado de la desconfianza entre autoridades virreinales y arequipeñas, lo que se tradujo en la implementación de un gobierno local cada vez más excluyente.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Cabildo Abierto was one of the local government’s mechanisms introduced to America by the Spaniards in the 16th Century. This paper shows the validity the Cabildo Abierto maintained in Arequipa City, Viceroyalty of Peru, by the end of the 18th Century, as it was used by the Corregidor to obtain support from the elites and, later, by the Intendente to raise money. It also points out the transformations the Cabildo Abierto experienced during the Hispanic Monarchy Crisis, at a time when it was organized with political-military purposes. The disappearance of these town meetings, after the restoration of the Absolutist System, was the result of mistrust between viceregal and Arequipa authorities, which caused the implementation of an increasingly exclusive local government.
  • ASSEMBLY PRACTICES IN THE PROVINCE OF JUJUY (ARGENTINA) BETWEEN 1835-1852: LEADERSHIP, POLITICAL DEFINITIONS AND LEGITIMATIONS OF POWER Dossier

    Medina, Federico

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El artículo indaga sobre las Asambleas Populares que reasumieron la soberanía en la provincia de Jujuy (Argentina) entre 1835 y 1852. Se interesa por comprender su rol en la definición de los proyectos políticos en juego, los momentos en los que se apeló a ellas, quiénes lo hicieron, así como las relaciones entre la práctica asambleísta y los poderes ejecutivo y legislativo. El argumento que sostenemos es que las Asambleas fueron parte del repertorio político disponible utilizado por la dirigencia de Jujuy e instancias claves para la configuración de acuerdos políticos. A través de ellas podemos ver, además, algunos casos de movilización de fuerzas y la emergencia o consolidación de liderazgos políticos. En esta línea interpretativa, mostramos la centralidad de las alianzas interprovinciales, sin las cuales ningún grupo que aspiraba al gobierno logró fundar un orden estable.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The article inquires the Popular Assemblies that reassumed sovereignty in the province of Jujuy (Argentina) between 1835 and 1852. It is interesting to understand the role that the Popular Assemblies had in defining the political projects at stake, when it was necessary to appeal to them, who did it, and what relationships can be established between the assembly practice and the executive and legislative powers. The argument we make is that the Asambleas were part of the available political repertoire used by the Jujuy leadership as key instances for the redefinition and configuration of political agreements. Through them we can see, in some cases, the mobilization of forces and the emergence or consolidation of political leadership. In this interpretive line, we show the centrality of interprovincial alliances, without which no group that aspired to the government managed to found a stable order.
  • QUAND LES ACTEURS PRENNENT LA PLUME. PRONUNCIARSE DANS LE VENEZUELA INDÉPENDANT (1828-1858) Dossier

    Hébrard, Veronique

    Abstract in French:

    Resume This article aims to analyze the dynamics of socio-political mobilization as manifested in 19th century Venezuela through a practice little studied in this perspective: the pronouncement.Almost always considered in its armed dimension, it should be mentioned that it also means, through the break of the pact, an interpellation of government agents, at the local and/or national level, that is, the expression of a collective will in the face of a specific situation.On this occasion hundreds of texts are written, debated and signed by social actors, even those who do not enjoy the status of citizen, and in most cases published in the following months. However, although it has no legality, the study at the same time of the practices, but also of the vocabulary and sociability that they generate, allows to show at the same time their real role in the political debate, the level of politicization of an important spectrum of social actors, but also its legitimacy. Considering it then as an observatory of the phenomena of mobilization and politicization as elaborated during the first decades of national construction, we will study two important campaigns of pronouncements/votes that affect Venezuela, in 1827 to ask Bolivar to exercise extraordinary powers and in 1858 in the context of the Impeachment of President José Tadeo Monagas.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las dinámicas de movilización socio-políticas tales como se manifiestan en la Venezuela del siglo XIX a través de una práctica poco estudiada en esta perspectiva: el pronunciamiento. Casi siempre considerado en su dimensión armada, cabe mencionar que significa también, mediante la ruptura del pacto que supone, una interpelación de los agentes del gobierno, a nivel local y/o nacional, es decir la expresión de una voluntad colectiva frente a una situación específica. En esta ocasiones centenares de textos son redactados, debatidos y firmados por actores sociales, incluso aquellos que no gozan del estatuto de ciudadano, y en la mayoría de los casos publicados en los meses siguientes. Ahora bien, y aunque no tenga ninguna legalidad, el estudio a la vez de las prácticas, pero también del vocabulario y de la sociabilidad que generan, permite mostrar a la vez su papel real en el debate político, el nivel de politización de un importante espectro de actores sociales, pero también su legitimidad frente a los representantes del Estado. Considerándolo entonces como un observatorio de los fenómenos de movilización y politización tal como se elaboran durante las primeras décadas de la construcción nacional, estudiaremos dos importantes campañas de pronunciamientos/votos que afectan a Venezuela, en 1827 para pedir a Bolívar que ejerce poderes extraordinarios y en 1858 en el marco de la destitución del presidente José Tadeo Monagas.
  • LONG LIVE THE KING OF PORTUGAL AND THE EASTERN CISPLATIN: PRESS AND THE POLITICAL LANGUAGE OF PORTUGUESE LIBERALISM IN RÍO DE LA PLATA (1817-1824) Dossiê

    Winter, Murillo Dias

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar a criação da província Cisplatina e sua inserção nas experiências liberais ibero-americanas. Defendo que as transformações em Portugal possibilitaram o arranjo de novos pactos políticos no Rio da Prata e, desse modo, a realização de um antigo desejo da Coroa: a oficialização da dominação de Portugal na região. Para tanto, a imprensa em processo de crescimento exerceu papel fundamental. Em 1821, as Cortes Extraordinárias de Lisboa promulgaram a Lei de Liberdade de Imprensa para o Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves, ampliando para além-mar o direito adquirido pelos reinóis no ano anterior. Esse processo o significou o surgimento de publicações em números inéditos em Montevidéu, parte desses domínios. Criando uma dinâmica de discussão na esfera pública com diversas possibilidades de futuro aventadas. Nos jornais, inseridos na dinâmica lusitana e favoráveis a criação da província Cisplatina, que data do mesmo ano, foram reverberados e emulados conceitos fundamentais do liberalismo português, a exemplo de regeneração, ordem, anarquia, revolução. Destaco também que foi o movimento artiguista, em sua etapa mais radical e suas dificuldades de impor seu projeto a todo território oriental, que aproximou as elites montevideanas das autoridades lusas e seu discurso de pacificação e regeneração aos moldes dos movimentos europeus. Evitava-se mudanças radicais e alterações nas hierarquias sociais. Desse modo, ao associar a criação da Cisplatina um espaço de experiência baseado nas guerras civis se projetou um horizonte de expectativas em torno da pacificação e da unidade dos domínios lusitanos.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this work is to study the creation of the Cisplatina province and its insertion in the Ibero-American liberal experiences. I argue that the transformations in Portugal made it possible to arrange new political pacts in the Río de la Plata and, thus, the fulfillment of an old desire of the Crown: the officialization of Portugal’s domination in the region. To this end, the press in the process of growth played a fundamental role. In 1821, the Extraordinary Courts of Lisbon enacted the Freedom of the Press Law for the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves, expanding the right acquired by the kingdoms in the previous year. This process meant the appearance of publications in unpublished numbers in Montevideo, part of these domains. Creating a dynamic of discussion in the public sphere with different possibilities for the future. In the newspapers, inserted in the Portuguese dynamics and favorable to the creation of the Cisplatina province, which dates from the same year, fundamental concepts of Portuguese liberalism were reverberated and emulated, such as regeneration, order, anarchy, revolution. I also point out that it was the Artiguist movement, in its most radical stage and its difficulties in imposing its project on all eastern territory, which brought the Montevideo’s elites closer to the Portuguese authorities and its discourse of pacification and regeneration along the lines of European movements. Radical changes and changes in social hierarchies were avoided. Thus, by associating the creation of Cisplatina with a space of experience based on civil wars, a horizon of expectations was projected around the pacification and unity of the Portuguese domains.
  • THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES AS AN ELEMENT OF THE DISPUTE: THE CASE OF THE PRONOUNCEMENTS OF 1840 Dossier

    Kloster, Mariano

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El siglo XIX en Hispanoamérica se caracterizó por la implementación de prácticas políticas novedosas y de diversas características. Entre estas, se destaca el pronunciamiento, el cual ha sido analizado para algunos espacios. En este artículo estudiamos esta acción en el territorio rioplatense en un caso concreto. Allí emergieron más de una decena de Estados Provinciales soberanos, luego de finalizado el vínculo con la Monarquía Española en la década de 1810 y de intentos fallidos de centralización liderados por Buenos Aires. Estas Provincias se conformaron como una Confederación en 1831 manteniendo la mayoría de sus atribuciones soberanas, excepto la representación internacional que fue delegada a Buenos Aires de manera provisoria hasta el final de la Confederación, en 1852. En este trabajo analizamos entonces una serie de pronunciamientos diversos y concatenados de algunos de estos Estados Provinciales, en el año 1840. Los mismos buscaron la reformulación del pacto político al interior de la Confederación. Mantenemos dos niveles de observación. Por un lado, de las características concretas de estos episodios, a través de la identificación y caracterización de: los actores individuales y colectivos que participaron, las dinámicas que implementaron, la circulación de información y las acciones que sostuvieron. Sumado a esto, abordamos el manejo de la dimensión soberana de relaciones exteriores, paz y guerra de la Confederación de Provincias Argentinas en el contexto de los pronunciamientos. La vinculación entre ambos niveles es factible porque entendemos que la atribución se configuró como el principal elemento en disputa en los hechos políticos que estudiamos.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The nineteenth century in Latin America was characterized by the implementation of novel political practices of various characteristics. Among these, the pronouncement stands out, which has been analyzed for some spaces. In this article we study this action in the River Plate territory in a specific case. There, more than a dozen sovereign Provincial States emerged, after the end of the Spanish Monarchy in the 1810s and the unsuccessful attempts at centralization led by Buenos Aires. These Provinces were organized as a Confederation in 1831, maintaining most of their sovereign powers, except for the international representation that was delegated to Buenos Aires on a provisional basis until the end of the Confederation, in 1852. In this work we analyze a series of diverse pronouncements of these Provincial States, in the year 1840. They sought the reformulation of the political pact within the Confederation. We maintain two levels of observation. On the one hand, of the specific characteristics of these episodes, through the identification and characterization of: the individual and collective actors that participated, the dynamics that they implemented, the circulation of information and the actions that they sustained. In addition to this, we address the management of the sovereign dimension of foreign relations, peace and war of the Confederation of Argentine Provinces in the context of the pronouncements. The link between both levels is feasible because we understand that the attribution was configured as the main element in dispute in the political events that we study.
  • A READING OF JUSTO JOSÉ DE URQUIZA’S PRONOUNCEMENT OF 1851. CIRCULATION, ADHESIONS AND REJECTIONS Dossier

    Nicolini, Giuliana

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El 1° de mayo de 1851, Urquiza como gobernador de Entre Ríos, reasumió el manejo de las relaciones exteriores, paz y guerra de su provincia quitándoselo al gobernador de Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas quien ostentaba la representación de esas atribuciones en nombre de la Confederación argentina. Este pronunciamiento tuvo variadas interpretaciones. Nuestro objetivo en este trabajo es proponer una lectura desde una clave diferente: como una reformulación del pacto político. Para ello, recuperamos algunas referencias y trabajos clásicos y más actuales que ilustran la variedad de las respuestas que las provincias argentinas ensayaron frente al pronunciamiento. El propósito no es hacer un análisis exhaustivo de la circulación del documento ni una relectura de fuentes. Sino una revisión que nos permite, en función del concepto propuesto, recorrer algunas situaciones provinciales respecto al rechazo y la adhesión que suscitó el pronunciamiento y observar la heterogeneidad y complejidad de esos espacios. Las provincias que se alinearon con Urquiza, rompieron el pacto original que las ligaba como confederación y lo reformularon apelando al mismo en función de un nuevo orden futuro. Por otro lado, las provincias que lo rechazaron reformularon su pacto hacia el interior de esa confederación y con ello lo redefinieron, robusteciendo las atribuciones delegadas al gobierno confederal. En ambos casos, reasumieron y pusieron en juego sus soberanías particulares.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract On May 1, 1851, Urquiza, as governor of Entre Ríos, resumed the management of foreign relations, peace and war of his province, taking them away from the governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas, who represented those attributions on behalf of the Argentine Confederation. This pronouncement had varied interpretations. Our aim in this paper is to propose a reading from a different perspective: as a reformulation of the political pact. To this end, we have recovered some references and classic and more current works that illustrate the variety of the responses that the Argentine provinces tried out in the face of the pronouncement. The purpose is not to make an exhaustive analysis of the circulation of the document nor a re-reading of sources. Rather, it is a review that allows us, based on the proposed concept, to go through some provincial situations regarding the rejection and adhesion to the pronouncement and to observe the heterogeneity and complexity of these spaces. The provinces that aligned with Urquiza broke the original pact that united them as a confederation and reformulated it by appealing to him in terms of a new future order. On the other hand, the provinces that rejected it reformulated their pact within the confederation and thus redefined it, strengthening the powers delegated to the confederal government. In both cases, they resumed and put their particular sovereignties into play.
  • THE ANCIENT CONSTITUTION AND THE TRADITIONAL CONSTITUTION IN THE SPANISH MONARCHY OF THE 18TH CENTURY Artigo

    Agüero, Alejandro

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen El debate reciente sobre la “antigua constitución” y su aplicación a la historia hispanoamericana está de alguna manera relacionado con la forma en que describimos las prácticas normativas de una sociedad pasada. En el caso de la Monarquía hispana, la pretensión de identificar un contenido normativo para la expresión “antigua constitución” se torna ilusoria cuando advertimos que, en los debates del siglo XVIII, las apelaciones a la historia eran utilizadas por actores con expectativas radicalmente divergentes, ya fueran reformistas o absolutistas. Incluso los redactores de la Constitución de 1812 creyeron necesario legitimar su creación apelando a las leyes fundamentales y la antigua constitución de la monarquía, algo que, como veremos, algunos denunciaron como una mera impostura. Ante este panorama, solo cabe colegir que expresiones como “antigua constitución” o “constitución histórica”, más que designar un objeto institucional pasado, cumplían una función retórica destinada a sostener la particular posición de quienes se valían de ellas. Afirmar esto, sin embargo, no implica negar las funciones que el orden jurídico tradicional desempañaba como limitador y legitimador de los actos de poder y en la solución de conflictos. En este trabajo, aprovechando la reciente historiografía y analizando diferentes testimonios de época, procuramos ofrecer una reconstrucción plausible de los elementos que podrían considerarse esenciales o definitorios de aquel orden antiguo, con relativa independencia del sentido retórico con el que se utilizaban las apelaciones al pasado o a una “antigua constitución”.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The recent debate on the “ancient constitution” and its application to Spanish American history is somehow related to the way in which we describe the normative practices of a past society. In the case of the Hispanic Monarchy, the attempt to identify a normative content for the expression “ancient constitution” becomes illusory when we notice that, in the 18th century debates, appeals to history were used by actors with radically divergent expectations, whether reformers or absolutists. Even the drafters of the 1812 Constitution believed it necessary to legitimize its creation by appealing to the “fundamental laws” and to the “ancient constitution” of the monarchy, something that, on the other hand, was denounced as a mere imposture. Given this state of things, it can only be inferred that expressions like “ancient constitution” or “historic constitution”, rather than designating an institutional object of the past, fulfilled a rhetorical function destined to sustain the position of those who used them. This statement, however, does not imply a denial of the functions that the traditional legal order performed limiting and legitimizing acts of power and disputes settlements. In this essay, taking advantage of recent historiography and 11analyzing different testimonies of the time, we attempt to offer a plausible reconstruction of the elements that could be considered essential of that traditional order, regardless the rhetorical sense with which appeals to the past or to the “ancient constitution” were used.
  • NEUVILLE’S COFFEEHOUSE: SOCIABILITY, POLITICS AND COMMERCE VIOLATION OF RIO DE JANEIRO (1833-1841) Artigo

    Santana, Kátia Luciene de Oliveira e Silva

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Em 1833, a capital do Império brasileiro era palco de rivalidades políticas e insatisfações sociais. Nesse ínterim, o governo regencial enfrentava a oposição, liderada pela facção caramuru, em protestos de rua pela cidade. No período da reação política, o movimento regressista passou a defender uma pauta de reformas que ensejaram uma série de transformações nos espaços de circulação e, consequentemente, na vida do citadino. Nesse sentido, sob a bandeira da restauração da ordem e da tranquilidade pública, os novos códigos legais versavam sobre a disciplina e a normatização das condutas. O projeto civilizador para a capital do país pressupunha transformar a “cidade de tumultos” em uma cidade ordeira e moderna. Localizado no tradicional Largo do Paço (atual Praça XV de Novembro), o Café Neuville testemunhou os acontecimentos que marcaram a cidade do Rio de Janeiro entre as décadas de 1830 e 1840. O estabelecimento promovia eventos e ficou conhecido como o lugar do primeiro baile de Carnaval da cidade, mas também transitou na fronteira entre o lícito e o ilícito, abrigando a prática de jogos proibidos. A história desse famoso café se imbrica com a do seu proprietário, Jeant Geant Neuville, um comerciante estrangeiro de naturalidade indefinida (francês ou belga?) e práticas suspeitas. Neuville circulou entre os registros policiais e a publicidade dos jornais fluminenses. O objetivo deste artigo é trazer à baila parte da história desse importante ponto comercial, pouco citado pela historiografia do período, mas digno de nota no Jornal do Commercio de 1830 a 1996.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In 1833, the capital of Brazilian Empire was the stage of political rivalries and social dissatisfactions. Meanwhile, the ruling government faced the opposition, leaded by “caramuru” faction in street protests throughout town. In the period of political reaction, the regressive movement started to defend an agenda of reforms that led to a series of changes in the areas of mobility, and consequently, in the life of the citizen. In this sense, under the flag of the reestablishment of order and public tranquility, the new legal codes talked about the discipline and the standardization of procedures. The civilizing project for the capital of the country intended to change the “city of riots” into an orderly and modern city. Located in the traditional “Largo do Paço” (nowadays Praça XV de Novembro), Neuville’s Coffeehouse witnessed significant events in the city of Rio de Janeiro between 1830 and 1840. The place promoted events and was known as the site of the first Carnival ball in the city, but also moved in the boundary between the licit and illicit, sheltering the practice of forbidden games. The history of this famous coffee shop is tangled with that of his owner, Jeant Geant Neuville, a foreigner merchant whose nationality is indefinite (French or Belgian?) and practices are suspicious. Neuville moved among the police records and the news in the papers of Rio de Janeiro. The purpose of this paper is to bring back part of the history of this important commercial site, little mentioned by the historiography of the time, although it was noteworthy by Jornal do Commercio from 1830 to 1996.
  • CULT AND PUBLIC INSTRUCTION AND ITS MORALIZING INTENTIONS: THE VIEW OF THE PRESIDENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF MATO GROSSO IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY Artigo

    Aguiar, Patrícia Figueiredo

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Culto e instrução pública foram preocupações comuns aos presidentes da província de Mato Grosso na primeira metade do século XIX. Preocupações que se voltavam para um contexto importante da história do Brasil, no que se refere à constituição da nação e do sentimento de pertencimento, pois, naquele contexto, era vital a formação de indivíduos dóceis e civilizados. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os discursos proferidos pelos presidentes da província de Mato Grosso, dirigidos à Assembleia Legislativa provincial, na primeira metade do século XIX, acerca do culto e instrução pública, a fim de demonstrar que esses dois setores foram utilizados como estratégias moralizadoras e civilizatórias da população mato-grossense. Para tanto, serão apresentados os discursos e falas dos presidentes, considerando as diretrizes que norteavam a organização e constituição do poder provincial no Oitocentos.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Worship and public instruction were common concerns for the presidents of the province of Mato Grosso, in the first half of the 19th century. Concerns that turned into an important context in the history of Brazil, regarding the constitution of the nation and the feeling of belonging, for that, in that context, the formation of docile and civilized individuals was vital. This article analyzes the speeches made by the presidents of the province of Mato Grosso, addressed to the provincial Legislative Assembly, in the first half of the 19th century, about worship and public instruction, to demonstrate that these two sectors were used as moralizing strategies and civilizing aspects of the population of Mato Grosso. For such purpose, the speeches of the presidents will be presented, considering the guidelines that guided the organization and constitution of the provincial power in the eighties.
  • IN OPPOSITION TO THE EMPIRE: THE 1871 CLUBE DA LAVOURA E DO COMÉRCIO Artigo

    Miranda, Bruno da Fonseca

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo O presente trabalho analisa o movimento de gestação e a atuação do Clube da Lavoura e do Comércio. Ao longo do ano de 1871, essa associação, que contava com parte dos mais importantes fazendeiros e comerciantes do Império do Brasil, lutou contra a promulgação da Lei do Ventre Livre, manifestando seu antagonismo com o lançamento de um Protesto e envio uma petição ao Parlamento brasileiro.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work analyzed the development and the performance of the Clube da Lavoura e do Comércio, which consisted of some of the most important farmers and merchants of the Brazilian Empire. Throughout the year of 1871, this association fought against the promulgation of the Law of the Free Womb, manifesting its antagonism with a Protest and a petition sent to the Brazilian Parliament.
  • A imprensa de Montevidéu (1814-1825) como fonte histórica Resenhas

    Botafogo, Paula
  • A LIBERDADE NO JOGO JUDICIÁRIO DO BRASIL IMPERIAL Resenhas

    Azevedo, Larissa Biato de
  • Uma história de construção destrutiva: as origens revolucionárias do campesinato haitiano Resenhas

    Souza, Isabela Rodrigues de
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