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Comparison of three intraoperative analgesic strategies in laparoscopic bariatric surgery: a retrospective study of immediate postoperative outcomes

Abstract

Introduction and objectives

Multimodal Analgesia (MMA) has shown promising results in postoperative outcomes across a broad spectrum of surgeries, including bariatric surgery. We compared the analgesic effect immediately after Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery (LBS) of the combined effect of MMA and methadone against two techniques that were based mainly on the use of high-potency medium-acting opioids.

Methods

Two hundred seventy-one patients were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was postoperative pain score > 3/10 measured by the Verbal Numeric Scale (VNS) during the Postanesthetic Care Unit (PACU) stay. The three protocols of intraoperative analgesia were: (P1) sufentanil at anesthetic induction followed by remifentanil infusion; (P2) sufentanil at induction followed by dexmedetomidine infusion; and (P3) remifentanil at induction followed by MMA including dexmedetomidine, magnesium, lidocaine, and methadone. Only P1 and P2 patients received morphine toward the end of surgery. Poisson regression was used to adjust confounding factors and calculate Prevalence Ratio (PR).

Results

Postoperative VNS > 3 was recorded in 135 (49.81%) patients, of which 93 (68.89%) were subjected to P1, 25 (18.56%) to P2, and 17 (12.59%) to P3. In the final adjusted model, both anesthetic techniques (P3) (PR = 0.10; 95% CI [0.03-0.28]), and (P2) (PR = 0.42%; 95% CI [0.20-0.90]) were associated with lower occurrence of VNS > 3, whereas age range 20-29 was associated to higher occurrence of VNS > 3 (PR = 3.21; 95% CI [1.22-8.44]) in PACU. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) was distributed as follows: (P1) 20.3%, (P2) 31.25% and (P3) 6.77%; (P3 < P1, P2; p< 0.05). Intraoperative hypotension occurred more often in P3 (39%) compared to P2 (20.31%) and P1 (17.46%) (p< 0.05).

Conclusion

MMA + methadone was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative hypotension and lower incidence of moderate/severe pain in PACU after LBS.

Keywords
Bariatric surgery; Laparoscopy; Multimodal analgesia; Perioperative analgesia; Postoperative pain

Introduction

One of the challenges of general anesthesia is to allow smooth emergence at the end of surgery with relative comfort. Inadequate analgesia in the Postanesthetic Care Unit (PACU) is common11 Luo J, Min S. Postoperative pain management in the postanesthesia care unit: an update. J Pain Res. 2017;10:2687-98. and negatively affects hemodynamics, respiration, metabolism, delayed discharges from PACU, and creates dissatisfaction. Poor pain control after emergence from anesthesia negatively impact postoperative outcomes.22 Apfelbaum JL, Silverstein JH, Chung FF, et al. Practice guidelines for postanesthetic care: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Postanesthetic Care. Anesthesiology. 2013;118:291-307. Obesity may be associated with increased pain perception after surgery and increased risk of developing chronic pain.33 Majchrzak M, Brzecka A, Daroszewski C, et al. Increased pain sensitivity in obese patients after lung cancer surgery. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:626. The additional presence of obstructive sleep apnea, restrictive lung disease, coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome, etc. make postoperative analgesia particularly crucial and challenging in obese patients.44 Schug SA, Raymann A. Postoperative pain management of the obese patient. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2011;25:73-81. Medium-acting opioids such as morphine and hydromorphone are commonly used during and after surgery to mitigate moderate-to-severe postoperative pain while striving to avoid obstructive sleep apnea and excessive respiratory depression.44 Schug SA, Raymann A. Postoperative pain management of the obese patient. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2011;25:73-81. Perioperative Multimodal Analgesia (MMA) combines medications that act synergistically at different sites and pathways with the ultimate goal of achieving pain relief while minimizing side effects. Under the umbrella term of MMA, practices vary widely.55 Ladha KS, Patorno E, Huybrechts KF, et al. Variations in the use of perioperative multimodal analgesic therapy. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:837-45. Most strive to maintain consistent superior analgesia without large breakthroughs and reduce dependency on the use of medium-acting opioids such as morphine for analgesia.55 Ladha KS, Patorno E, Huybrechts KF, et al. Variations in the use of perioperative multimodal analgesic therapy. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:837-45.

Methadone is a strong opioid μ-receptor agonist, N-Methyl-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor in the central nervous system. It has a long elimination half-life of 24-36 hours.66 Murphy GS, Szokol JW. Intraoperative methadone in surgical patients: a review of clinical investigations. Anesthesiology. 2019;131:678-92. A recent meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) showed that intraoperative methadone results in reduced pain and reduced morphine (equivalent) requirements in PACU and for 2-3 days postoperative across a spectrum of surgeries.77 Machado FC, Vieira JE, de Orange FA, et al. Intraoperative methadone reduces pain and opioid consumption in acute postoperative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2019;129:1723-32. Machado et al. compared intraoperative methadone vs. fentanyl in a RCT involving patients undergoing open bariatric surgery and found that the methadone group had less postoperative pain and less morphine requirements.88 Machado FC, Palmeira CCA, Torres JNL, et al. Intraoperative use of methadone improves control of postoperative pain in morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study. J Pain Res. 2018;11:2123-9.

The recognition of the advantages of MMA and methadone prompted our group to incorporate them in January 2019 into our enhanced recovery protocol for laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Hence, the objective of the present investigation was to retrospectively review immediate postoperative outcomes (namely pain scores, nausea/vomiting, and occurrence of hypoxemia) as well as incidence of intraoperative hypo/hypertension in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery before (up to December 2018) and after (January-December 2019) such protocol had been observed.

Methods

Institutional ethics approval (nº 3.664.935) was obtained to conduct this review at a tertiary hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y or sleeve gastroplasty) from January 2014 to December 2019 were reviewed. Primary outcome was pain > 3/10 assessed by the Verbal Numeric Scale (VNS) at any time in PACU.

Patients included in the study were registered in a hospital database. Exclusion criteria were open bariatric surgery, chronic opioid use, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status ≥ IV, reoperation, allergy to any medication used in the study, drug addiction, combined surgical procedures, general anesthesia combined with neuraxial blockade, administration of other analgesic adjuvants not included in the protocol in force at the time, and other protocol violations.

During the study period, 1447 bariatric surgeries were performed, of which 271 were eligible (Fig. 1). During the study period, three standardized intraoperative protocols related to opioids and opioid-adjuncts/coanalgesics were observed:

Figure 1
STROBE flow diagram.

P1: Protocol (sufentanil-remifentanil-morphine for analgesia) in force for period Jan 2014-Aug 2017. Sufentanil 1.0 μg.kg-1 of Corrected Body Weight (CBW) at anesthetic induction followed by continuous infusion of remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg.kg-1.min-1). Twenty minutes prior to surgical completion, patients received ondansetron 0.1 mg.kg-1 (max. 8 mg) and morphine 100 μg.kg-1.

P2: Protocol (sufentanil-dexmedetomidine-morphine for analgesia) in force for the period Sept 2017-Dec 2018. Sufentanil 0.5-07 μg.kg-1 CBW at anesthetic induction followed by dexmedetomidine (initial bolus of 1 μg.kg-1 over 10 minutes, followed by maintenance of 0.4-0.7 μg.kg-1.h-1). Twenty minutes prior to surgical completion, patients received morphine 100 μg.kg-1. The antiemetic palonosetron 0.075 mg was administered upon anesthetic induction.

P3: Protocol (MMA incorporating methadone) in force for period Jan-Dec 2019. Target-controlled infusion of remifentanil (initial bolus of 4 ng.mL-1 over 5 minutes at anesthetic induction, followed by maintenance with 2-5 ng.mL-1), methadone 0.2 mg.kg-1 (real body weight) up to 20 mg, lidocaine 2 mg.kg-1, dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg.kg-1 single dose over 1 minute, and magnesium sulphate 40 mg.kg-1 after loss of consciousness. Twenty minutes prior to surgical completion, patients received ondansetron 0.1 mg.kg-1 (max. 8 mg). No sufentanil or morphine was administered intraoperatively.

In all patients, anesthesia was induced with propofol and rocuronium and maintained with sevoflurane to keep a Bispectral Index (BIS) of 40-60. Prior to surgical incision, all patients received parecoxib 40 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg, and dexamethasone 0.1 mg.kg-1 (max. 10 mg). Twenty minutes prior to surgical completion, all patients received dipyrone (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) 2000 mg.

Intraoperative monitoring consisted of Noninvasive Blood Pressure (NIBP), ECG, oximetry (SpO2), capnography, and BIS. Controlled ventilation was performed in a closed circuit with a flow up to 2 L.min-1, tidal volume up to 8 mL.kg-1 based on CBW, with a positive end expiratory pressure of 6-8 mmHg, inspired oxygen fraction up to 50% and respiratory rate to maintain end-tidal CO2 35-40 mmHg. Neuromuscular blockade was maintained at a post-tetanic count < 5 (i.e., deep block). Reversal of neuromuscular blockade was achieved with sugammadex in all patients. All patients received Ringer’s lactated solution 10 mL.kg-1 before anesthetic induction. Intraoperatively, crystalloid was infused at 5 mL.kg-1.h-1. Nasogastric tubes and surgical drains were not used routinely. Normothermia was maintained by a convective air circulation heating system (Bair Hugger, 3M-Switzerland, Ruschlikon, Swtzerland).

The studied variables included age, gender, body weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), Heart Rate (HR), NIBP, SpO2, and anesthetic technique according to the protocol in force. HR, NIBP and SpO2 were recorded prior to anesthetic induction and every 10 minutes thereafter until the end of the procedure. Hypotension and hypertension were defined as > 20% decrease and > 20% increase in mean arterial pressure, respectively, from pre-induction blood pressure, and treated initially with changes in end-tidal sevoflurane and remifentanil and/or dexmedetomidine infusion rates, followed by ephedrine or hydralazine, respectively, when anesthetic dose adjustment was insufficient to reestablish the target blood pressure.

In PACU, the VNS score (0-10 scale) was assessed every 15 minutes. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) was assessed based on a 0-4 intensity scale (modified from Wengritzky et al.)99 Wengritzky R, Mettho T, Myles PS, et al. Development and validation of a postoperative nausea and vomiting intensity scale. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:158-66. in which 0 = no nausea, 1 = mild nausea, 2 = moderate nausea, 3 = severe nausea, and 4 = retching/vomiting. Upon arrival to PACU, hypoxemia was defined as a SpO2< 90%.1010 Siddiqui N, Arzola C, Teresi J, et al. Predictors of desaturation in the postoperative anesthesia care unit: an observational study. J Clin Anesth. 2013;8:612-7.

Pain was treated with morphine 30-50 μg.kg-1 and PONV with dimenhydrinate 30 mg. Discharge from PACU was considered when Aldrete score ≥ 9 and pain score ≤ 3.

Statistical analysis

Histograms and the Shapiro-Wilk test were utilized for verification of data distribution symmetry. Pearson Chi-squared test was employed for categorical variables, and partitioning Chi-Square when p< 0.05. Variables with normal distribution were compared with ANOVA (3 groups), followed by the Tukey post-hoc test in case of p< 0.05 or two-sample independent t-test, when two groups were compared. The pain scores (VNS) were compared through the median (percentile 25-75%) of each protocol and the Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance was used for multiple comparisons, followed by the Dunn post-hoc test in case of p-value < 0.05. Prevalence Ratios (PR) were calculated to determine the relationship between independent Variables and Pain Scores (VNS) > 3. Univariate analysis was performed by Poisson regression, with simple robust variance, and estimative of gross Prevalence Ratios (PR) and respective Confidence Intervals (95% CI) to assess the extent of association between variables. Independent variables that were deemed statistically significant (i.e., p< 0.20) in the univariate analysis were considered candidates for the multivariable model, which then retained predictors that remained statistically significant at p< 0.10 by stepwise selection. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 software (Stata Corp, College Station, TX). The research data related to this submission has been published in Mendeley Data (doi:10.17632/txzbhmfxc4.1). The files associated with this dataset are licensed under an attribution non-commercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY NC 3.0).

Results

The final analysis included 271 patients, of whom 71.2% were female (Table 1). The overall mean age was 36.5 ± 10.4 years. The mean duration of surgery was 92 ± 39.61 minutes. The P3 cohort had shorter duration of surgery. Total number of subjects for each cohort was 148 in P1, 64 in P2 and 59 in P3 (Table 1).

Table 1
Demographic and intraoperative variables.

Pain > 3 was documented in 49.8% of patients. Severe pain (VNS > 7) was observed in 28.7% (42) in P1, 9.37% (6) in P2, and 8.47% (5) in P3 (P1 > P2-P3; p< 0.05). Figure 2 shows the median (25-75% percentile) of pain scores between anesthetic protocols (p< 0.05). Amongst all patients presenting with pain > 3, 93 (68.89%) were submitted to P1 (sufentanil-remifentanil-morphine analgesia), 25 (18.56%) to P2 (sufentanil-dexmedetomidine-morphine analgesia), and 17 (12.59%) to P3 (MMA + methadone) (Table 2). From the factors potentially related to postoperative pain, anesthetic protocol, surgery duration and age presented statistical significance in the univariate analysis (Table 2). In the final adjusted model, anesthetic protocol P3 (MMA-methadone) (PR = 0.10; 95% CI [0.03-0.28]) and P2 (sufentanil-dexmedetomidine-morphine) (PR = 0.42; 95% CI [0.02-0.90]) were associated with lower occurrence of pain > 3 in PACU when compared to protocol P1 (sufentanil-remifentanyl-morphine). Age range 20-29 years-old was associated with higher postoperative pain scores (PR = 3.21; 95% CI [1.22-8.44]) (Table 3).

Figure 2
Boxplot: Median (25-75%) of pain scores between anesthetic protocols. (P1) sufentanil + remifentanil + morphine (2014-2017); (P2) sufentanil + dexmedetomdine + morphine (2018); (P3) multimodal analgesia (dexmedetomidine, magnesium, lidocaine) and methadone (2019). VNS, Verbal Numeric Scale; MMA, Multimodal Analgesia - dexmedetomidine + magnesium sulfate + lidocaine. *Analysis of Variance (Kruskal Wallis): p= 0.01; Dunn post-hoc test: P1 > P2-P3.

Table 2
Univariate analysis of demographic and intraoperative variables related to pain score > 3 in the postanesthetic care unit.
Table 3
Adjusted analysis of independent variables associated with pain score > 3 in the postanesthetic care unit.

Incidence of intraoperative hypotension was 17.46% in the P1 cohort, 20.31% in the P2 cohort, and 39% in the P3 cohort (P3 > P1, P2; p< 0.05). Intraoperative arterial hypertension was observed in 5.90% of all patients (P1 = P2 = P3, p> 0.05). PONV was observed in 19.93% from analyzed patients, 20.3% from which in P1, 31.25% in P2, and 6.77% in P3 (P3 < P1, P2; p< 0.05). The incidence of hypoxemia was 21.40%, with no difference observed between the analyzed anesthetic protocols (p> 0.05) (Table 4). Respiratory depression requiring non-invasive ventilatory support occurred in one case in group P1. There was no need for reintubation or other major complications observed in the immediate postoperative period.

Table 4
Intraoperative (arterial hypotension and hypertension) and postoperative (PONV and hypoxemia) outcomes in relation to the anesthetic technique employed.

Discussion

The main result of this study is that in laparoscopic bariatric surgery, MMA in conjunction with methadone, when compared to techniques based mainly on the intraoperative use of medium-acting and high-potency opioids, significantly reduces the incidence of pain and PONV in PACU. These findings are consistent with similar postoperative pain studies comparing MMA and morphine77 Machado FC, Vieira JE, de Orange FA, et al. Intraoperative methadone reduces pain and opioid consumption in acute postoperative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2019;129:1723-32. and studies comparing methadone and morphine55 Ladha KS, Patorno E, Huybrechts KF, et al. Variations in the use of perioperative multimodal analgesic therapy. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:837-45. in obese and non-obese patients.

The use of methadone in bariatric surgery has shown to be safe and significantly reduce perioperative opioid consumption, postoperative pain (both at rest and with activity), and PONV.77 Machado FC, Vieira JE, de Orange FA, et al. Intraoperative methadone reduces pain and opioid consumption in acute postoperative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2019;129:1723-32.,88 Machado FC, Palmeira CCA, Torres JNL, et al. Intraoperative use of methadone improves control of postoperative pain in morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study. J Pain Res. 2018;11:2123-9. In the present investigation, intraoperative-high-dose sufentanil (P1) resulted in greater necessity of analgesic rescue in PACU when compared to MMA including methadone. These findings are consistent with previous studies on multimodal opioid-sparing anesthetic techniques, in which methadone was the only opioid used.88 Machado FC, Palmeira CCA, Torres JNL, et al. Intraoperative use of methadone improves control of postoperative pain in morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study. J Pain Res. 2018;11:2123-9.,1111 Komen H, Brunt LM, Deych E, et al. Intraoperative methadone in same-day ambulatory surgery: a randomized, double-blinded, dose-finding pilot study. Anesth Analg. 2019;128:802-10. Similarly, perioperative methadone results in lower pain scores in non-obese patients.1212 Kendall MC, Alvez LJ, Pence K, et al. The effect of intraoperative methadone compared to morphine on postsurgical pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2020:6974321.

13 Gottschalk A, Durieux ME, Nemergut EC. Intraoperative methadone improves postoperative pain control in patients undergoing complex spine surgery. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:218-23.
-1414 Ip HYV, Abrishami A, Peng PWH, et al. Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:657-77.

We also found that age is a risk factor for increased immediate postoperative pain. In Ip et al’s literature review, they found correlation between higher postoperative pain and younger age in most, but not all, of the studies.1414 Ip HYV, Abrishami A, Peng PWH, et al. Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:657-77. We hypothesize that cultural factors, modulating social influences, as well as personality and behavior features of different age groups can influence the individual expectation of pain and ultimately their expression in measurement scales. Nonetheless, this finding highlights the importance of a thorough preoperative consultation during which the clinicians (both anesthesiologist and surgeon) must clarify the patient’s uncertainties and set up the perioperative expectations accordingly.

Magnesium is the more abundant divalent intracellular cation, implicated in numerous physiologic processes such as blood pressure regulation through modulation of vascular tone and peripheral vascular resistance. The increase in extracellular concentration of magnesium, therefore, results in arterial vasodilation,1515 Kizilcik N, Koner O. Magnesium sulfate reduced opioid consumption in obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Obes Surg. 2018;28:2783-8. which may have contributed to the higher incidence of hypotension (39%) observed in P3 (Table 4). Additionally, magnesium modulates pain through antagonism of the NMDA receptors. In obese patients, intraoperative administration of magnesium sulphate is associated with lower postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption.1515 Kizilcik N, Koner O. Magnesium sulfate reduced opioid consumption in obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Obes Surg. 2018;28:2783-8.,1616 El Mourad MB, Arafa SK. Effect of intravenous versus intraperitoneal magnesium sulfate on hemodynamic parameters and postoperative analgesia during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy—a prospective randomized study. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2019;35:242 7. Similarly, the well-known hemodynamic (i.e., bradycardia and hypotension) and analgesic/opioid-sparing effects of dexmedetomidine most likely contributed to the higher incidence of intraoperative hypotension and lower incidence (through an opioid-sparing effect) of PONV in P3 (Table 4). Indeed, in a meta-analysis of RCTs, dexmedetomidine significantly reduced postoperative opioid requirements.1717 Blaudszun G, Lysakowski C, Elia N, et al. Effect of perioperative systemic alpha2 agonists on postoperative morphine consumption and pain intensity: systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2012;116:1312 22. This was corroborated in our study by a lower incidence of severe pain in P2 and P3 when compared to P1. Finally, intravenous lidocaine (used in P3) can also result in lower opioid requirements, thereby reducing the incidence of PONV.1818 Weibel S, Jelting Y, Pace NL, et al. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;6:CD009642.

Interestingly, despite patients in P3 not being given high-potency medium-acting opioids, the incidence of hypoxemia (SpO2< 90%) at admission to PACU was similar between groups (Table 4). Several factors may have contributed to this finding such as (1) the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (not measured) in each group; (2) the somnolence associated with lidocaine combined with the residual effect of other anesthetic agents, leading to obstructive airway episodes; and (3) the respiratory depression associated with methadone (which has a prolonged effect). Notably, even though the incidence of hypoxemia upon PACU admission in the present investigation was in line with previous published data,1919 Tyler IL, Tantisira B, Winter PM, et al. Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room. Anesth Analg. 1985;64:1108 12. this study was underpowered to demonstrate differences in this regard.

Historically, the use of potent opioids, such as sufentanil, had been considered the standard practice to promote good quality postoperative analgesia because of its known prolonged residual analgesic effect.2020 Simoni RF, Pereira AMSA, Borega RS, et al. Continuous infusion of remifentanil versus sufentanil in videolaparoscopic surgeries: a comparative study. Braz J Anesth. 2008;58:193 201. Subsequently, multimodal opioid-sparing techniques came to establish a new paradigm, one which targets multiple pain pathways instead of focusing mostly (or solely) on opioid receptors, thereby reducing side effects and improving/accelerating postoperative recovery.2121 Horsley RD, Vogels ED, McField DAP, et al. Multimodal postoperative pain control is effective and reduces opioid use after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2019;29:394 400. Additionally, MMA allows for a reduction in the amount of hypnotic agents required to maintain unconsciousness and anesthetic depth. Hence, multimodal anesthesia has a rather global concept which implies optimization of all pharmacologic agents available in the anesthesiologist’s armamentarium to ensure safety and comfort to patients, while minimizing complications and shortening hospital stay.2121 Horsley RD, Vogels ED, McField DAP, et al. Multimodal postoperative pain control is effective and reduces opioid use after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2019;29:394 400.

This study has several limitations. Since this is a retrospective before-after study, there is the potential that the cohorts in the three different time periods were not similar. Specifically, not all potentially relevant factors that could impact pain, PONV, and desaturation were necessarily analyzed. Before-after studies are susceptible to other biases.2222 Ho AMH, Phelan R, Mizubuti GB, et al. Bias in before-andafter studies. A narrative overview for anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg. 2018;126:1755 62. For example, the study period spanned 6 years, during which many aspects of care might have changed (historic bias). Clinicians might have been more diligent, perhaps even anticipating the results would be scrutinized, when the new protocol was introduced (Hawthorne effect). Surgery length was shorter in P3, which is usually associated to higher surgeons’ experience and potentially lower postoperative pain. Lastly, although the median VNS = 7 for patients in P1 was statistically higher than P2 and P3 (median VNS = 6) (Fig. 2), one may question the clinical relevance of this finding. However, the overall lower incidence of moderate/severe pain (i.e., VNS > 3) in P3 reflects a better efficacy of the MMA regimen including methadone. It was not possible to evaluate the independent effects of MMA technique and methadone. However, the purpose of our review was to validate our strategy of merging MMA and methadone, both of which have been shown to improve postoperative analgesia in our laparoscopic bariatric surgery program. Finally, we did not look beyond the PACU period. Based on previous studies on methadone, however, its analgesic advantages typically extend up to 2-3 days after surgery.66 Murphy GS, Szokol JW. Intraoperative methadone in surgical patients: a review of clinical investigations. Anesthesiology. 2019;131:678-92.

7 Machado FC, Vieira JE, de Orange FA, et al. Intraoperative methadone reduces pain and opioid consumption in acute postoperative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2019;129:1723-32.
-88 Machado FC, Palmeira CCA, Torres JNL, et al. Intraoperative use of methadone improves control of postoperative pain in morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study. J Pain Res. 2018;11:2123-9.

Conclusion

Our results show an association of the newer protocol period (MMA + methadone) and a lower occurrence of pain in PACU. Notably, a higher incidence of intraoperative hypotension was also observed in the newer protocol period.

References

  • 1
    Luo J, Min S. Postoperative pain management in the postanesthesia care unit: an update. J Pain Res. 2017;10:2687-98.
  • 2
    Apfelbaum JL, Silverstein JH, Chung FF, et al. Practice guidelines for postanesthetic care: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Postanesthetic Care. Anesthesiology. 2013;118:291-307.
  • 3
    Majchrzak M, Brzecka A, Daroszewski C, et al. Increased pain sensitivity in obese patients after lung cancer surgery. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:626.
  • 4
    Schug SA, Raymann A. Postoperative pain management of the obese patient. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2011;25:73-81.
  • 5
    Ladha KS, Patorno E, Huybrechts KF, et al. Variations in the use of perioperative multimodal analgesic therapy. Anesthesiology. 2016;124:837-45.
  • 6
    Murphy GS, Szokol JW. Intraoperative methadone in surgical patients: a review of clinical investigations. Anesthesiology. 2019;131:678-92.
  • 7
    Machado FC, Vieira JE, de Orange FA, et al. Intraoperative methadone reduces pain and opioid consumption in acute postoperative pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2019;129:1723-32.
  • 8
    Machado FC, Palmeira CCA, Torres JNL, et al. Intraoperative use of methadone improves control of postoperative pain in morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study. J Pain Res. 2018;11:2123-9.
  • 9
    Wengritzky R, Mettho T, Myles PS, et al. Development and validation of a postoperative nausea and vomiting intensity scale. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:158-66.
  • 10
    Siddiqui N, Arzola C, Teresi J, et al. Predictors of desaturation in the postoperative anesthesia care unit: an observational study. J Clin Anesth. 2013;8:612-7.
  • 11
    Komen H, Brunt LM, Deych E, et al. Intraoperative methadone in same-day ambulatory surgery: a randomized, double-blinded, dose-finding pilot study. Anesth Analg. 2019;128:802-10.
  • 12
    Kendall MC, Alvez LJ, Pence K, et al. The effect of intraoperative methadone compared to morphine on postsurgical pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2020:6974321.
  • 13
    Gottschalk A, Durieux ME, Nemergut EC. Intraoperative methadone improves postoperative pain control in patients undergoing complex spine surgery. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:218-23.
  • 14
    Ip HYV, Abrishami A, Peng PWH, et al. Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:657-77.
  • 15
    Kizilcik N, Koner O. Magnesium sulfate reduced opioid consumption in obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Obes Surg. 2018;28:2783-8.
  • 16
    El Mourad MB, Arafa SK. Effect of intravenous versus intraperitoneal magnesium sulfate on hemodynamic parameters and postoperative analgesia during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy—a prospective randomized study. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2019;35:242 7.
  • 17
    Blaudszun G, Lysakowski C, Elia N, et al. Effect of perioperative systemic alpha2 agonists on postoperative morphine consumption and pain intensity: systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesthesiology. 2012;116:1312 22.
  • 18
    Weibel S, Jelting Y, Pace NL, et al. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;6:CD009642.
  • 19
    Tyler IL, Tantisira B, Winter PM, et al. Continuous monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry during transfer to the recovery room. Anesth Analg. 1985;64:1108 12.
  • 20
    Simoni RF, Pereira AMSA, Borega RS, et al. Continuous infusion of remifentanil versus sufentanil in videolaparoscopic surgeries: a comparative study. Braz J Anesth. 2008;58:193 201.
  • 21
    Horsley RD, Vogels ED, McField DAP, et al. Multimodal postoperative pain control is effective and reduces opioid use after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2019;29:394 400.
  • 22
    Ho AMH, Phelan R, Mizubuti GB, et al. Bias in before-andafter studies. A narrative overview for anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg. 2018;126:1755 62.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    10 Oct 2022
  • Date of issue
    Sep-Oct 2022

History

  • Received
    7 Oct 2020
  • Accepted
    12 June 2021
  • Published
    30 May 2021
Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) Rua Professor Alfredo Gomes, 36, Botafogo , cep: 22251-080 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ / Brasil , tel: +55 (21) 97977-0024 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: editor.bjan@sbahq.org