Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the most frequently performed orthopedic procedures. The ability to perform ACLR on an outpatient basis is largely dependent on an effective analgesic regimen. The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic effect between continuous adductor canal block (cACB) and femoral nerve block (cFNB) during arthroscopy guided ACLR. Method In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 60 ASA I/II patients for arthroscopic ACLR were recruited. Patients in Group I received cACB and those in Group II cFNB. A bolus dose of 20 cc 0.5% levobupivacaine followed by 0.125% 5 mL.h-1 was started for 24 hours. Rescue analgesia in the form of paracetamol 1 g intravenous (IV) was given. Parameters assessed were time of first rescue analgesia, total analgesic requirement in 24 hours, and painless range of motion of the knee (15 degrees of flexion to further painless flexion). Results The time-to-first postoperative analgesic request (hours) was earlier in Group II (14.40 ± 4.32) than Group I (16.90 ± 3.37) and this difference was statistically significant (p< 0.05). The cumulative 24-h analgesic consumption (paracetamol in g) was 0.70 ± 0.47 in Group I and 1.70 ± 0.65 in Group II (p< 0.001). The painless range of motion (degree) was 55.67 ± 10.40 in Group I and 40.00 ± 11.37 in Group II (p< 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that continuous adductor canal block provides superior analgesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR when compared to continuous femoral nerve block.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction and objectives Multimodal Analgesia (MMA) has shown promising results in postoperative outcomes across a broad spectrum of surgeries, including bariatric surgery. We compared the analgesic effect immediately after Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery (LBS) of the combined effect of MMA and methadone against two techniques that were based mainly on the use of high-potency medium-acting opioids. Methods Two hundred seventy-one patients were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was postoperative pain score > 3/10 measured by the Verbal Numeric Scale (VNS) during the Postanesthetic Care Unit (PACU) stay. The three protocols of intraoperative analgesia were: (P1) sufentanil at anesthetic induction followed by remifentanil infusion; (P2) sufentanil at induction followed by dexmedetomidine infusion; and (P3) remifentanil at induction followed by MMA including dexmedetomidine, magnesium, lidocaine, and methadone. Only P1 and P2 patients received morphine toward the end of surgery. Poisson regression was used to adjust confounding factors and calculate Prevalence Ratio (PR). Results Postoperative VNS > 3 was recorded in 135 (49.81%) patients, of which 93 (68.89%) were subjected to P1, 25 (18.56%) to P2, and 17 (12.59%) to P3. In the final adjusted model, both anesthetic techniques (P3) (PR = 0.10; 95% CI [0.03-0.28]), and (P2) (PR = 0.42%; 95% CI [0.20-0.90]) were associated with lower occurrence of VNS > 3, whereas age range 20-29 was associated to higher occurrence of VNS > 3 (PR = 3.21; 95% CI [1.22-8.44]) in PACU. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) was distributed as follows: (P1) 20.3%, (P2) 31.25% and (P3) 6.77%; (P3 < P1, P2; p< 0.05). Intraoperative hypotension occurred more often in P3 (39%) compared to P2 (20.31%) and P1 (17.46%) (p< 0.05). Conclusion MMA + methadone was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative hypotension and lower incidence of moderate/severe pain in PACU after LBS.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Patients’ postoperative treatment might be affected by their psychological state. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of anxiety, coping ability (stress tolerance), depression, and pain catastrophizing on analgesic consumption in patients scheduled for sleeve gastrectomy. Methods This prospective observational study consisted of 72 patients. The Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) were completed in the preoperative period. In the postoperative period, pain intensity, as measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and morphine consumption (mg) were evaluated after 2, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Total morphine consumption was recorded. Results The results revealed a strong negative correlation between distress tolerance and postoperative total morphine consumption (r = -0.702, p< 0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between total morphine consumption and pain catastrophizing (r = 0.801, p< 0.001). A moderate positive correlation was observed between total morphine consumption and anxiety and between total morphine consumption and depression (r = 0.511, p< 0.001; r = 0.556, p< 0.001, respectively). Linear regression revealed that distress tolerance, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing are predictors of postoperative morphine consumption (β = 0.597, p< 0.001; β = 0.207, p= 0.036; β = 0.140, p= 0.208; β = 0.624, p< 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Distress tolerance, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing can be predictive of postoperative analgesic consumption. In the estimation of postoperative analgesic consumption, distress tolerance, as well as anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing, were found to be important predictors.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To compare the analgesic effect of intercostal nerve block (INB) with ropivacaine when given preventively or at the end of the operation in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Methods A total of 50 patients undergoing VATS were randomly divided into two groups. The patients in the preventive analgesia group (PR group) were given INB with ropivacaine before the intrathoracic manipulation combined with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The patients in the post-procedural block group (PO group) were administered INB with ropivacaine at the end of the operation combined with PCA. To evaluate the analgesic effect, postoperative pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and Prince Henry Pain Scale (PHPS) scale at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Results At 6 h and 12 h post-surgery, the VAS at rest and PHPS scores in the PR group were significantly lower than those in the PO group. There were no significant differences in pain scores between two groups at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-surgery. Conclusion In patients undergoing VATS, preventive INB with ropivacaine provided a significantly better analgesic effect in the early postoperative period (at least through 12 h post-surgery) than did INB given at the end of surgery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background A difference in maximum tolerance to mechanical pain (MTMP) between the sexes is widely studied but there is still no consensus on whether the level of physical activity (PA) influences pain. Objectives To compare the MTMP between men and women with different levels of PA. Methods Sixty five individuals were divided in female (n = 35) and male group (n = 30). The main outcome measures were PA level and MTMP by pressure algometry. Pressure was applied three times on both sides at the following points: cervical (5th and 7th) and lumbar (3th and 5th) vertebrae; trapezius, rhomboid, gluteus, gastrocnemius, pectoralis major, tibialis anterior, and deltoid muscles, elbow, hand, knee, and ankle. Results It was observed that the PA level has little influence on the MTMP at all the assessed points and that men have greater MTMP than women. Conclusion Sex, not the PA level, influences the MTMP.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Breast cancer surgery is associated with considerable acute post-surgical pain and restricted mobility. Various regional and neuraxial anesthesia techniques have been used to alleviate post-mastectomy pain. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) has been considered a simple and safe technique. This randomized control study was performed to compare the efficacy of SAPB with the thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) for postoperative analgesia after breast cancer surgery. Methods A total of 40 adult ASA physical status I - II female patients undergoing radical mastectomy were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either ultrasound-guided TPVB or SAPB with 0.4 mL.kg-1 0.5% ropivacaine, 30 min before surgery. All patients received standardized general anesthesia for surgery. Injection diclofenac and tramadol were used for postoperative rescue analgesia. The time to first rescue analgesia, total analgesic consumption in the first 24 hours, postoperative pain scores, and any adverse effects were recorded. Results The time to first rescue analgesia was significantly longer in the SAPB group (255.3 ± 47.8 min) as compared with the TPVB group (146.8 ± 30.4 min) (p< 0.001). Total diclofenac consumption in 24 hours was also less in the SAPB group (138.8 ± 44.0 mg vs 210.0 ± 39.2 mg in SAPB and TPVB group respectively, p< 0.001). Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in the SAPB group as compared with TPVB group (p< 0.05). The incidence of PONV was also less in the SAPB group (p= 0.028). No block-related adverse effects were reported. Conclusion We found that the serratus anterior plane block was more effective than the thoracic paravertebral block for postoperative analgesia after breast cancer surgery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Acute postoperative pain is associated with poor quality of recovery after surgery. Perioperative use of intravenous lignocaine or dexmedetomidine have demonstrated better pain control, early return of bowel function, and effects on quality of recovery. Methods: Ninety-six women planned for elective robotic abdominal hysterectomy were randomized into four groups. Groups received lignocaine infusion (1.5 mg.kg−1 loading, 2 mg.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group I), dexmedetomidine infusion (1 µg.kg−1 loading, 0.6 µg.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group 2), lidocaine (1.5 mg.kg−1 loading, 2 mg.kg−1.h−1 infusion), and dexmedetomidine infusions (1 µg.kg−1 loading, 0.5 µg.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group 3), and normal saline 10 mL loading, 1 mL.kg−1.h−1 infusion) (Group 4). Primary outcome was visual analogue pain scores at 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Secondary outcomes included postoperative fentanyl requirement, time of return of bowel sounds and flatus, QoR15 score on day 1, 2, and discharge. Results The VAS was significantly lower in Groups 2 and 3 compared to Groups 1 and 4. Total postoperative fentanyl consumption in the first 24 hours was 256.25 ± 16.36 mcg (Group 1), 177.71 ± 16.81 mcg (Group 2), 114.17 ± 16.19 mcg (Group 3), and 304.42 ± 31.26 mcg (Group 4), respectively. Time to return of bowel sounds and passage of flatus was significantly shorter in Groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.01). QoR15 scores after surgery were higher in Group 3 compared to Groups 1, 2, and 4, (p < 0.01) respectively. Conclusion: Combined infusion of lignocaine and dexmedetomidine significantly decreased postoperative pain, fentanyl consumption, and improved quality of recovery score after surgery in patients undergoing Robotic abdominal hysterectomy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Continuous injection of local anesthetics by using surgical wound catheters for postoperative pain relief has gained acceptance in recent years. However, whether this method can be alternatively used instead of systemic opioids in different surgical procedures has not yet been elucidated. Objectives The aim was to investigate the effect of continuous injection of bupivacaine through a catheter inside the surgical wound on reducing the postoperative pain of lumbar spine fusion surgeries. Methods In this clinical trial, 31 patients undergoing non-traumatic lumbar spine stabilization surgery were randomly assigned to receive (n = 15) or do not receive (n = 16) bupivacaine through a catheter inside the surgical wound, postoperatively. Pain intensity (NRS), dose of required morphine, and drug-related complications within 24 hours of intervention were assessed and compared by the Mann-Whitney and independent t-test. Results Mean pain intensity was significantly lower in the case group over the first postoperative hour in the recovery room (p < 0.001), which continued for the first 2 hours after entering the ward. The mean morphine intake was lower in the bupivacaine group during the first postoperative 24 hours (16 ± 0.88 vs. 7.33 ± 0.93 mg, p < 0.001). The two groups were not significantly different regarding drug-related complications. Conclusion Continuous intra-incisional infusion of bupivacaine helped better pain reduction during the early postoperative hours while sparing morphine consumption in the first postoperative day.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Regional anesthesia has been increasingly used. Despite its low number of complications, they are associated with relevant morbidity. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of complications after neuraxial block and peripheral nerve block. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted, and data related to patients submitted to neuraxial block and peripheral nerve block at a tertiary university hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2017 were analyzed. Results From 10,838 patients referred to Acute Pain Unit, 1093(10.1%) had side effects or complications: 1039 (11.4%) submitted to neuraxial block and 54 (5.2%) to peripheral nerve block. The most common side effects after neuraxial block were sensory (48.5%) or motor deficits (11.8%), nausea or vomiting (17.5%) and pruritus (8.0%); The most common complications: 3 (0.03%) subcutaneous cell tissue hematoma, 3 (0.03%) epidural abscesses and 1 (0.01%) arachnoiditis. 204 of these patients presented sensory or motor deficits at hospital discharge and needed follow-up. Permanent peripheral nerve injury after neuraxial block had an incidence of 7.7:10,000 (0.08%). The most common side effects after peripheral nerve block were sensory deficits (52%) and 21 patients maintained follow-up due to symptoms persistence after hospital discharge. Conclusion Although we found similar incidences of side effects or even lower than those described, major complications after neuraxial block had a higher incidence, particularly epidural abscesses. Despite this, other serious complications, such as spinal hematoma and permanent peripheral nerve injury, are still rare.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives The Pain Catastrophizing Scale-Child version (PCS-C) allows to identify children who are prone to catastrophic thinking. We aimed to adapt the Brazilian version of PCS-C (BPCS-C) to examine scale psychometric properties and factorial structure in children with and without chronic pain. Also, we assessed its correlation with salivary levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Methods The Brazilian version of PCS-C was modified to adjust it for 7-12 years old children. To assess psychometric properties, 100 children (44 with chronic pain from a tertiary hospital and 56 healthy children from a public school) answered the BPCS-C, the visual analogue pain scale, and questions about pain interference in daily activities. We also collected a salivary sample to measure BDNF. Results We observed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s value = 0.81). Parallel analysis retained 2 factors. Conﬁrmatory factor analysis of our 2-factor model revealed consistent goodness-of-fit (IFI = 0.946) when compared to other models. There was no correlation between visual analogue pain scale and the total BPCS-C score; however, there was an association between pain catastrophizing and difficulty in doing physical activities in school (p= 0.01). BPCS-C total scores were not different between groups. We found a marginal association with BPCS-C (r= 0.27, p= 0.01) and salivary BDNF levels. Discussion BPCS-C is a valid instrument with consistent psychometric properties. The revised 2-dimension proposed can be used for this population. Children catastrophism is well correlated with physical limitation, but the absence of BPCS-C score differences between groups highlights the necessity of a better understanding about catastrophic thinking in children.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Both predictions and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy are controversial. Machine learning is an excellent alternative method for predicting difficult laryngoscopy. This study aimed to develop and validate practical predictive models for difficult laryngoscopy through machine learning. Methods Variables for the prediction of difficult laryngoscopy included age, Mallampati grade, body mass index, sternomental distance, and neck circumference. Difficult laryngoscopy was defined as grade 3 and 4 by the Cormack-Lehane classification. Pre-anesthesia and anesthesia data of 616 patients who had undergone anesthesia at a single center were included. The dataset was divided into a base training set (n = 492) and a base test set (n = 124), with equal distribution of difficult laryngoscopy. Training data sets were trained with six algorithms (multilayer perceptron, logistic regression, supportive vector machine, random forest, extreme gradient boosting, and light gradient boosting machine), and cross-validated. The model with the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was chosen as the final model, which was validated with the test set. Results The results of cross-validation were best using the light gradient boosting machine algorithm with Mallampati score x age and sternomental distance as predictive model parameters. The predicted AUROC for the difficult laryngoscopy class was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.83; p= 0.014), and the recall (sensitivity) was 0.85. Conclusion Predicting difficult laryngoscopy is possible with three parameters. Severe damage resulting from failure to predict difficult laryngoscopy with high recall is small with the reported model. The model’s performance can be further enhanced by additional data training.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives We aimed to investigate the effects of two different anesthetic techniques in our patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods In this study, 303 patients who underwent TAVI procedure with a diagnosis of severe aortic stenosis between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided according to the type of anesthesia given during each procedure as; general anesthesia (GA), local anesthesia (LA). Results LA was preferred in 245 (80.8%) of 303 patients who underwent TAVI, while GA was preferred in 58 patients (19.1%). Median ages of our patients who received LA and GA were 83 and 84, respectively. The procedure and anesthesia durations of the patients in the GA group were longer than the LA group (p< 0.00001, p< 0.00001, respectively). Demographic and pre-operative clinical data were similar in comparison between two groups (p> 0.05) except for peripheral artery disease. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity in both groups. While the number of inotrope use was significantly higher in patients who received GA (p< 0.00001), no significant differences were found between LA and GA patients in terms of major complications and mortality (p> 0.05). Intensive care and hospital stays were significantly shorter in the LA group (p= 0.001, p= 0.023, respectively). Conclusion The anesthetic technique of TAVI procedure did not have a significant effect on outcomes including; complications, mortality and success of the procedure. LA provides shorter duration of procedure and hospital stay.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Burns are a common trauma that cause acute severe pain in up to 80% of patients. The objective of this narrative review is to evaluate the efficacy of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, gabapentinoids, ketamine, and lidocaine in the treatment of acute pain in burn victims. Methodology The databases explored were PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials, and OpenGrey. The included randomized, controlled clinical trials assessed the analgesic efficacy of these drugs on hospitalized patients, had no age limit, patients were in the acute phase of the burn injury and were compared to placebo or other analgesic drugs. Studies describing deep sedation, chronic opioid use, chronic pain, and patients taken to reconstructive surgeries were excluded. The Jadad scale was used to evaluate quality. Results Six randomized controlled clinical trials (397 patients) that evaluated the analgesic efficacy of fentanyl (n = 2), nalbuphine (n = 1), ketamine (n = 1), gabapentin (n = 1), and lidocaine (n = 1) to treat post-procedural pain were included. Fentanyl, nalbuphine, and ketamine were effective, while lidocaine was associated with a slight increase in reported pain and gabapentin showed no significant differences. Two studies were of high quality, one was of medium high quality, and three were of low quality. No studies on the efficacy of NSAIDs or paracetamol were found. Conclusion Evidence of efficacy is very limited. Fentanyl, nalbuphine, and ketamine seem to be effective for controlling acute pain in burn patients, whereas gabapentin and lidocaine did not show any efficacy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Chronic pain is defined as a pain lasting more than 3-6 months. It is estimated that 25% of the pediatric population may experience some kind of pain in this context. Adolescence, corresponding to a particular period of development, seems to present the ideal territory for the appearance of maladaptive mechanisms that can trigger episodes of persistent or recurrent pain. Methods A narrative review, in the PubMed/Medline database, in order to synthetize the available evidence in the approach to chronic pain in adolescents, highlighting its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Results Pain is seen as a result from the interaction of biological, psychological, individual, social, and environmental factors. Headache, abdominal pain, and musculoskeletal pain are frequent causes of chronic pain in adolescents. Pain not only has implications on adolescents, but also on family, society, and how they interact. It has implications on daily activities, physical capacity, school performance, and sleep, and is associated with psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and depression. The therapeutic approach of pain must be multimodal and multidisciplinary, involving adolescents, their families, and environment, using pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. Discussion and conclusion The acknowledgment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic pain in adolescent patients seem not to be ideal. The development of evidence-based forms of treatment, and the training of health professionals at all levels of care are essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and early referral of these patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction and objective Patient safety is a concept of great importance to managers, health professionals, and patients and their families, given patient safety promotes more effective care and reduces costs. Moreover, while analyzing the area of anesthesiology, one can realize the epidemiological changes, increased complexity and number of procedures, and the adoption of a new matrix of essential skills mandatory for residents of anesthesiology in Brazil. Thus, it is relevant to identify current patient safety competences among anesthesiology residents. Methods A systematic review was elaborated using PubMed, SciELO, BVS, Cochrane Library, LILACS and CAPES databases with the descriptors “anesthesiology”, “patient safety”, “residency” and “competence”. Results and conclusions Thirteen articles published in the past 10 years were analyzed. The articles depicted competences grouped into three categories: knowledge (identification, prevention and management of adverse events; use of correct and up-to-date information; understanding of human factors; and continuous learning), skills (efficient communication; teamwork; leadership; decision-making; and self-confidence), and attitude (management of stress and fatigue; and infection control). All these skills can be developed and assessed through simulation and active learning methods, profiting from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies also reveal that residents perform poorly in certain patient safety domains due to lack of effective in-depth understanding, appreciation of the topic and ineffective teaching. As a result, greater investment in the topic is needed by teaching and health institutions and researchers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cranial nerve injury by a laryngeal mask airway is rare but a serious complication. The nerve injuries must be prevented during the intubation using a laryngeal mask airway. We report a female patient who complained of tongue numbness, slurred speech, and slight difficulty in swallowing solid food after a hand surgery. She was then diagnosed with unilateral lingual nerve and hypoglossal nerve injuries. Extreme head rotation, relatively small oral cavity, and wide rigid composition at the lower part of the novel laryngeal mask probably resulted in cranial nerve injury.
Abstract in English:Abstract Interscalene brachial plexus (ISB) block is considered the analgesic technique of choice for shoulder surgery. However, the hemidiaphragmatic paresis that may occur after the block has led to the search for an alternative to the ISB block. In this case report, the pericapsular nerve group (PENG) block was performed for both surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in two patients who underwent shoulder surgery. It is suggested that the PENG block can be safely applied for analgesia and can be part of surgical anesthesia, but alone is not sufficient for anesthesia. The block of this area did not cause motor block or pulmonary complications, nor result in muscle laxity, blocking only the shoulder and the upper third of the humerus. It was demonstrated that the PENG block may be safely applied for both partial anesthesia and analgesia in selected shoulder surgery cases.