Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: This study aimed to measure the levels of anxiety and burnout among healthcare workers, including attending physicians, residents, and nurses in intensive care units during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey analysis of healthcare workers in our institution. Data were collected on demographic variables, COVID-19 symptoms and test, disease status, anxiety level (assessed by the Beck Anxiety Inventory), and burnout level (measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory). Subscales of the burnout inventory were evaluated separately. Results: A total of 104 participants completed the survey. Attending physicians, residents, and nurses constituted 25%, 33.7%, and 41.3% of the cohort, respectively. In comparison to untested participants, those tested for COVID-19 had a lower mean age (p = 0.02), higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores (p = 0.001, 0.004, respectively), and lower personal accomplishment scores (p = 0.004). Furthermore, moderate to severe anxiety was observed more frequently in tested participants than untested ones (p = 0.022). Moderate or severe anxiety was seen in 23.1% of the attending physicians, 54.3% of the residents, and 48.8% of the nurses (p = 0.038). Emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization scores differed depending on the position of the healthcare workers (p = 0.034, 0.001, 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: This study revealed higher levels of anxiety and burnout in younger healthcare workers and those tested for COVID-19, which mainly included residents and nurses. The reasons for these observations should be further investigated to protect their mental health.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Introduction The devasting effects of COVID-19 have caused economic and health impacts worldwide. Anesthesiologists were one of the key professionals fighting the pandemic and have been highly exposed at their multiple sites of clinical practice. Thus, the importance of determining the nature of the infection in this population that provides care to SARS-CoV-2 patients. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study administering an online questionnaire to examine the demographic and epidemiological profile of these professionals in Brazil, and to describe the risk factors for viral infection during the pandemic. Results A total of 1,127 anesthesiologists answered the questionnaire, 55.2% were men, more than 90% with age below 60 years, with infection and reinfection rates of 14.7% and 0.5%, respectively, and 47.2% reported a significant income reduction. The predictors of COVID-19 contamination were practicing in operating rooms (OR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.78), direct contact with infected patients (OR = 5.74; 95% CI 3.05-11.57), indirect contact with infected patients (OR = 2.43; 95% CI 1.13-5.33), working in a pre-hospital setting (OR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.03), and presence of immunosuppression, except for cancer (OR = 4.89; 95% CI 1.16-19.01). Conclusion COVID-19 had enormous consequences on Brazilian anesthesiologists regarding sociodemographic aspects and contamination rates (5.57 times higher than in the general population). These are alarming and unprecedented findings for this professional group, as they reveal the considerable risk of infection and its independent predictor variables.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background Simulation-based education has become the most important part of resident training in anesthesiology, especially during the pandemic. It allows learning the skills and the management of different situations without putting residents in risk of contamination, considering COVID-19 is highly contagious. The hypothesis was that simulation is still associated with improvement of knowledge acquisitions despite the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Residents of anesthesiology and intensive care subjected to an anaphylaxis simulation scenario. Their knowledge levels were assessed by true/false questions before and one month after the simulation session. The STAI test was used to measure anxiety levels before and after the scenario. Data were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon and McNemar tests. Results Junior residents (< 2 years) received significantly higher scores in post-training theoretical tests compared to their pre-training scores (79.2 ± 9.6, 84.5 ± 8.2, p = 0.002, n = 21). There was no difference between pre- and post-test scores of seniors (80.2 ± 9, 81.8 ± 10.4, p = 0.3). Pre- and post-anxiety inventory scores were nearly the same and both were in the moderate group (39.8 ± 10.1, 39.3 ± 12.1, p = 0.8). Conclusion Simulation-based education improved the knowledge levels of the residents without raising anxiety levels. Thus, simulation-based training showed its value as an important tool of education during the pandemic, which needs to be further popularized for training at all institutions. Enlightening medical educators about this accomplished teaching method may lead to improved quality of medical education in developing countries and reshape how tomorrow's doctors are trained during pandemics.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: Percutaneous dilation tracheostomy is an aerosol-generating procedure carrying a documented infectious risk during respiratory virus pandemics. For this reason, during the COVID-19 outbreak, surgical tracheostomy was preferred to the percutaneous one, despite the technique related complications increased risk. Methods: We describe a new sequence for percutaneous dilation tracheostomy procedure that could be considered safe both for patients and healthcare personnel. A fiberscope was connected to a video unit to allow bronchoscopy. Guidewire positioning was performed as usual. While the established standard procedure continues with the creation of the stoma without any change in mechanical ventilation, we retracted the bronchoscope until immediately after the access valve in the mount tube, allowing normal ventilation. After 3 minutes of ventilation with 100% oxygen, mechanical ventilation was stopped without disconnecting the circuit. During apnea, the stoma was created by dilating the trachea and the tracheostomy cannula was inserted. Ventilation was then resumed. We evaluated the safeness of the procedure by recording any severe desaturation and by performing serological tests to all personnel. Results: Thirty-six patients (38%) of 96 underwent tracheostomy; 22 (23%) percutaneous dilation tracheostomies with the new approach were performed without any desaturation. All personnel (150 operators) were evaluated for serological testing: 9 (6%) had positive serology but none of them had participated in tracheostomy procedures. Conclusion: This newly described percutaneous dilation tracheostomy technique was not related to severe desaturation events and we did not observe any positive serological test in health workers who performed the tracheostomies.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: We evaluated the effect of early awake prone position administration on oxygenation and intubation requirements and short-term mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Methods: This is an observational-cohort study. Patients receiving mask oxygen therapy in our intensive care units because of acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia were included. The Awake Prone Position (APP) group consisted of patients who were applied awake prone position, whereas non-APP group consisted of patients who were not applied awake prone position. PaCO2, PaO2, pH, SpO2 values and PaO2/FiO2 ratios were recorded at the beginning and 24th hour. Demographic data, comorbidities, intubation requirements, ventilator-free days, length of intensive care unit stay and short-term mortality of the patients were recorded. Results: The data of total 225 patients were examined, and 48 patients who met our study criteria were included. At the 24th hour, the median SpO2 value of the APP group was 95%, the median PaO2 value was 82 mmHg, whereas the SpO2 value of the non-APP group was 90% and the PaO2 value was 66 mmHg. (p = 0.001, p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in length of intensive care unit stay and ventilator-free days, but short-term mortality and intubation requirements was lower in the APP group (p = 0.020, p = 0.001) Conclusion: Awake prone position application in patients receiving non-rebreather mask oxygen therapy for respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia improves oxygenation and decreases the intubation requirements and mortality.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: The postoperative care transition from the postanesthetic recovery room (PACU) to the common ward or even home discharge represents a critical step of the surgical patients’ handover. Although some systems have been proposed to measure the ability to discharge after an anesthetic-surgical procedure effectively, there is no consensus defining which variables should necessarily be evaluated by these instruments. The instruments routinely used do not evaluate important domains for discharge and are laborious to fill, which compromises the professionals’ adhesion. The objectives are to describe the creation of a new recovery room discharge tool (SAMPE checklist) and determine the degree of agreement of the new tool with two classical scales. Methods: In a cross-sectional observational study, 997 patients were selected from the general population undergoing a wide range of surgical procedures in a quaternary care hospital. At 90 minutes after leaving the operating room (OR), patients were evaluated and information was collected to fill out the new SAMPE checklist and two other scores (Aldrete and White) to examine the degree of agreement between them. Results: SAMPE checklist has presented a satisfactory agreement with the White score and lower agreement with Aldrete modified score. Conclusion: This new instrument, as demonstrated in this study with nearly 1000 patients from different contexts, is easy to apply, has high adhesion potential, and can be considered a new option to formalize the discharge from the recovery room.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: Pediatric emergence delirium is characterized by a disturbance of a child’s awareness during the early postoperative period that manifests as disorientation, altered attention and perception. The incidence of emergence delirium varies between 18% and 80% depending on risk factors and how it is measured. Reports from Canada, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, and France demonstrated a wide range of preventive measures and definitions, indicating that there is a lack of clarity regarding emergence delirium. We aimed to assess the practices and beliefs among Brazilian anesthesiologists regarding emergence delirium. Methods: A web-based survey was developed using REDCap®. A link and QR Code were sent by email to all Brazilian anesthesiologists associated with the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA). Results: We collected 671 completed questionnaires. The majority of respondents (97%) considered emergence delirium a relevant adverse event. Thirty-two percent of respondents reported routinely administrating medication to prevent emergence delirium, with clonidine (16%) and propofol (15%) being the most commonly prescribed medications. More than 70% of respondents reported a high level of patient and parent anxiety, a previous history of emergence delirium, and untreated pain as risk factors for emergence delirium. Regarding treatment, thirty-five percent of respondents reported using propofol, followed by midazolam (26%). Conclusion: Although most respondents considered emergence delirium a relevant adverse event, only one-third of them routinely applied preventive measures. Clonidine and propofol were the first choices for pharmacological prevention. For treatment, propofol and midazolam were the most commonly prescribed medications.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background and objectives: Delirium is common but is frequently undetected by clinicians, despite the fact that it can be life-threatening. This study aimed to identify the incidence of delirium and the preoperative factors associated with perioperative use of drugs to treat hyperactive delirium in elderly patients who underwent hip fracture surgery under regional anesthesia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients ≥ 65 years of age who had undergone hip-fracture surgery under regional anesthesia, covered by the Korean National Health Insurance, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015. A univariate and stepwise logistic regression model with the occurrence of hyperactive delirium as the dependent variable was used to identify the perioperative factors for this sample of patients. Results: Among the 70,696 patients who underwent hip fracture surgery, 58,972 patients who received regional anesthesia were included in our study; of these, perioperative use of drugs to treat hyperactive delirium was diagnosed in 8,680 (14.7%) patients. Performing stepwise logistic regression, preoperative variables found to be associated with delirium were: male sex, age ≥ 85 years, hospital type (medical center), ICU and ventilator care, the presence of a neurodegenerative disorder, uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, peptic ulcer disease, and previously diagnosed psychoses and/or depression (OR = 1.49 [1.42-1.58], 4.7 [4.15-5.37], 13.3 [7.57-23.8], 1.52 [1.43-1.60], 1.19 [1.01-1.40], 1.20 [1.14-1.27], 1.09 [1.04-1.14], 0.87 [0.96-0.00], 2.23 [1.48-3.37], and 1.38 [1.32-1.46], respectively). Conclusions: Postoperative hyperactive delirium may affect approximately 15% of elderly patients submitted to hip fracture repair under regional anesthesia. This study has identified multiple preoperative risk factors associated with postoperative hyperactive delirium and its pharmacological management strategies.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether Tranexamic Acid (TXA) can significantly reduce perioperative blood loss in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty (TSA) performed under regional anesthesia. Methods We performed a randomized, single blinded, controlled study. Forty-five patients were submitted to TSA under regional anesthesia to treat cuff tear arthropathy, proximal humeral fractures, chronic instability, primary osteoarthrosis, and failures of previous prosthesis. Patients were randomized to either group TXA therapy (TXA), with 1 g intravenous (IV), or no Intervention (NTXA). Postoperative total drain output, hemoglobin variation, total blood loss, hemoglobin loss, and need for transfusion were measured. Pain-related variables were also assessed: postoperative pain assessment by visual analog scale, inpatient pain breakthrough, quality of recovery, length of stay, and coagulation function testing. Results Participants presented a mean age of 76 years, 15.6% were male, 82.2% were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II. There were no differences between groups concerning transfusions, operative time, Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) length of stay and in-hospital stay, and QoR-15 or postoperative pain. Bleeding measured by drain output at 2, 24 and 48 hours was significantly less in the TXA group at each timepoint. There was a difference in Hb variation - TXA: median (IQR) -1.4 (1.3) g.dL-1 vs. NTXA: -2.2 (1.3) g.dL-1; median difference: 0.80 (0.00-1.20); p = 0.047. aPTT was lower in TXA administered patients - TXA: median (IQR) 29.6 (14.0)s vs. NTXA: 33 (5.8)s; difference in medians: -4.00 (-6.50--1.00); p = 0.012. Conclusion TXA use significantly decreased blood loss measured by drain output and Hb drop in TSA under regional anesthesia.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for failure of subclavian vein catheterization. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 1562 patients who underwent subclavian vein puncture performed by the same experienced operator at Peking University Cancer Hospital from January 1, 2016 to January 1, 2019 was conducted. The success or failure of subclavian vein catheterization was registered in all cases. Various patient characteristics, including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative hematocrit, preoperative mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), preoperative albumin, preoperative serum creatinine, puncture needles from different manufacturers and previous history of subclavian vein catheterization were assessed via univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: For the included patients, landmark-guided subclavian vein puncture was successful in 1476 cases and unsuccessful in 86 cases (success rate of 94.5%). Successful subclavian vein catheterization was achieved via right and left subclavian vein puncture in 1392 and 84 cases, respectively. In univariate analyses, age and preoperative hemoglobin were associated with failure of subclavian vein catheterization. In a multivariate analysis, aged more than 60 years was a risk factor while the central venous access with Certofix® was associated with an increased rate of success (p-values of 0.001 and 0.015, respectively). Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that patient aged more than 60 years was a risk factor for failure of subclavian vein catheterization while the central venous access with Certofix® was associated with an increased rate of success.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Introduction and objective: Dexmedetomidine is a potent adrenergic alpha-2 agonist, and analgesic, sedative, anxiolytic and sympatholytic. Given there have been reports of dexmedetomidine associated temperature changes, in which these events have been associated with complications, our objective was to describe both temperature increase and decrease, during the intra and postoperative period (initial 24 hours), and factors associated, in patients who received dexmedetomidine for anesthesia/sedation in the surgical suite. Method: Retrospective observational study, analyzing charts of patients ≥ 18 years submitted to anesthesia/sedation with dexmedetomidine, between 1/1/2017 and 31/12/2017. Upper temperature threshold was considered ≥ 37.8°C, and lower, < 35°C. The association with dexmedetomidine was assessed by the OMS/UMC causality system and by the Naranjo algorithm. Results: The sample included 42 patients who received dexmedetomidine and whose temperature data were available, with predominance of men 26 (62%), 49.4/16.5 years old (mean/standard deviation), and weight 65/35.8 kg. None of the patients presented intraoperative temperature equal to or above 37.8°C or below 35°C. During the postoperative period, one patient presented an increase ≥ 37.8°C (2.4%) and three, temperature decrease < 35°C (7%). Surgery/anesthesia time and exposure time to dexmedetomidine were not appropriate linear predictors of maximum temperature. Older age (p < 0.01), longer exposure to dexmedetomidine (p < 0.05) and shorter surgery time (p < 0.01) were significant linear predictors for lower minimum temperature. Abbreviations: MH, malignant hyperthermia; UMC, Uppsala Monitoring Centre; ICU, Intensive Care Unit; WHO, World Health Organization. Conclusions: Increase ≥ 37.8°C/decrease < 35°C of temperature possibly associated with dexmedetomidine did not occur in the intraoperative period and had a low frequency during the postoperative period.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: The genetic polymorphisms of the alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A), which plays a significant role in sedation, anxiety relief, and antinociception, particularly in dexmedetomidine, may differ in the degree of sedation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the genetic polymorphisms of ADRA2A (rs11195418, rs1800544, rs2484516, rs1800545, rs553668, rs3750625) on the sedative effects of dexmedetomidine. Methods: A total of 131 patients aged 50 years or more from May 2018 to August 2019 were included in this study. The ADRA2A gene variants were evaluated using the TaqMan Assay. Dexmedetomidine diluted in normal saline to a concentration of 4 µg.mL-1 was infused at a dose of 2 µg.kg-1 to achieve procedural sedation (modified Ramsay sedation scale 4 [mRSS 4]). Results: A total of 131 patients were evaluated. The genetic polymorphisms (rs11195418) of the ADRA2A receptor gene demonstrated no variation in our participants. The ADRA2A receptor gene polymorphisms (rs1800544, rs2484516, rs1800545, rs553668, and rs3750625) exhibited no differences in total dexmedetomidine doses (p > 0.217), bispectral index at mRSS 4 (p > 0.620), and time to obtain mRSS 4 (p > 0.349). Conclusion: This study suggested that the genetic polymorphisms of ADRA2A did not affect the sedative efficacy of dexmedetomidine.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: Supraglottic airway device is presently the most common modality of airway management in children for short surgical procedures. The i-gel is one such novel supraglottic airway device with a non-inflatable cuff. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of i-gel compared to LMA Proseal regarding oropharyngeal leak pressure, insertion time, ease of insertion, and fibreoptic view of larynx. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance and parental consent, 70 children aged 2-10 years, weighing 10-30 kg were randomised to receive LMA Proseal or i-gel for airway management. Data with respect to oropharyngeal leak pressure, insertion time, ease of insertion, number of attempts, and fibreoptic score were collected. The primary outcome was the oropharyngeal leak pressure with the two supraglottic airway devices measured by manometric stability. Results: Demographic data were comparable between the two groups. The oropharyngeal leak pressure (LMA Proseal vs. i-gel, 20.51 ± 4.71 cmH2O vs. 19.57 ± 5.71 cmH2O), ease of insertion, number of attempts, and fibreoptic view score was similar between the two groups. The insertion time was faster with i-gel (22.63 ± 5.79 s) compared to LMA Proseal (43.26 ± 7.85 s). Conclusion: I-gel was similar to LMA Proseal with respect to oropharyngeal leak pressure in children under controlled ventilation.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: Our goal was to evaluate whether TAP block offers the same analgesic pain control compared to epidural technique in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy surgery through the morphine consumption in the first 48 hours. Methods: In this study, 45 patients were recruited and assigned to either TAP or epidural. The main study outcome was morphine consumption during the first 48 hours after surgery. Other data recorded were pain at rest and upon movement, technique-related complications and adverse effects, surgical and postoperative complications, length of surgery, need for rescue analgesia, postoperative nausea and vomiting, start of intake, sitting and perambulation, first flatus, and length of in-hospital stay. Results: From a total of 45 patients, two were excluded due to reconversion to open surgery (TAP group = 20; epidural group = 23). There were no differences in morphine consumption (0.96 vs. 0.8 mg; p = 0.78); mean postoperative VAS pain scores at rest (0.7 vs. 0.5; p = 0.72); or upon movement (1.6 vs. 1.6; p = 0.32); in the TAP vs. epidural group, respectively. Sitting and perambulation began sooner in TAP group (19 vs. 22 hours, p = 0.03; 23 vs. 32 hours, p = 0.01; respectively). The epidural group had more technique-related adverse effects. Conclusion: TAP blocks provide the same analgesic quality with optimal pain control than epidural technique, with less adverse effects.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: Though hemodynamically stable, etomidate is known for its myoclonus side effect following induction. The main aim of this study is an effective attempt to decrease the incidence of myoclonus with a priming agent. Methods: A prospective, double-blind study was carried out on 50 adults posted for elective surgery. After premedication, priming was done with etomidate 0.03 mg.kg-1 (Group E) and propofol 0.2 mg.kg-1 (Group P), i.e., 1/10th of induction dose. After 60 seconds of priming, patients were induced with etomidate by titrating dose over 60 seconds until loss of verbal command and eyelash reflex. The grading of myoclonus, induction dosage, and hemodynamics for 10 minutes post induction were recorded. Results: In the study, only 4 cases had myoclonus. Grade 1 myoclonus was encountered in three cases of etomidate group, while only one case in the propofol group had grade 2 myoclonus which was not statistically significant (p-value: 0.12). There was a significant reduction in the etomidate induction dosage in both groups. Conclusion: Priming with etomidate and propofol is equally effective in reducing myoclonus with the added benefit of hemodynamic stability and reduction of an induction dose of etomidate (> 50%).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Objectives This study was to compare the effects of different local analgesia protocols on osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods Medical records of 148 osteoarthritis patients who underwent unilateral TKA between October 2016 and October 2017 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. All these patients were divided into three groups according to the pain management protocol (morphine, morphine + cocktail [100 mg ropivacaine, 10 mg morphine, and 30 mL 0.9% sodium chloride solution containing 2 mL betamethasone (4 mg)], or cocktail). The postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score, muscle strength, and complications were compared between the groups. Results At 6 and 12 hours post-operation, the VAS score in group C was significantly higher than that in group A or group B. In addition, the muscle (quadriceps femoris) strength score of group C (3.7 ± 2.8) was significantly higher than that in groups A and B at 6 and 12 hours post-operation. The VAS score and muscle strength score showed no significant differences among the three groups at 24 and 36 hours post-operation. The time of postoperative first void of group C was significantly shorter than that of groups A and B. Groups A or B had a significantly higher incidence of nausea and emesis compared with group C. The incidence of pruritus was higher in groups A or B than that in group C. Conclusion Epidural anesthesia combined with local analgesic cocktail injection is a preferable effective multimodal analgesia for TKA.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: Early tracheal extubation of recipients following liver transplantation (LT) has been gradually replacing the standard postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation, contributing to better patient and graft survival and reduced costs. There are no universally accepted predictors of the success of immediate extubation in LT recipients. We hypothesized several potential predictors of successful immediate tracheal extubation in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients. Aim: Evaluation of the validity of the following hypothesized factors: model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, duration of surgery, number of intraoperatively transfused packed red blood cells (RBCs) units, and end of surgery (EOS) serum lactate, as predictors of success of immediate tracheal extubation in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients. Methods: In this prospective clinical investigation, perioperative data of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients were recorded. ‘‘Immediate extubation’’ was defined as tracheal extubation immediately and up to 1 hour post-transplant in the operating room. Patients were divided into the extubated group who were successfully extubated with no need for reintubation, and the non-extubated group who failed to meet the criteria of extubation, or were re-intubated within 4 hours of extubation. Results: We enrolled 64 patients candidates for LDLT; 50 patients (76.9%) in group 1 were extubated early after LDLT while 14 patients (23.07%) in group 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit intubated. After data analysis, we found that EOS serum lactate, duration of surgery and number of packed RBCs units transfused intraoperatively were good predictors of success of immediate extubation (p < 0.001). MELD scores did not show any significant impact on the results (p = 0.54). Other factors such as EOS urine output and blood gases indices were shown to have a significant effect on the decision of extubation (p = 0.03 and 0.006, respectively). Conclusions: EOS serum lactate, duration of surgery and number of packed RBCs units transfused were potential predictors of post-transplant early extubation.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: We aimed to determine the minimum effective volume (MEV) of 0.5% bupivacaine for infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Methods: We assigned patients to volume groups consisting of five consecutive patients. Local anesthetic was sequentially reduced from a starting dose of 30 mL by 2 mL to form the volume groups. Five patients were included in each volume group, and at least 3 of 5 injections had to be successful to consider the volume of the anesthetic as sufficient. The study ended when the anesthetic volume of a group was determined to be unsuccessful (two or fewer successful blocks). Block was successful if the patient reported a sensorial block score of 7 or more on an 8- point scale and sensorial and motor block’s total score of 14 on a 16-point scale. Results: The MEV of 0.5% bupivacaine for infraclavicular brachial plexus block was 14 mL. A successful block was achieved in all patients (n = 45) in 9 volume groups, which received 30 mL down to 14 mL. Three blocks were unsuccessful in the 12-mL group. Time to onset of block and time to first postoperative anesthetic administration was 15 (10-15) min and more than 24 h in the 30-mL bupivacaine group, but 40 (30-45) min and 14 (10-24) h were determined for the 14- mL group, respectively. Conclusions: The MEV of 0.5% bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block was 14 mL. However, this low-dose block hasa long onset time of 40 (30-45) min on average.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background and objectives: Nerve block or neurolysis is an important approach in the treatment of spastic equinovarus foot. To illustrate the accurate location of the nerve branch to the tibialis posterior muscle (TP) in clinical practice, 21 adult cadavers were dissected and 14 complete both lower limb specimens were obtained. A total of 28 lower limbs were included. Methods: We measured the length of the motor branch nerve (LM) of the tibialis posterior muscle, the length of the fibula (LF), the vertical distance (D1) from the midpoint of LM to the fibula tip as well as the horizontal distance (D2) from the midpoint of LM to the inner edge of the fibula. Results: The LM was higher (35.74 ± 7.28 mm) in male than in female (30.40 ± 6.88 mm) specimens but there was no significant correlation between LM and gender (> 0.05). Additionally, among male specimens, the LM on the right side was longer than that on the left (p ≤ 0.05) while among female specimens, the D1 on the left side was longer than that on the right (p ≤ 0.05). The LF in male specimen was significantly longer than that in female (p ≤ 0.05). The midpoint of the nerve to the motor branch of the tibialis posterior muscle was about 50 mm distal to the fibular head and 10 mm at the inner edge of the fibula. Conclusion: Using this coordinate, the midpoint of the nerve branch to the TP could be accurately located.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background: Tracheal intubation in patients with coronavirus disease-19 is a high-risk procedure that should be performed with personal protective equipment (PPE). The influence of PPE on operator’s performance during tracheal intubation remains unclear. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of simulation studies to evaluate the influence of wearing PPE as compared to standard uniform regarding time-to-intubation (TTI) and success rate. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to device used and operator’s experience. Results: The TTI was prolonged when wearing PPE (eight studies): Standard Mean Difference (SMD)-0.54, 95% Confidence Interval [-0.75,-0.34], p < 0.0001. Subgroup analyses according to device used showed similar findings (direct laryngoscopy, SMD-0.63 [-0.88,-0.38], p < 0.0001; videolaryngoscopy, SMD-0.39 [-0.75,-0.02], p = 0.04). Considering the operator’s experience, non-anesthesiologists had prolonged TTI (SMD-0.75 [-0.98,-0.52], p < 0.0001) while the analysis on anesthesiologists did not show significant differences (SMD-0.25 [-0.51, 0.01], p = 0.06). The success rate of tracheal intubation was not influenced by PPE: Risk Ratio (RR) 1.02 [1.00, 1.04]; p = 0.12). Subgroup analyses according to device demonstrated similar results (direct laryngoscopy, RR 1.03 [0.99, 1.07], p = 0.15, videolaryngoscopy, RR 1.01 [0.98, 1.04], p = 0.52). Wearing PPE had a trend towards negative influence on success rate in non-anesthesiologists (RR 1.05 [1.00, 1.10], p = 0.05), but not in anesthesiologists (RR 1.00 [0.98, 1.03], p = 0.84). Trial-sequential analyses for TTI and success rate indicated robustness of both results. Conclusions: Under simulated conditions, wearing PPE delays the TTI as compared to dressing standard uniform, with no influence on the success rate. However, certainty of evidence is very low. Performing tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy seems influenced to a greater extent as compared to videolaryngoscopy. Similarly, wearing PPE affects more the non-anesthesiologists subgroup as compared to anesthesiologists.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Introduction: There are many possible sources of medical information; however, the quality of the information varies. Poor quality or inaccurate resources may be harmful if they are trusted by providers. This study aimed to analyze the quality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)- related intubation videos on YouTube. Methods: The term “COVID-19 intubation” was searched on YouTube. The top 100 videos retrieved were sorted by relevance and 37 videos were included. The video demographics were recorded. The quality of the videos was analyzed using an 18-point checklist, which was designed for evaluating COVID-19 intubation. Videos were also evaluated using general video quality scores and the modified Journal of the American Medical Association score. Results: The educational quality was graded as good for eight (21.6%) videos, moderate for 13 (35.1%) videos, and poor for 16 (43.2%) videos. The median safe COVID-19 intubation score (SCIS) was 11 (IQR = 5-13). The SCISs indicated that videos prepared in an intensive care unit were higher in quality than videos from other sources (p < 0.05). The length of the video was predictive of quality (area under the curve = 0.802, 95% CI = 0.658-0.945, p = 0.10). Conclusions: The quality of YouTube videos for COVID-19 intubation is substandard. Poor quality videos may provide inaccurate knowledge to viewers and potentially cause harm.