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Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology, Volume: 72, Issue: 3, Published: 2022
  • How to identify a high-risk surgical patient? Editorial

    Schmidt, Andre P.; Stefani, Luciana C.
  • Derivation and validation of a national multicenter mortality risk stratification model - the ExCare model: a study protocol Original Investigation

    Passos, Sávio Cavalcante; Stahlschmidt, Adriene; Blanco, João; Spader, Mariana Lunardi; Brandão, Rodrigo Borges; Castro, Stela Maris de Jezus; Gutierrez, Claudia de Souza; Silva Neto, Paulo Corrêa da; Stefani, Luciana Paula Cadore

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Surgical care is essential for proper management of various diseases. However, it can result in unfavorable outcomes. In order to identify patients at higher risk of complications, several risk stratification models have been developed. Ideally, these tools should be simple, reproducible, accurate, and externally validated. Unfortunately, none of the best-known risk stratification instruments have been validated in Brazil. In this sense, the Ex-Care model was developed by retrospective data analysis of surgical patients in a major Brazilian university hospital. It consists of four independent predictors easily collected in the preoperative evaluation, showing high accuracy in predicting death within 30 days after surgery. Objectives To update and validate a Brazilian national-based model of postoperative death probability within 30 days based on the Ex-Care model. Also, to develop an application for smartphones that allows preoperative risk stratification by Ex-Care model. Methods Ten participating centers will collect retrospective data from digital databases. Variables age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, surgical severity (major or non-major) and nature (elective or urgent) will be evaluated as predictors for in-hospital mortality within 30 postoperative days, considered the primary outcome. Expected results We believe that the Ex-Care model will present discriminative capacity similar to other classically used scores validated for surgical mortality prediction. Furthermore, the mobile application to be developed will provide a practical and easy-to-use tool to the professionals enrolled in perioperative care.
  • Perioperative goal-directed fluid management using noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in gynecologic oncology Original Investigation

    Yildiz, Gunes O; Hergunsel, Gulsum O; Sertcakacilar, Gokhan; Akyol, Duygu; Karakaş, Sema; Cukurova, Zafer

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Intraoperative fluid management is important for the prevention of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to investigate the perioperative feasibility and benefits of Goal-Directed Fluid Management (GDFM) using noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in gynecologic oncology patients with acute blood loss and severe fluid loss. We assessed the effects of GDFM on hemodynamics, organ perfusion, complications, and mortality outcomes. Methods This randomized prospective study included 104 patients over the age of 18 years, including 56 patients with endometrial cancer and 48 patients with ovarian cancer who had open surgery. The anesthetic approach was standardized for all patients. We compared the perioperative results of the subjects who were randomized into GDFM (n = 51) and Liberal Fluid Management (LFM) (n = 53) groups using a computer program. Results The median perioperative crystalloid replacement (2000 vs. 2700; p < 0.001) and total volume of fluid (2260 vs. 3200; p < 0.001) were lower in the GDFM group compared to the LFM group. The hemodynamic findings and the HCO3 and lactate levels of the GDFM group did not significantly change perioperatively. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and HCO3 levels of the LFM group decreased and serum lactate levels increased perioperatively. The hospitalization rate in ICU (7.8% vs. 28.3%; p = 0.010), rate of patients with comorbidity conditions indicated in ICU (2% vs. 17%; p = 0.024), and rate of complications (17.6% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.047) were lower in the GDFM group compared to the LFM group. Conclusion The amount of intraoperatively administered crystalloid solution and complication rates were significantly lower in gynecologic oncologic surgery patients who received GDFM. Besides, hemodynamic findings, and lactate levels of the GDFM group did not change significantly during the perioperative period.
  • Perioperative management of patients undergoing tracheal resection and reconstruction: a retrospective observational study Original Investigation

    Segura-Salguero, Juan C.; Díaz-Bohada, Lorena; Ruiz, Álvaro J.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Perioperative management of Tracheal Resection and Reconstruction (TRR) presents many challenges to the physicians involved in airway management. Factors related to postoperative outcomes can be identified as early as the preoperative setting and can even be linked to demographic characteristics of patients affected by tracheal stenosis. The primary aim of this study is to describe the experience of patients undergoing TRR at our hospital from an anesthesiology perspective, describing as a second aim demography, preoperative conditions, and postoperative complications. Method: This was a single institution retrospective review of patients who underwent TRR between 2009 and 2020. We did a post-hoc exploratory analysis to identify possible associations between perioperative complications and perioperative management. Results: Forty-three ASA I-IV adult patients aged 18–72 years who underwent TRR were included. Prolonged intubation (72%) is the primary cause of tracheal stenosis. Intraoperative management: intravenous induction and laryngeal masks are now the most frequently used for airway management, especially in subglottic stenosis. Perioperative complications were vocal cord paralysis (25.6%), postoperative ventilatory support (20.9%), and need for surgical reintervention (20.9%). One patient (2%) died in the postoperative period due to anastomotic complication. After resection, dexmedetomidine is the preferred choice (48.8%) for sedoanalgesia in the ICU. Conclusion: Perioperative management of TRR at our hospital has a low mortality and high morbidity rate. We did not find an association between perioperative anesthetic interventions and postoperative complications. Further studies are needed to evaluate which anesthetic interventions may be associated with better outcomes.
  • Anesthesia technique and postpartum hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study Original Investigation

    Borovac-Pinheiro, Anderson; Brandão, Maria José Nascimento; Argenton, Juliana Luz Passos; Barbosa, Thales Daniel Alves; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objective During the past few years, an increased number of postpartum hemorrhages have been noticed, even in high-income countries. It has been suggested that this escalation could be associated with increased obstetric interventions. Among such interventions, anesthesia is one of the most prevalent. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of peripartum anesthesia on total blood loss during the 24 hours after delivery. Methods We performed a complementary analysis from a prospective cohort study that evaluated postpartum bleeding within 24 hours after birth. The study was performed between February 1st, 2015 and March 31st, 2016 at the Women’s Hospital at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil. Postpartum bleeding was measured using a calibrated drape and summing the blood contained in the compresses and pads used for 24 hours. We calculated means, percentages, and standard deviation and performed Mann-Whitney analysis for the relation of anesthesia with Postpartum Hemorrhage (PPH) and logistic regression for drugs used in the anesthesia with PPH, using SAS 9.4 software. Results We included 270 women in the study; of these, 168 received anesthesia for delivery and almost 50% of them had spinal and epidural anesthesia. The mean blood loss within 24 hours after delivery did not show differences between those who did and those who did not receive obstetrical anesthesia (579.0 ± 361.6 vs. 556.6 ± 360.6; p = 0.57). Logistic regression showed that anesthesia, the type of anesthesia, and the drug used did not influence the PPH above 500 mL and above 1000 mL within 2 hours (p > 0.05). Conclusion Anesthesia did not influence postpartum bleeding after vaginal delivery.
  • Comparison of the suprainguinal fascia iliaca compartment block with continuous epidural analgesia in patients undergoing hip surgeries: a retrospective study Original Investigation

    Azizoğlu, Mustafa; Rumeli, Şebnem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objective Pain control is one of the major concerns after major hip surgeries. Suprainguinal fascia iliaca compartment block (S-FICB) is an alternative analgesic technique that can be considered as an effective and less invasive method than epidural analgesia (EA). In this retrospective study, we compared postoperative analgesic efficacy of single shot ultrasound guided S-FICB and EA after major hip surgery. Methods We retrospectively examined 150 patients who underwent major hip surgeries and who received S-FICB or EA. Seventy-two patients submitted to EA and 78 patients who received S-FICB were included and their medical records retrospectively reviewed. Morphine consumptions, VAS scores, and side effects were recorded. Patients under antiplatelet or anticoagulant theraphy were also registered. Morphine consumption and VAS scores were the primary endpoints, succes rate and complications were the secondary endpoints of our study. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Morphine consumption was lower at the emergence in the EA group but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups according to total opioid consumption (0 [0-0] vs 0 [0-0]; p = 0.52). There was no difference between VAS scores in the first 18 hours. Hypotension was significantly higher in the EA group (9 vs 21; p = 0.04). Conclusion In conclusion, S-FICB can provide comparable analgesia with EA in the early postoperative period after hip surgery but VAS scores were found lower in the EA group than S-FICB group after 18th hour. Hypotension has occured more frequently in patients receiving EA.
  • Evaluation of skin test indications for general anesthetics in real life: a prospective cohort study Original Investigation

    Beyaz, Sengul; Coskun, Raif; Oztop, Nida; Aygun, Evren; Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tulay Ozkan; Demir, Semra; Olgac, Muge; Unal, Derya; Colakoglu, Bahauddin; Buyukozturk, Suna; Gelincik, Asli

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background In daily practice, atopic patients and those who have other drug allergies are referred to allergy clinics for evaluation of possible general anesthetic allergy despite the fact that it is not recommended in recent guidelines. Objective The aim of this prospective study is to determine the negative predictive value of skin tests for common general anesthetic drugs prior to general anesthesia in atopic patients and in patients who had drug allergies by including the data of those who had previously tolerated or reacted to general anesthesia. Methods A database program was constituted to collect the preoperative skin test data of patients referred to our clinic between 2013 and 2018. Demographic and clinical history, medications implemented during perioperative period, reactions, and results of skin tests performed with anesthetic drugs and latex were evaluated. Results Four hundred fifty-nine out of the total 1167 patients referred fulfilled the inclusion criteria for further evaluation. Nearly 75% of the patients were female and mean age was 46.3 ± 14.3 years. History of hypersensitivity reactions (HRs) due to NSAIDs and/or antibiotics, radiocontrast agents, local anesthetics, and food were present in the 53.1%, 4.1%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, respectively. The negative predictive values of skin tests for general anesthetics were in the range of 80-100%. Only 4 patients (0,87%) experienced HRs during operation. Conclusion These real-life data reveal high rates of negative predictive value of skin tests with general anesthetic drugs and a low reaction rate in atopic patients and in patients with allergy to other drugs.
  • Airway management in general anesthesia for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformation: a retrospective observational study Original Investigation

    Süzer, Mehmet Anıl; Özhan, Mehmet Özgür; Çaparlar, Ceyda Özhan; Eşkin, Mehmet Burak; Atik, Bülent

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objective This retrospective and observational study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the use of the endotracheal tube (ETT) and the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) for the airway management with respect to airway safety, hemodynamic stability, adverse respiratory events, and recovery characteristics in patients who underwent endovascular treatment (EVT) for cerebrovascular arteriovenous malformation under general anesthesia between 2011 and 2018. Methods The study included data from the patient's electronic medical records and anesthesia files. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of hemodynamic disturbances and respiratory adverse events during airway management. The secondary outcome measure was the comparison of recovery characteristics. Results The airway was secured using ETT in 41 patients and LMA in 39 patients. Airway safety was established in all patients without a complication throughout the procedure. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were increased to > 20% of baseline levels at intubation and extubation periods in more patients in the ETT group than the LMA group (27 vs. 3; p = 0.07, and 11 vs. 2; p = 0.021). Respiratory adverse events including straining and coughing were observed in ten patients in the ETT group but only in one patient in the LMA group (p = 0.013). Time to extubation, to neurological assessment, and to discharge from the angiography unit were similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion It was concluded that LMA provided sufficient airway safety as with ETT and may be used as an alternative to ETT for EVTs under general anesthesia.
  • The effects of dexketoprofen on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury: an experimental study Original Investigation

    Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Bilgin, Sezgin; Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Yarim, Murat; Ozkan, Fatih; Kaya, Cengiz; Dost, Burhan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) may cause irreversible damage to tissues and organs. We evaluated the effects of dexketoprofen on a renal I/R model in rats. Methods The study included 30 male rats. Control group received 1 mL of saline. Dexketoprofen group received 1 mL (25 mg) of dexketoprofen intraperitoneally. After 60 minutes renal ischemia, 23 hours reperfusion was applied. In Sham group, laparotomy was performed with a medial line incision without any additional procedure. Changes in the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), renal tissue MDA, plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), BUN, creatinine and albumin levels, and histopathological changes were evaluated. Results CAT values were significantly lower in Control as compared with the Sham group. Plasma levels of MDA in the Control group were significantly higher than in the Dexketoprofen group. BUN and creatinine values were significantly higher in the Dexketoprofen group. The severity of tissue injury in the Dexketoprofen group was significantly higher than in Control and Sham groups Conclusion Although dexketoprofen reduces the I/R-induced systemic inflammation, it increases renal tissue damage.
  • Is Jedi Grip efficient and effective in ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocking? A prospective, randomized, observer-blinded study Original Investigation

    Keklik, Neslihan; Aytaç, İsmail; Başkan, Semih; Güven Aytaç, Betül

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background In this prospective, randomized, controlled observer-blinded study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of a single-operator technique called the Jedi Grip and a conventional technique requiring a double operator in ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus blocking. Methods Ninety-two patients (ASA I-II; aged 18-65 years old) who underwent elective hand, wrist and forearm surgery were randomly assigned to Group Conventional (C) or Group Jedi (J). In both groups, axillary plexus blockade was performed by applying 5 cc of a mixture of 10 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine and 10 cc of 2% prilocaine to the ulnar, radial, median, and musculocutaneous nerves. Parameters such as the performance time and number of needle passes were recorded during the procedure. Subsequently, a blinded observer evaluated and recorded parameters related to the blockade success. The main outcome variables were the performance time and success rate (surgical anesthesia). Results The block performance time of the Jedi technique was slightly longer than that of the conventional technique (220 (50), 202 (78) s, respectively) (median (IQR); p = 0.05). No significant difference was found between groups in terms of blocking success; 9 (20%) from the conventional group and 3 (6.4%) from the Jedi group were unsuccessful (p = 0.053). No differences were found in terms of arterial puncture, and no other complications occurred in either group. The motor-sensory block onset and termination times and initial analgesia requirements were similar. Conclusion The Jedi technique may be applied safely with similar block success and performance results as the conventional technique.
  • Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography following mitral valve repair: a systematic review Systematic Review

    Zamper, Raffael; Prempeh, Agya; Iglesias, Ivan; Fayad, Ashraf

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: We aimed to examine the recent evidence and search for novel assessments on intraoperative TEE following mitral valve repair that can impact short and long-term outcomes. Methods: The Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases were searched from January 1, 2008, until January 27, 2021, for studies on patients with severe Mitral Valve Regurgitation (MR) undergoing Mitral Valve (MV) repair surgery with intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) performed after the repair. Additional searches were conducted using Google search engine, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Results: After reviewing 302 records, 8 retrospective and 22 prospective studies were included (n = 30). Due to clinical and methodological diversity, these studies are noncomparable and data were not amenable to quantitative synthesis. Conclusion: Although technological advances allowed the objective assessment of geometric and dynamic alterations of the MV, the impact of the use of these technologies on short- or longterm outcomes was not studied. There is uncertainty and conflicting evidence on the ideal method and metrics to evaluate MV patency post-repair. Few isolated studies validated methods to assess coaptation surface and LV function post-repair.
  • Effects of hypercapnia versus normocapnia during general anesthesia on outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis Systematic Review

    Petran, Jan; Ansems, Kelly; Rossaint, Rolf; Marx, Gernot; Kalvelage, Christina; Kopp, Rüdger; Benstoem, Carina; Brülls, Christian

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background The effect of mild changes in CO2 levels to organ perfusion and tissue inflammation are well known, whereas an influence of hypercapnia under general anesthesia on adverse events as nausea and vomiting, or length of hospital stay is barely examined. The goal of our meta-analysis was to identify possibly positive effects of hypercapnia versus normocapnia in general anesthesia in adult patients. Methods We conducted a systematic review of parallel-arm randomised controlled trials comparing hypercapnia versus normocapnia in adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. In July 2018 and September 2019 we searched “CENTRAL”, “MEDLINE”, and “Embase”, checked reference lists of all included studies and relevant systematic reviews for additional references to trials. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data, and completed a “Risk of bias” assessment for all included studies. Results Our search identified 297 records after abstract screening 30 full-text papers remained for further examination. Ten publications met our inclusion criteria and were used for narrative description of this systematic review. Three studies were eligible for the meta-analysis normocapnia versus hypercapnia with the outcomes: time to extubation and adverse events. On average, time to extubation was significantly reduced in the hypercapnia group with a mean difference 3.78 (95% CI 0.85 to 6.71). No difference was found regarding adverse events. Conclusions The findings of our study do not enable us to produce evidence of a positive influence of increased CO2 partial pressure levels during general anesthesia. A well-planned, adequately powered randomized controlled trial would be desirable in the future.
  • General anesthesia for old Werner syndrome patient: a case report Case Report

    You, Ann Hee; Koo, In Hoe; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Kang, Hee Yong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive, premature aging disorder whose clinical manifestations include short stature, bilateral cataracts, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. WS first manifests during adolescence and patients usually die at 40–50 years of age. Only symptomatic treatment options available according to clinical manifestations. In anesthetic management, they need to be considered to elderly patients. Difficult intubation is expected and the patients are regarded as a high-risk group for anesthesia, owing to the concomitant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. The anesthetic management of WS requires a meticulous preoperative history taking, physical examination, and preparation for cardiovascular events.
  • Transient unilateral lingual nerve injury following the use of laryngeal mask airway Supreme: a case report Case Report

    Park, Kyung Nam; Jeong, Hae Jeong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Lingual nerve injury rarely occurs after using the laryngeal mask airway (LMA). A 40-year-old woman with no comorbidities visited the hospital for left breast-conserving surgery. Anesthesia was performed using LMA Supreme™. She complained of decreased sensation in the right front part of the tongue postoperatively. She received prednisolone and tongue sensation returned on postoperative day 28. The lingual nerve could be damaged by the LMA, particularly the lateral edge of the tongue base and inner part of the mandible around the third molar. When using the LMA, it is necessary to check the cuff pressure to prevent lingual nerve damage.
  • A case report of “pearl necklace” in the abdomen: magnetic beads ingestion resulting in an anesthetic emergency Clinical Images

    Yan, Dong; Xia, Xiaona; Rong, Fei; Zhou, Haipeng; Wei, Penghui
  • A simple technique to maintain intraoperative head and neck neutrality Clinical Images

    Ho, Anthony M.-H; Klar, Gregory; Mizubuti, Glenio B
  • Use of software to guide the management of intraoperative hemodynamic instability Short Communication

    Salgado-Filho, Marcello Fonseca; Sachetto, Rafael; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho
  • Assessment of perioperative cognitive disorders in elderly patients undergoing elective surgery Short Communication

    Silva, Christiane Rodrigues da; De Armond, Luciana da Silva; Gentil Filho, Adilton Correa
  • Quality, safety and efficacy in a communication protocol between the anesthesiologist and the allergist in perioperative hypersensitivity reactions Short Communication

    Spindola, Maria Anita Costa; Morato, Edelton Flavio; Silva, Jane da
  • Experimental model for local anesthetic spread in spinal anesthesia: application to medical education Short Communication

    Colli Neto, José Alexandre; Udelsmann, Artur; Barreto, Gilson; Tincani, Alfio José
  • Perioperative management of immune-mediated necrotizing myositis Letter To The Editor

    Montané-Muntané, Mar; Vidal-Sánchez, Júlia; Rivas, Eva; Martínez-Pallí, Graciela
  • Futility of end-of-life and emergency surgery in extreme high-risk patients: anesthetists’ versus surgeons’ perspective Letter To The Editor

    Tesoro, Rosa; Suppan, Mélanie; Dupuis, Arnaud; Escher, Monica; Haller, Guy
  • Cardiac point-of-care ultrasound curriculum for anesthesia residents: the time is now Letter To The Editor

    Papa, Fabio de Vasconcelos; Costa, Luiz Guilherme Villares da
  • A not so rosy picture: accidental intravenous injection of rose-tinted pourable chlorhexidine solution Letter To The Editor

    Dogra, Neeti; Goswami, Devant; Kumar, Sumit
Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) Rua Professor Alfredo Gomes, 36, Botafogo , cep: 22251-080 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ / Brasil , tel: +55 (21) 97977-0024 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil