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Identification of tiller age categories based on morphogenetic responses of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass fertilised with nitrogen

Identificação de faixas etárias a partir de respostas morfogênicas de capim-marandu manejado sob lotação contínua e fertilizado com nitrogênio

Abstracts

Nitrogen fertilization augments tiller appearance and death, modifying the age profile of tiller population. Tillers from different age categories present distinct responses to environmental factors and management practices characterized by variation in their morphogenetic responses, which interfere in the dynamics of the herbage accumulation process. In that context, rates of leaf appearance and elongation and leaf lifespan were used as indicators to identify tiller age categories of continuously stocked marandu palisade grass managed at 30cm and subjected to nitrogen fertilization regimes using cluster analysis. Analysis was based on the average distance method using combined means of the response-variables studied, and the results used to build a dendogram to illustrate the arrangement of the resulting clusters. Three clusters were identified corresponding to the tiller age categories denominated young (tillers with age between 0 and 60 days), mature (between 60 and 120 days) and old (over 120 days). Discrimination of the tiller age categories according to nitrogen fertilization regime followed the same pattern of clustering. The fact demonstrates consistency and indicates the three age categories as reference for detailed studies regarding the ecophysiology of marandu palisade grass.

morphogenesis; tiller age category; population dynamics


A adubação nitrogenada atua na aceleração do aparecimento e mortalidade de perfilhos, alterando o perfil etário da população. Perfilhos de idades diferentes possuem capacidades distintas de resposta a fatores de meio e de manejo, caracterizadas por variação em suas respostas morfogênicas, o que interfere sobremaneira no acúmulo de forragem. Nesse sentido, as variáveis taxa de aparecimento e alongamento foliar e duração de vida das folhas foram utilizadas como descritores para identificar as classes de idade de perfilhos em pastos de capim-marandu, mantidos a 30cm por meio de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, utilizando-se o procedimento multivariado de análise de agrupamentos (Cluster analysis). Foi utilizado o método da distância média, segundo as médias conjuntas dos caracteres avaliados e, com base nesses resultados, um dendograma foi construído. O agrupamento segundo as características morfogênicas taxa de aparecimento e alongamento foliar e duração de vida das folhas revelou variações significativas entre três faixas etárias: perfilhos jovens (0 a 60 dias), perfilhos maduros (60 a 120 dias) e perfilhos velhos (com mais de 120 dias). A discriminação das faixas etárias de acordo com a dose de nitrogênio seguiu o mesmo padrão de agrupamento, indicando valores de referência para futuros estudos mais detalhados acerca da ecofisiologia do capim-marandu.

morfogênese; faixa etária de perfilhos; dinâmica de população.


PAIVA et al., 2011PAIVA, A.J. et al. Morphogenesis on age categories of tillers in marandu palisadegrass. Scientia Agricola. v.68, n.6, p.626-631. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011000600003>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011...
MONTAGNER et al., 2011MONTAGNER, D.B. et al. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass of different age and grazing severities. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.40, p.2105-2110, 2011. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001000006>. Accessed: Ago. 24, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011...
BARBOSA et al., 2012BARBOSA, R.A. et al. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass tillers at different ages under intermittent stocking. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.41, n.7, p. 1583-1588, 2012. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982012000700005>. Accessed: Ago. 24, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982012...
KITAJIMA et al. (1997KITAJIMA, K. et al. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age in relation to leaf longevities for five tropical canopy tree species. American Journal of Botany, v.84, n.5, p.702-708, 1997. Available from: <http://www.amjbot.org/content/84/5/702.full.pdf+html?sid=a107fe8a-55e7-4651-8a2a-fe1978219a46>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2012.
http://www.amjbot.org/content/84/5/702.f...
CARVALHO et al., 2001CARVALHO, D.D. et al. Effect of agging in tillers of Panicum maximum on leaf elongation rate. In: INTERNATIONAL GRASSLAND CONGRESS, 19., 2001, São Pedro, SP. Proceeding... São Pedro: FEALQ, 2001. V.1. p.41-42. PAIVA et al., 2011PAIVA, A.J. et al. Morphogenesis on age categories of tillers in marandu palisadegrass. Scientia Agricola. v.68, n.6, p.626-631. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011000600003>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011...
PARSONS, 1988PARSONS, A.J. The effects of season and management on the growth of grass swards. In: JONES, M.B.; LAZEMBY A. The grass crop: the physiological basis of production. London: Chapman & Hall, 1988. p.129-177.SILVEIRA et al., 2010SILVEIRA, M.C.T. et al. Morphogenetic and structural comparative characterization of tropical forage grass cultivars under free growth. Scientia Agricola, v.67, n.2, p.136-142, 2010. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010000200002>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010...
CaCl2-3-3-3-3-3-3-3-3ooUrochloa brizantha2-1(r)Statistical Analysis System(r)LEMAIRE & CHAPMAN, 1996LEMAIRE, G.; CHAPMAN, D. Tissue flows in grazed plant communities. In: HODGSON J.; ILLIUS A.W. The ecology and management of grazing systems. London: CAB International, (1996). Cap.1, p.3-36.SILVEIRA et al., 2010SILVEIRA, M.C.T. et al. Morphogenetic and structural comparative characterization of tropical forage grass cultivars under free growth. Scientia Agricola, v.67, n.2, p.136-142, 2010. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010000200002>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010...
PAIVA et al., 2011PAIVA, A.J. et al. Morphogenesis on age categories of tillers in marandu palisadegrass. Scientia Agricola. v.68, n.6, p.626-631. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011000600003>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011...
Figure 1KITAJIMA et al. (1997KITAJIMA, K. et al. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age in relation to leaf longevities for five tropical canopy tree species. American Journal of Botany, v.84, n.5, p.702-708, 1997. Available from: <http://www.amjbot.org/content/84/5/702.full.pdf+html?sid=a107fe8a-55e7-4651-8a2a-fe1978219a46>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2012.
http://www.amjbot.org/content/84/5/702.f...
Figure 1CARVALHO et al., 2001CARVALHO, D.D. et al. Effect of agging in tillers of Panicum maximum on leaf elongation rate. In: INTERNATIONAL GRASSLAND CONGRESS, 19., 2001, São Pedro, SP. Proceeding... São Pedro: FEALQ, 2001. V.1. p.41-42. MONTAGNER et al. (2011MONTAGNER, D.B. et al. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass of different age and grazing severities. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.40, p.2105-2110, 2011. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001000006>. Accessed: Ago. 24, 2012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011...
CARVALHO et al. (2001CARVALHO, D.D. et al. Effect of agging in tillers of Panicum maximum on leaf elongation rate. In: INTERNATIONAL GRASSLAND CONGRESS, 19., 2001, São Pedro, SP. Proceeding... São Pedro: FEALQ, 2001. V.1. p.41-42.

Figure 1
: Cluster analysis of tiller age categories based on morphogenetic responses in continuously stocked marandu palisade grass. Age categories - 1: tillers under 30 days of age; 2: tillers between 30 and 60 days of age; 3: tillers between 60 and 90 days of age; 4: tillers between 90 and 120 days of age; 5: tillers between 120 and 150 days of age; 6: tillers over 150 days of age.

  • BARBOSA, R.A. et al. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass tillers at different ages under intermittent stocking. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.41, n.7, p. 1583-1588, 2012. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982012000700005>. Accessed: Ago. 24, 2012.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982012000700005
  • CARVALHO, D.D. et al. Effect of agging in tillers of Panicum maximum on leaf elongation rate. In: INTERNATIONAL GRASSLAND CONGRESS, 19., 2001, São Pedro, SP. Proceeding... São Pedro: FEALQ, 2001. V.1. p.41-42.
  • KITAJIMA, K. et al. Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age in relation to leaf longevities for five tropical canopy tree species. American Journal of Botany, v.84, n.5, p.702-708, 1997. Available from: <http://www.amjbot.org/content/84/5/702.full.pdf+html?sid=a107fe8a-55e7-4651-8a2a-fe1978219a46>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2012.
    » http://www.amjbot.org/content/84/5/702.full.pdf+html?sid=a107fe8a-55e7-4651-8a2a-fe1978219a46
  • LEMAIRE, G.; CHAPMAN, D. Tissue flows in grazed plant communities. In: HODGSON J.; ILLIUS A.W. The ecology and management of grazing systems. London: CAB International, (1996). Cap.1, p.3-36.
  • MONTAGNER, D.B. et al. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass of different age and grazing severities. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.40, p.2105-2110, 2011. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001000006>. Accessed: Ago. 24, 2012.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011001000006
  • PAIVA, A.J. et al. Morphogenesis on age categories of tillers in marandu palisadegrass. Scientia Agricola. v.68, n.6, p.626-631. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011000600003>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2011.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162011000600003
  • PARSONS, A.J. The effects of season and management on the growth of grass swards. In: JONES, M.B.; LAZEMBY A. The grass crop: the physiological basis of production. London: Chapman & Hall, 1988. p.129-177.
  • SILVEIRA, M.C.T. et al. Morphogenetic and structural comparative characterization of tropical forage grass cultivars under free growth. Scientia Agricola, v.67, n.2, p.136-142, 2010. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010000200002>. Accessed: Ago. 23, 2012.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162010000200002

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    May 2015

History

  • Received
    24 Aug 2012
  • Accepted
    04 Aug 2014
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