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Isolation of Arcobacter spp from poultry carcasses, in Brazil

Isolamento de Arcobacter spp de carcaças de frango no Brasil

Abstracts

Fourty eight isolates of Arcobacter spp were obtained from 37 poultry carcasses, from abattoir, among 80 carcasses examined. Attempts for culturing were made from the skin and muscle, resulting on 25 positive cultures from muscle and 23 from skin. Classification was achieved by phenotypic characterization and PCR and multiplex PCR, resulting 41 samples of Arcobacter butzleri and 07 Arcobacter sp. This is the first report on the occurrence of Arcobacter in animal carcasses in Brazil.

Arcobacter sp; Arcobacter butzleri; poultry carcasses


Foram isoladas 48 amostras de Arcobacter spp de 37 carcaças de frangos colhidas em frigorífico, prontas para consumo, entre 80 carcaças examinadas. Foram feitas tentativas de cultivo a partir de pele e de músculo, sendo obtidas 25 cultivos positivos de músculo e 23 de pele. As bactérias foram classificadas pelas características fenotípicas e pelo teste de PCR e PCR múltiplo, obtendo-se 41 amostras classificadas como Arcobacter butzleri e 07 com classificação a nível de gênero Arcobacter sp. Estes são os primeiros relatos sobre a ocorrência das bactérias em carcaças de animais no Brasil.

Arcobacter sp; Arcobacter butzleri; carcaças de frango


ISOLATION OF Arcobacter spp FROM POULTRY CARCASSES, IN BRAZIL

ISOLAMENTO DE Arcobacter spp DE CARCAÇAS DE FRANGO NO BRASIL

Sérgio José de Oliveira1 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. -2 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes2 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. -3 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. Beatris Sonntag Kuchenbecker2 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. Nilo Ikuta4 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. -5 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. Vagner Lunge4 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. -5 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. André Fonseca5 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência. José Rafael Coiro6 1 Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail: serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência.

SUMMARY

Fourty eight isolates of Arcobacter spp were obtained from 37 poultry carcasses, from abattoir, among 80 carcasses examined. Attempts for culturing were made from the skin and muscle, resulting on 25 positive cultures from muscle and 23 from skin. Classification was achieved by phenotypic characterization and PCR and multiplex PCR, resulting 41 samples of Arcobacter butzleri and 07 Arcobacter sp. This is the first report on the occurrence of Arcobacter in animal carcasses in Brazil.

Key words: Arcobacter sp, Arcobacter butzleri, poultry carcasses.

RESUMO

Foram isoladas 48 amostras de Arcobacter spp de 37 carcaças de frangos colhidas em frigorífico, prontas para consumo, entre 80 carcaças examinadas. Foram feitas tentativas de cultivo a partir de pele e de músculo, sendo obtidas 25 cultivos positivos de músculo e 23 de pele. As bactérias foram classificadas pelas características fenotípicas e pelo teste de PCR e PCR múltiplo, obtendo-se 41 amostras classificadas como Arcobacter butzleri e 07 com classificação a nível de gênero Arcobacter sp. Estes são os primeiros relatos sobre a ocorrência das bactérias em carcaças de animais no Brasil.

Palavras-chave: Arcobacter sp , Arcobacter butzleri, carcaças de frango.

INTRODUCTION

The genus Arcobacter includes bacteria that were formerly designated "aerotolerant Campylobacter"" because they grew in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. It was suggested the designation of Campylobacter cryaerophila (NEILL et al.., 1985) and inclusion in the genus Campylobacter.

In view of phenotypic and genotypic differences from Campylobacter spp, the genus Arcobacter was proposed for the organisms (VANDAMME et al.., 1991). The species of Arcobacter associated with human and animal disease are A. cryaerophilus (DNA groups 1A and 1B), A. butzleri and A. skirrowii.

A. cryaerophilushas been isolated from aborted porcine fetuses, sows with reproductive problems and preputial fluid of male pigs (ELLIS et al..,1978; NEILL etal.al.,1979; SCHROEDER-TUCKER et al.., 1996). A. butzleri has been cultured from human cases of enteritis (TAYLOR et al.., 1991; KIEHLBAUCH et al.., 1991; PUGINA et al., 1991; LERNER et al.., 1994; LAUWERS et al.., 1996), drinking water reservoirs (JACOB et al.., 1993), canal waters (DAHMABUTRA et al.., 1992; STAMPI et al.., 1993), poultry and pork (FESTY et al..,1993; COLLINS et al.., 1994; LAMMERDING et al.., 1994).

Although in very low porcentage, A. butzleri has been found also in oviduct of sows and preputial fluid of male pigs (OLIVEIRA et al.., 1997; 1999).The association of A. butzleri with human enteritis, and its recovery in hogs and poultry suggests a potential human foodborne pathogen (WESLEY, 1996). In recent surveys, Arcobacter spp has been found more frequently from poultry than from red meats (DE BOER et al.., 1996; ATABAY & CORRY, 1997; HARRAB et al.., 1998), porcine fetuses, uterus and oviducts of sows and preputial fluid of boars and fattening pigs (OLIVEIRA et al.., 1995; 1997; 1999).

The purposes of this study were to isolate Arcobacter spp from poultry carcass from abattoir in Brazil, and to utilize PCR analysis to establish the identity of the isolates.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Carcasses. A total of 80 poultry carcasses (10 weekly) were taken from the line in the processing plant of an abattoir in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. They were separately wrapped and transported from the factory to the laboratory under refrigerated conditions and examined within 2h of slaughter.

Isolation Procedure. Samples were taken respectively from the skin and muscle of the neck of each carcass, for bacteriological examination. A piece of skin was cut and placed into liquid EMJH (Ellinghousen MacCulough Johnson and Harris – Difco) medium in tubes. Portions of muscle of the neck were grinded in a mortar with liquid EMJH. Tubes were incubated for 5 days at 30ºC under aerobic conditions, followed by plating by the STEEL & MCDERMOTT (1984) membrane filter method onto sheep blood agar (brain heart infusion agar supplemented with 10% defibrinated sheep blood). One drop of the growth from EMJH was filtered onto blood agar through a 0.45m pore size cellulose acetate filter (ATABAY & CORRY, 1997). The plates were left lids-up on the bench for about 30 min to dry and then inverted and incubated under aerobic conditions at 30ºC for 2 days.

Phenotypic testing. Suspect colonies on each plate were picked and checked by gram stain and inoculated into semi-solid EMJH (0.15% agar). Growths from semi-solid EMJH were examined under dark-field microscopy (40x magnification) for motile gram negative curved rods. Cultures were purified by streaking on blood agar and checked for oxidase, catalase and growth on MacConkey Agar. Isolates were subcultured twice weekly into semi-solid BHI medium, waiting for genotypic testing.

Electron micrograph. To visualize the cell wall a plasmolisis was promoted using 0.75% saline solution. The material was placed over support membrane and metalized with palladium-gold, and examined by the electronic microscope EM 208 S with 70kv, 40,000 X final magnification.

Isolation of DNA. Total DNA from each sample was isolated by phenol-chloroform procedure (SAMBROOK et al., 1989). Briefly, bacteria were harvested (15,000 X g; 2 min.), washed in phosphate bufered saline and suspended in distilled water. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) was added to a final concentration of 0.5%. The samples were incubated for 10 min at 37ºC with 1.0mg proteinase K/ml (Sigma) and extracted with an equal volume of phenol and then chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1). The DNA was precipitated using ethanol and resuspended in 50ml of distilled water.

Genotypic testing. Sequences for PCR primers were derived from the sequences of Arcobacter-specific and Arcobacter butzleri-specific 16S rRNA-based DNA probes (WESLEY et al., 1995). Primers Arco I (5'- AGA GAT TAG CCT GTA TTG TAT C – 3') and Arco II (5'- TAG CAT CCC CGC TTC GAA TGA – 3') are targeted to 1223bp region of the Arcobacter 16S rRNA gene. Primers Arco II e Butz (5'- CTT GAC ATA GTA AGA ATG ATT TAG – 3') amplify a 463bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene.

Amplification was performed in a 50ml volume containing 5.0ng of template DNA using Arco I and Arco II primers (HARMON & WESLEY, 1996). PCR reaction products were visualized after separation by electrophoresis on 12.5% polyacrylamide gel and stained with a rapid silver nitrate staining method (SANGUINETTI et al., 1994).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Forty eight Arcobacter spp strains were isolated from 37 poultry carcasses (46.25% from a total of 80 examined), as shown in table 1. PCR tests identified 41 strains as A. butzleri and 07 as Arcobacter sp. Figure 1 presents the PCR products of some isolates. All Arcobacter isolates yielded a characteristic 1,223bp product. Only A. butzleri strains yielded both the 1,223 and 463bp amplicons.


All the isolates were oxidase positive and presented variable growth on MacConkey agar. Catalase test differentiated A. butzleri (negative or weak reaction) from other isolates typed as Arcobacter sp (strong positive reaction for catalase). Characteristic motile curved rods were seen by darkfield microscopy. Electron micrograph showed helycoidal bacteria with one polar flagella (Figure 2).


Arcobacter spp have been reported more frequently from poultry than from red meats (WESLEY, 1996). Accordingly, poultry may be a significant reservoir of A. butzleri. In France, A. butzleri was recovered from 81% of poultry carcasses examined (LIOR & WOODWARD, 1994). In Germany, HARRAB et al. (1998), isolated 52.3% (89 of 170) of freshly slaughtered broilers from 15 different flocks.

In the present report it is shown a similar high prevalence of Arcobacter in poultry, in which A. butzleri was recovered from 42.5% (34 of 80) and other Arcobacter sp from 8.7% (7 of 80) of the poultry carcasses. The characterization of samples as Arcobacter sp in the present report means that they could be A. cryaerophilus or A. skirrowii. Differentiation between these two species was not done because it would require RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism). However, A. butzleri were precisely identified by multiplex PCR.

The use of enrichment medium followed by plating after filtration (STEELE & MC DERMOTT, 1984) was effective for isolation of Arcobacter from carcasses, as reported by LAMMERDING et al. (1994).

Tables 1 and 2 show the results of culturing skin and muscle samples from each carcass. It was not the objective of this research to establish a relation between porcentages of positive culture obtained from skin or muscle, nor relating the Arcobacter sp isolated. Nevertheless, it was shown that 52% of the strains were obtained from the muscle, while 48% from the skin. Data from table 2 also shows that A. butzleri were isolated from seven carcasses from both skin and muscle. RFLP patterns would define if they were the same strain. Different Arcobacter species were isolated respectively from skin and muscle of four poultry carcasses, as shown in table 2, meaning that there was infection or contamination by different microorganisms. A. butzleri were evenly distributed in skin and/or muscle (21 from muscle and 20 from skin). There is no reference in the literature about reports on the distribution of the microorganisms in the skin and/or muscle from poultry carcasses.

CONCLUSIONS

Arcobacter spp, mainly A. butzleri were isolated from poultry carcasses in Brazil at a similar high prevalence as reported in some other countries. It is the first report on the occurrence of this microorganism in muscle and skin of poultry in South America.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are indebted to José Gilvan Mancuso and Angelo Cesar Túlio for technical cooperation.

2Médico Veterinario, MSc., Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Setor de Microbiologia Veterinaria, ULBRA.

3Médico Veterinário, MSc., Professor de Medicina de Aves, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS).

4Pesquisador Doutor, Laboratório de Diagnóstico Molecular, ULBRA.

5Pesquisador, Doutor, Simbios Biotecnologia.

6Professor, Doutor, Consultor de Microscopia Eletrônica, Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica, ULBRA.

Recebido para publicação em 27.07.00. Aprovado em 22.11.00

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  • 1
    Médico Veterinário, Doutor, Professor, Curso de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA). Hospital Veterinário. Rua Miguel Tostes, 101, Bairro São Luiz, Canoas, RS, 92420-280. E.mail:
    serjol@zaz.com.br. Autor para correspondência.
  • Publication Dates

    • Publication in this collection
      20 Jan 2004
    • Date of issue
      Aug 2001

    History

    • Received
      27 July 2000
    • Accepted
      22 Nov 2000
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências Rurais , 97105-900 Santa Maria RS Brazil , Tel.: +55 55 3220-8698 , Fax: +55 55 3220-8695 - Santa Maria - RS - Brazil
    E-mail: cienciarural@mail.ufsm.br