Nitrogen (N) applied in vineyards may be lost through volatilization or lixiviation. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the N losses through volatilization or lixiviation in vineyard submitted the N fertilization, at Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil in Southern Brazil. In the experiment 1, the treatments were applications of 0, 40, 80 and 120kg N ha-1, as urea form, and analyze N concentration in soil solution. The soil solution was collected by lysimeters during the cycle of the grapevines. In the experiment 2, the treatments were 0, 20, 40, and 80kg N ha-1, as urea form, 40kg ha-1 N as composed organic form and 40kg N ha-1 as urea covered with polymer to evaluate ammonia volatilization until 80 hours after N fertilization. The largest concentration of mineral nitrogen were detected in the leach solution from treatments of higher doses of mineral fertilizer, along the budding and along the flowering of grapevines and this factors may decrease the nutrient efficiency. The largest flows and losses of ammonia to the atmosphere from a soil cultivated with grapevines happened at treatments with highest doses of mineral nitrogen. The highest lose happened 44 hours after fertilizer application on soil surface. The application of urea coated with polymers and organic compounds showed the smallest ammonia losses by volatilization, which may improve nitrogen efficiency by grapevines.
nitrogen; nitrate; ammonia; Vitis vinifera