The study's objective was to estimate the effect of adherence to dietary recommendations by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concerning energy intake and/or macronutrient composition of diet on weight during pregnancy. This was a prospective study with observations at three time points, with a sample of 255 pregnant women. The dependent variable was gestational weight, and the independent variable was dietary adequacy according to IOM recommendations for energy and macronutrient intake, categorized as adequate versus excessive intake. Statistical analyses were performed using mixed effects models for repeated measures. Pregnant women with excessive intake were 3.59kg lighter at baseline (SE = 0.92kg; p < 0.01). On average, gestational weight varied by 1.83kg (SE = 0.40kg) per trimester, but pregnant women with excessive intake showed a higher weight increase of 1.70kg (SE = 0.43kg) during the same period as compared to women with adequate intake (p < 0.01). Women who adhered to IOM dietary recommendations gained less weight during pregnancy.
Food Consumption; Weight Gain; Pregnancy; Cohort Studies