Makgeolli - The Traditional Choice of Korean Fermented Beverage from Cereal: An Overview on its Composition and Health Benefits

Ganesh SHIMOGA Sang-Youn KIM About the authors

Abstract

Food is a very basic survival need for the sustenance of life and it always register its impact along with beverages. Varieties of alcoholic/non-alcoholic beverages were invented globally under the influence of cultural topography, which drastically differ in western and eastern tradition. One such traditional Korean fermented beverage is Makgeolli, which is popularly known as “Korean rice wine” made wholly from rice and other cereal such as wheat, barley, and germinated grains by the process of fermentation using a main natural ingredient Nuruk, an amylase enzyme “source”. The low alcohol content (6-9%) of Makgeolli with antioxidant constituents and benefiacial polyphenols like resveratrol, quercetin etc. endowing an interesting light sparkling tone of prominent astringency. The composition of fresh Makgeolli with significant amounts of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, as well as starch, proteins, dietary fibers, free amino acids, vitamin nutrients and bioactive components are considered to be benefial to health, but it should be considered within that frame, since it is still an alcohol. The Makgeolli is considered as a probiotic liquor and claim detonated health benefits, often compared to yoghurt. In this short review, we mainly emphasize the composition of Makgeolli and offer a glimpse to its potential health benefits.

Keywords:
alcohol; beverages; brew; fermentation; health benefits; Makgeolli; probiotics; rice wine

1 Background

The two most important words that unite people are ‘Food’ and ‘Beverage’. When it is merged with the traditional values, it will reflect as a cultural code. The unique cultural history and advanced farming customs of Korea lead to the discovery of a variety of agro-based traditional alcoholic beverages (Marshall & Mejia 2012Marshall, E., & Mejia, D. (2012). Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods (Diversification booklet, no 21). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i2477e.pdf
http://www.fao.org/3/a-i2477e.pdf...
). In view of public health concern, the global people’s demand is associated with a higher likelihood of consuming low alcoholic content wine beverages. Since they are in comprise of antioxidants, epicatechin, proanthocyanidins and bioactive compounds (Arranz et al., 2012Arranz, S., Chiva-Blanch, G., Valderas-Martínez, P., Medina-Remón, A., Lamuela-Raventós, R. M., & Estruch, R. (2012). Wine, beer, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and cancer. Nutrients, 4(7), 759-781. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4070759. PMid:22852062.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4070759...
). By adopting the wisdom of conventional brewing protocols, Koreans invented this traditional liquor Makgeolli, which is recognized for its low-alcoholic contents with exclusive health benefits (Durak et al., 1999Durak, İ., Avci, A., Kagmaz, M., Buyukkoqak, S., Burak Simen, M. Y., Elgun, S., & Serdar Ozturk, H. (1999). Comparison of antioxidant potentials of red wine, white wine, grape juice and alcohol. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 15(4), 316-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007999909116503. PMid:10640265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007999909116...
). Since Makgeolli is still an alcohol, the health benefits should be considered within that frame.

Based on the fermentation process and filtration techniques (specifically in wine brewing from rice/cereal), widely popular traditional Korean beverages are classified as two major types such as (i) Cheongju (also known as Yakju, filtered clear rice wine) and (ii) Makgeolli (locally knows as Nongju, means farmer liquor, unfiltered turbid rice wine). In concern to improve the sensory experience, a variety of Cheongju (differ in fragrance and taste) were produced and consumed in thirteen to nineteen centuries, during Joseon Dynasty, zenith of traditional Korean liquor culture (Lee & Kim, 2019Lee, J. H., Kim, J. H. (2019). Chemistry of The Korean Traditional Alcoholic Beverage Makgeolli (Chap. 7). In C. H. Do, A. M. Rimando & Y. Kim. Chemistry of Korean traditional food and beverages (ACS Symposium Series). Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-2019-1303.ch007.
https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2019-1303.ch0...
). The translation of Yakju literally means “medicinal wine”. However, Makgeolli refers to ‘rough’ or “just filtered”, with a distinguishing opaque milky appearance. Like many other variations in alcoholic drinks, Makgeolli also has a variety of flavors (including nutty, fruity, herbal, etc.).

In Korea, Makgeolli is also served by name Dongdongju (Dong = Floating and Ju = Alcohol), which means broken pieces of rice was served along with the turbid Makgeolli. In general, the distillation of Cheongju and Makgeolli will result in a familiar Korean spirit Soju (See Figure 1 for the snapshot of straining Dongdongju liquor). The traditional way of serving Makgeolli include, delicate circular swirling and shaking. Although, describing the taste of any food/beverage is purely depend on the perception of an individual, while experiencing the Makgeolli, one can effortlessly notice the blend of sweet, bitter, umami and sour tastes that trigger the taste buds with pleasant sparkling pungency at the palate.

Figure 1
Photograph of straining of Dongdongju liquor. © Photo-credit: Ganesh Shimoga.

2 Makgeolli processing

The brewing process to prepare Makgeolli has undergone tremendous variations from decades during saccharification process and many researchers did characteristic evolution of Makgeolli by experimenting to enhance the sensory properties by incorporating various accessary ingredients such as fruits, vegetables and herbs during fermentation process (Kim et al., 2013Kim, E., Chang, Y. H., Ko, J. Y., & Jeong, Y. (2013). Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of the Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with Banana during Fermentation. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 18(3), 203-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3.203. PMid:24471133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3....
).

2.1 Nuruk production

The key ingredient required to produce Makgeolli is Nuruk. The grains enriched in starch, usually rice, barley and wheat are chosen to prepare Nuruk. Since wheat and barley imparts typical taste to Makgeolli, the Nuruk made of wheat and barley is widely used (Lee & Kim, 2017Lee, J.-E., & Kim, J.-H. (2017). Concept of Nuruk on Brewing Technology. In M. Kanauchi. Brewing Technology (Chap. 6, pp. 123-134). London, UK: IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.693...
; Shin et al., 2017Shin, H. M., Lim, L. W., Shin, C. G., & Shin, C. S. (2017). Comparative characteristics of rice wine fermentations using Monascus koji and rice nuruk. Food Science and Biotechnology, 26(5), 1349-1355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0187-y. PMid:30263669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-018...
). Growing fungi or bacteria on the kneaded patty of wheat and/or barley granules at specific temperature conditions (below 40 °C) will end up the fermentation process (~ 8 to 9 days). Later these disc shaped molds were kept for dry aging for longer durations (15 days to 60 days) followed by packing. The flowchart to represent the Nuruk production was outlined in Figure 2.

Figure 2
Flowchart representing Nuruk production. Adapted with permission from (Lee & Kim 2017Lee, J.-E., & Kim, J.-H. (2017). Concept of Nuruk on Brewing Technology. In M. Kanauchi. Brewing Technology (Chap. 6, pp. 123-134). London, UK: IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.693...
; Shin et al., 2017Shin, H. M., Lim, L. W., Shin, C. G., & Shin, C. S. (2017). Comparative characteristics of rice wine fermentations using Monascus koji and rice nuruk. Food Science and Biotechnology, 26(5), 1349-1355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0187-y. PMid:30263669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-018...
).

2.2 Brewing protocol for Makgeolli

Typically, specific quantity of short grain glutinous rice was thoroughly washed, and soaked in cold water for at least 2-3 h before cooking. The rice was cooked in water and later allowed to dry for several hours in a breezy sunny weather so that texture of the rice should be dry-hard at the outside and moist-soft from the inside. By transferring the dried rice into an earthenware crock-pot, followed by adding powdered Nuruk and commercially available active dry baker's yeast, convenient amount of water was added by gently mixing the ingredients. The contents were uninterrupted and rest for overnight.

Due to fermentation, many bubbles will pop out of the surface. Care should be taken for the circulation of air by covering the earthenware crock-pot by a cotton cloth before closing the lid. On the next day, the rice slurry becomes slightly flowy and less bubbles are popping out at the surface. Gentle mixing of the ingredients were carrieout on second, third, fourth and fifth day at least three to five times a day followed by proper covering of the pot. After fifth day, slender bubbling was noticed with clear liquid floating on top and turbid milky slurry at the bottom, again the ingredients are mixed well followed by closing the lid. On eighth or ninth day, the mixture will separate into two main layers, a yellowish clear liquor on the top and a thick rice slurry layer at the bottom. The brewing can be decided as complete if no longer sparkling was noticed. The contents are strained for three to four times by discarding the sludge. The filtrate will be Makgeolli (See Figure 3. for snapshots of Makgeolli and Soju) and ready for traditional serving (Maangchi, 2020Maangchi. (2020). Korean rice liquor – Makgeolli. Retrieved from https://www.maangchi.com/recipe/makgeolli.
https://www.maangchi.com/recipe/makgeoll...
).

Figure 3
Photographs of (a) traditional Makgeolli, and (b) traditional way of receiving Soju. © Photo-credit: Ganesh Shimoga.

2.3 Microorganisms in Nuruk

Depending on the Nuruk samples, various types of microbial stains exist. Since the main ingredient of Nuruk is starch, the existing microorganisms in Nuruk are predominantly capable of degrading beta-starch. In addition, various types of, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and aerobic bacteria that triggers the fermentation process (Lee et al., 2017aLee, A. R., Kang, S.-H., Kim, H. R., Lee, J.-E., Lee, E.-J., & Kim, T.-W. (2017a). Quality characteristics of distilled spirits by different nuruk-derived yeast. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 49(4), 383-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49.4.383.
https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49.4....
; Jung & Chung 2017Jung, S., & Chung, C.-H. (2017). Production and properties of ale beer with Nuruk, a Korean fermentation starter. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 49(2), 132-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49.2.132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49....
; Shin et al., 2017Shin, H. M., Lim, L. W., Shin, C. G., & Shin, C. S. (2017). Comparative characteristics of rice wine fermentations using Monascus koji and rice nuruk. Food Science and Biotechnology, 26(5), 1349-1355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0187-y. PMid:30263669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-018...
; Sugiyama et al., 2019Sugiyama, M., Fukaya, T., Moon, J. Y., Ishida, K., Matsushita, A., Kim, S. Y., & Yeo, S. H. (2019). Analysis and enhancement of the ethanol resistance of Pichia kudriavzevii N77-4, a strain newly isolated from the Korean traditional fermentation starter Nuruk, for improved fermentation performance. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1282, 012062. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1282/1/012062.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1282...
). Kim et al. (2014a) Kim, H. R., Kim, J.-H., Ahn, B. K., & Bai, D.-H. (2014a). Metabolite Profiling during Fermentation of Makgeolli by the Wild Yeast Strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5. Mycobiology, 42(4), 353-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.4.353. PMid:25606007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.4...
isolated and reported some filamentous fungi and yeasts from a variety of Nuruk samples, briefly outlined in Figure 4.

Figure 4
Partial list of filamentous fungi and yeasts isolated from various Nuruk samples. (Scale bar = 5 µm), Adapted with permission from Kim et al. (2014b)Kim, M. S., Kim, S., Ha, B.-S., Park, H.-Y., Baek, S.-Y., Yeo, S.-H., & Ro, H.-S. (2014b). Diversity, Saccharification Capacity, and Toxigenicity Analyses of Fungal Isolates in Nuruk. The Korean Journal of Mycology, 42(3), 191-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/KJM.2014.42.3.191.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/KJM.2014.42.3....
, The Korean Society of Mycology.

We can find a plentiful of examples where bacteria, yeasts and molds are involved in the fermentation process by imparting unique exotic taste, which is of cultural importance. The metabolic process used by many microorganisms (such as bacteria and yeasts), are constantly exploited by humans in numerous industrial and agricultural applications (Lee et al., 2017bLee, J.-E., Lee, A. R., Kim, H. R., Lee, E. J., Kim, T. W., Shin, W. C., & Kim, J. H. (2017b). Restoration of traditional Korean Nuruk and analysis of the brewing characteristics. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 27(5), 896-908. http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1610.10039. PMid:28238000.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1610.10039...
; Lee & Kim, 2017Lee, J.-E., & Kim, J.-H. (2017). Concept of Nuruk on Brewing Technology. In M. Kanauchi. Brewing Technology (Chap. 6, pp. 123-134). London, UK: IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.693...
). Many of the microbes used in fermentation are considered as ‘probiotics’ and consuming such products linked to boost the immune system by procuring health benefits. Unlike regular yeasts, the shapes of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Pichia kudriavzevii are dysplastic in nature and more specifically elongated fibrous structures. These strains place a vital role in alcohol production via simultaneous saccharification process. Aspergillus luchuensis and Aspergillus oryzae (also known as kōji mold), is a filamentous fungus, typically used in saccharify rice, sweet potato, and barley in eastern tradition. Mucor indicus shows its high capability to ferment pentoses and hexoses from complex lignocellulosic materials to produce ethanol. It was found that the strains of Rhizopus oryzae produce carbohydrate-digesting enzymes along with organic acids, ethanol and some useful esters, which can be useful in food industries. Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii is a fast growing microfungi (that can grow efficiently under a variety of environmental conditions), which shows beneficial effects on human health as an emerging agent of opportunistic disease, particularly to boost the immune system (Kim et al., 2014bKim, M. S., Kim, S., Ha, B.-S., Park, H.-Y., Baek, S.-Y., Yeo, S.-H., & Ro, H.-S. (2014b). Diversity, Saccharification Capacity, and Toxigenicity Analyses of Fungal Isolates in Nuruk. The Korean Journal of Mycology, 42(3), 191-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/KJM.2014.42.3.191.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/KJM.2014.42.3....
; Jang et al., 2014Jang, D., Lee, H., Pyo, S., Roh, S. W., Rhee, J.-K., & Lee, H.-S. (2014). Fermentation and Quality Evaluation of makgeolli, Korean Rice Wine Supplemented with Alcohol-tolerant Pediococcus acidilactici K3. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 42(4), 367-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/kjmb.1409.09002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/kjmb.1409.0900...
). Recently, Kim et al. (2019)Kim, S., Cho, H., Ahn, J., Weon, H.-Y., Joa, J.-H., Kim, J.-S., & Kwon, S.-W. (2019). Paenibacillus nuruki sp. nov., isolated from Nuruk, a Korean fermentation starter. Journal of Microbiology, 57(10), 836-841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-019-9118-3. PMid:31250399.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-019-911...
. isolated a novel rod shaped Gram-stain-positive Paenibacillus nuruki sp. Nov anaerobic bacterium from Nuruk which has sequence similarities with Paenibacillus kyungheensis, isolated from magnolia flowers by Siddiqi et al. (2015)Siddiqi, M. Z., Siddiqi, M. H., Im, W. T., Kim, Y.-J., & Yang, D.-C. (2015). Paenibacillus kyungheensis sp. nov., isolated from flowers of magnolia Free. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 65(11), 3959-3964. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.000521. PMid:26268929.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.000521...
. These newly isolated bacteria from Nuruk is believed to have a promising future in agro-based industries. During the process of brewing Makgeolli, there will be a rapid and dynamic changes in the population of bacterial community especially during first two days of fermentation process. However, the fungal community growth was significantly unchanged during brewing. As the population growth of bacterial genera Pediococcus, Weissella, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, categorized as lactic acid bacteria increases, the pH of Makgeolli gradually decreases in later stages of brewing (Chai et al., 2015Chai, C., Lim, G.-S., Kim, Y. J., & Oh, S.-W. (2015). Microbial community changes in Makgeolli during brewing. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121(2), 304-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.227...
).

3 Composition of Makgeolli

Despite of microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria isolation, researchers have detected various benign chemicals, flavonoids, biogenic amines, bioactive and volatile compounds from various Makgeolli samples using different spectroscopic techniques. With low alcoholic content of around 6%, Makgeolli is believed to have probiotic, containing 100-500 times more Lactobacillus bacteria than yogurt, exhibiting antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-colic properties by reducing bad cholesterol levels and increasing immune and circulatory systems (Nile, 2015Nile, S. H. (2015). The nutritional, biochemical and health effects of makgeolli – A traditional Korean fermented cereal beverage. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121(4), 457-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.264...
; Park et al., 2015Park, Y.-U., Kim, M.-D., Jung, D.-H., Seo, D.-H., Jung, J.-H., Park, J.-G., Hong, S.-Y., Cho, J.-Y., Park, S.-Y., Park, J. W., Shin, W.-C., & Park, C.-S. (2015). Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from korean rice wine makgeolli. Food Science and Biotechnology, 24(5), 1761-1766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0229-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-022...
). The components present in Makgeolli with favorable and unfavorable aspects are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
Favorable and unfavorable aspect of components present in Makgeolli.

3.1 Volatile components

By adopting gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques, Park et al. (2013)Park, H.-J., Lee, S. M., Song, S. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2013). Characterization of volatile components in Makgeolli, a traditional korean rice wine, with or without pasteurization, during storage. Molecules, 18(5), 5317-5325. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055317. PMid:23698045.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055...
, investigated and detected 5 different alcohols, 3 carboxylic acids and 3 carboxylic ester based volatile compounds. These compounds are believed to be responsible for specific odor from pasteurized and unpasteurized Makgeolli during storage period of 30 days. The chemical structures with its typical odor notes are presented in Figure 5. During fermentation process, due to catabolism processes the branched amino acids such as leucine and isoleucine converted to 3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-methylbutanoic acid, which imparts cheesy and fermented odor to Makgeolli. Sometimes, because of methionine metabolism of wild yeasts can impart this off-flavor to the Makgeolli due to the release of 3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol for longer duration of storage (Park et al., 2013Park, H.-J., Lee, S. M., Song, S. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2013). Characterization of volatile components in Makgeolli, a traditional korean rice wine, with or without pasteurization, during storage. Molecules, 18(5), 5317-5325. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055317. PMid:23698045.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055...
; Seow et al., 2010Seow, Y.-X., Ong, P. K. C., & Liu, S.-Q. (2010). Production of flavour-active methionol from methionine metabolism by yeasts in coconut cream. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 143(3), 235-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.08.003. PMid:20805008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro....
).

Figure 5
Chemical structures of eleven volatile compounds isolated from Makgeolli, Adapted with permission from Park et al. (2013)Park, H.-J., Lee, S. M., Song, S. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2013). Characterization of volatile components in Makgeolli, a traditional korean rice wine, with or without pasteurization, during storage. Molecules, 18(5), 5317-5325. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055317. PMid:23698045.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055...
, MDPI.

By adopting solid-phase microextraction technique, Jung et al., (2014)Jung, H., Lee, S.-J., Lim, J. H., Kim, B. K., & Park, K. J. (2014). Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses. Food Chemistry, 152, 624-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127. PMid:24444985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
analyzed 45 major volatile compounds using gas chromatography from 12 various commercial Makgeolli samples. The analyzed volatile compounds include, 33-esters, 8-alcohols, 1-aldehyde, 1-acid, 1-phenol and 1-terpene compounds attributing for its sensory, aroma and color. The list of volatile compounds other than esters from Makgeolli analyzed by Jung et al., (2014)Jung, H., Lee, S.-J., Lim, J. H., Kim, B. K., & Park, K. J. (2014). Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses. Food Chemistry, 152, 624-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127. PMid:24444985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
was presented in Figure 6. The authors precisely carryout the identification of volatile compounds by comparing various information, including retention index, NIST library search, spectra and elemental composition by using the MassLynx 4.0 and ChromaLynx software (Waters Corp.). The authors also documented sensory evaluation of the 12 commercial Makgeolli samples, to judge its quality/taste perceptiveness. The results revealed that, the quality and typical flavor of Makgeolli was greatly influenced by the odor active ester compounds and detected terpene, phenol, aldehyde and carboxylic acid present in Makgeolli (Jung et al., 2014Jung, H., Lee, S.-J., Lim, J. H., Kim, B. K., & Park, K. J. (2014). Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses. Food Chemistry, 152, 624-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127. PMid:24444985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
; Park et al., 2007Park, M. K., Choi, H.-K., Kwon, D.-Y., & Kim, Y.-S. (2007). Study of volatile organic acids in freeze-dried Cheonggukjang formed during fermentation using SPME and Stable-Isotope Dilution Assay (SIDA). Food Chemistry, 105(3), 1276-1280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.200...
).

Figure 6
Chemical structures of alcohols, aldehyde, phenol, terpene and carboxylic acid compounds analyzed from commercial Makgeolli by Jung et al. (2014)Jung, H., Lee, S.-J., Lim, J. H., Kim, B. K., & Park, K. J. (2014). Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses. Food Chemistry, 152, 624-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127. PMid:24444985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
, Adapted with permission from Elsevier.

3.2 Biogenic amines

Due to amination/transamination reactions of aldehydes and ketones and/or decarboxylation of amino acids produce important class of nitrogenous compounds namely, biogenic amines. The microbial decarboxylation of amino acids trigger the generation of enzymes, which eventually produce biogenic amines in fermented food and beverages. Although, biogenic amines are considered as a food hazard, within the permissible low concentrations, these can play several crutial biological roles especially in regulating physiological functions such as the growth, controlled blood pressure and nerve sensitiveness etc (Erdag et al., 2018Erdag, D., Merhan, O., & Yildiz, B. (2018). Biochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Biogenic Amines. In C. Proestos. Biogenic Amines. London: IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81569.
https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81569...
; Özogul & Özogul, 2019Özogul, Y., & Özogul, F. (2019). Biogenic Amines Formation, Toxicity, Regulations in Food, In B. Saad & R. Tofalo. Biogenic amines in food: analysis, occurrence and toxicity (pp. 1-17). London, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/9781788015813-00001.
https://doi.org/10.1039/9781788015813-00...
). Furthermore, biogenic amines play a vital role as a nitrogen source and helps to regulate the hormones, alkaloids proteins and nucleic acids levels in the body. To be precise, biogenic amines prominently interacts with gastrointestinal microbiota and convert them to useful bioactive amino compounds. These active amine moiety can interact with many cellular macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, conferring them to promote cell proliferation, signal transduction, and membrane stabilization (Gomez-Gomez et al., 2018Gomez-Gomez, H. A., Borges, C. V., Minatel, I. O., Luvizon, A. C., & Lima, G. P. P. (2018). Health Benefits of Dietary Phenolic Compounds and Biogenic Amines. In J.M. Mérillon & K. Ramawat (Eds) Bioactive Molecules in Food (Reference Series in Phytochemistry). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54528-8_27-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-5452...
).

Kim et al. (2011)Kim, J. Y., Kim, D., Park, P., Kang, H.-I., Ryu, E. K., & Kim, S. M. (2011). Effects of storage temperature and time on the biogenic amine content and microflora in Korean turbid rice wine Makgeolli. Food Chemistry, 128(1), 87-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.081. PMid:25214333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
, observed and analyzed eight essential biogenic amines from High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The authors carefully studied the constituents of Makgeolli and documented that only putrescine content was in low and permissible during 30 days of storage period under 4 °C. However, at 20 °C, the amount of biogenic amines were drastically increased at higher temperature due to the pathogenic microbial activity. The eight essential biogenic amines reported by authors are histamine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine (Kim et al., 2011Kim, J. Y., Kim, D., Park, P., Kang, H.-I., Ryu, E. K., & Kim, S. M. (2011). Effects of storage temperature and time on the biogenic amine content and microflora in Korean turbid rice wine Makgeolli. Food Chemistry, 128(1), 87-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.081. PMid:25214333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
). Evidently, the chill and fresh Makgeolli is a moderate source of biogenic amines, and it is recommended to cherish with nutritional food to acquire satisfactory health benefits.

3.3 Bioactive compounds

Bioactive compounds are considered as secondary metabolites that impart health benefits on living organisms. Many bioactive compounds including terpenoids, carotenoids, phenolics, phytosterols, and glucosinolates and others are testified to exhibit antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-osteoporotic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. The phenolic bioactive compound, especially resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene), found in grape skins, peanuts, and some herbal roots show promising cardio protective and anti-inflammatory properties (Weiskirchen & Weiskirchen, 2016Weiskirchen, S., & Weiskirchen, R. (2016). Resveratrol: How Much Wine Do You Have to Drink to Stay Healthy? Advances in Nutrition, 7(4), 706-718. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.011627. PMid:27422505.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.011627...
; Gerogiannaki-Christopoulou et al., 2006Gerogiannaki-Christopoulou, M., Athanasopoulos, P., Kyriakidis, N., Gerogiannaki, I. A., & Spanos, M. (2006). trans-Resveratrol in wines from the major Greek red and white grape varieties. Food Control, 17(9), 700-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.04.006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.200...
). To enrich the flavor and health benefits of rice wine, Yang et al (2019)Yang, K. R., Yu, H.-C., Huang, C.-Y., Kuo, J.-M., Chang, C., Shieh, C.-J., & Kuo, C.-H. (2019). Bioprocessed Production of Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Wine: Simultaneous Rice Wine Fermentation, Extraction, and Transformation of Piceid to Resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum Roots. Foods, 8(7), 258. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070258. PMid:31311091.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070258...
bioprocessed the production of resveratrol-enriched rice wine by incorporating piceid and resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum roots (For chemical structures of resveratrol(3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene) and trans-Piceid, see Figure 7). The authors documented the conversion of piceid to resveratrol by β-glucosidase enzyme during fermentation. The enriched rice wine showed enhanced antioxidant properties with significantly stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, which eventually improves the storage expendabilities.

Figure 7
Chemical structures of bioactive resveratrol(3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) and trans-Piceid.

By solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique, Lee et al. (2018)Lee, J., Lee, Y., Ha, J., Yoo, M., & Jang, H. W. (2018). Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Korean rice wine (makgeolli) by solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 139-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1414841.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017....
identified four important bioactive compounds in Makgeolli viz. farnesol, squalene, 4-vinylguaiacol and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (For chemical structures, see Figure 8). The authors newly identified the compound 4-vinylguaiacol (belongs to pyranoanthocyanin category) in Makgeolli which is most commonly found in beers, responsible for its pungent clove herbaceous aroma. In addition, farnesol and squalene found in Makgeolli reportedly exhibits anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol known for its predominant antioxidative activity (Yoon et al., 2006Yoon, M.-A., Jeong, T.-S., Park, D.-S., Xu, M.-Z., Oh, H.-W., Song, K. B., Lee, W. S., & Park, H.-Y. (2006). Antioxidant effects of quinoline alkaloids and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 29(4), 4-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.735. PMid:16595909.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.735...
).

Figure 8
Chemical structures of four bioactive compounds isolated from Makgeolli by Lee et al. (2018)Lee, J., Lee, Y., Ha, J., Yoo, M., & Jang, H. W. (2018). Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Korean rice wine (makgeolli) by solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 139-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1414841.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017....
.

3.4 Lactic acid bacteria

In the current scenario, the beneficial probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria are greatly emphasized. Practically viable probiotic microorganisms positively confer health benefits to the host, mainly by improving the intestinal microbiota (Hemarajata & Versalovic 2013Hemarajata, P., & Versalovic, J. (2013). Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, 6(1), 39-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756283X12459294. PMid:23320049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756283X124592...
; Zhang et al., 2019Zhang, C.-X., Wang, H.-Y., & Chen, T.-X. (2019). Interactions between Intestinal Microflora/Probiotics and the Immune System. BioMed Research International, 2019, 6764919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6764919. PMid:31828119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6764919...
). Recent investigations of probiotics in regulating immunological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal functions to control the inflammatory bowel disease, constipation, and colon cancer has been scientifically evaluated (Yan & Polk 2020Yan, F., & Polk, D. B. (2020). Probiotics and Probiotic-Derived Functional Factors—Mechanistic Insights Into Applications for Intestinal Homeostasis. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 1428. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01428. PMid:32719681.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.014...
; Walker et al., 2006Walker, W. A., Goulet, O., Morelli, L., & Antoine, J.-M. (2006). Progress in the science of probiotics: from cellular microbiology and applied immunology to clinical nutrition. European Journal of Nutrition, 45(S1), 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-006-1101-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-006-110...
). The therapeutic potential of lactic acid bacteria is depends on numerous factors (Sharma et al., 2012Sharma, R., Sanodiya, B.S., Bagrodia, D., Pandey, M., Sharma, A., & Prakash, S. B. (2012). Efficacy and potential of lactic acid bacteria modulating human health. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 3(4), 935-948.). The main survival issues of lactic acid bacteria is their ability to survive in harsh pH of gastrointestinal tract and its capability to proliferate in the large intestine. Several studies have reported the selection criteria for potent lactic acid bacteria and its role in the production of fermented dairy, meat, fruit, vegetable, bakery products (Bintsis., 2018Bintsis, T. (2018). Lactic acid bacteria: Their applications in foods. Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access, 6(2), 89-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.00182.
https://doi.org/10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.0...
; Jagadeesh., 2015Jagadeesh, K. S. (2015). Lactic acid bacteria as a source of functional ingredients. South Indian Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(2), 70-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.22205/sijbs/2015/v1/i2/100422.
http://dx.doi.org/10.22205/sijbs/2015/v1...
).

Probiotic dairy products are considered much attention due to its emerging research on health benefits. Despite of dairy products, many fermented fruit beverages with lactic acid bacteria strain can have a promising focus on health care (Szutowska., 2020Szutowska, J. (2020). Functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in fermented fruit and vegetable juices: a systematic literature review. European Food Research and Technology, 246(3), 357-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-03425-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-034...
; Mousavi et al., 2011Mousavi, Z. E., Mousavi, M., Razavi, S. H., Emam-Djomeh, Z., & Kiani, H. (2011). Fermentation of pomegranate juice by probiotic lactic acid bacteria. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 27(1), 123-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-0436-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-043...
). Park et al (2015)Park, Y.-U., Kim, M.-D., Jung, D.-H., Seo, D.-H., Jung, J.-H., Park, J.-G., Hong, S.-Y., Cho, J.-Y., Park, S.-Y., Park, J. W., Shin, W.-C., & Park, C.-S. (2015). Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from korean rice wine makgeolli. Food Science and Biotechnology, 24(5), 1761-1766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0229-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-022...
isolated 17 different lactic acid bacterial strains from Makgeolli and examined their health benificiality. The authors identified eight Pediococcus acidilactici strains, six Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, two Lactobacillus curvatus strains, and one Lactobacillus curstorum strain. With minor exceptions, all the bacterial strains produced remarkable nitric oxide production indicating to have immunomodulatory effects. Some Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains showed significant bile acid tolerance and cell adhesion capabilities signposting probiotic nature of bacterial strains, useful in food industry. Thus, Makgeolli helps to increase the beneficial bacterial content, like Bacteroidetes, by surpassing harmful bacteria, such as Firmicutes. The moderate Makgeolli consumption beneficially improve the intestinal health and can be utilized in probiotics industry (Nile., 2015Nile, S. H. (2015). The nutritional, biochemical and health effects of makgeolli – A traditional Korean fermented cereal beverage. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121(4), 457-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.264...
; Park et al., 2015Park, Y.-U., Kim, M.-D., Jung, D.-H., Seo, D.-H., Jung, J.-H., Park, J.-G., Hong, S.-Y., Cho, J.-Y., Park, S.-Y., Park, J. W., Shin, W.-C., & Park, C.-S. (2015). Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from korean rice wine makgeolli. Food Science and Biotechnology, 24(5), 1761-1766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0229-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-022...
).

3.5 Aroma-active components in Makgeolli

Aroma-active chemical substances in alcoholic beverages are the collective group of flavor imparting compounds, which convene aroma to the fermented beverages. Many short chain alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes, terpenes etc. have been recognized as flavor active compounds in alcoholic beverages (Wei et al., 2018Wei, X.-F., Ma, X.-L., Cao, J.-H., Sun, X.-Y., & Fang, Y.-L. (2018). Aroma characteristics and volatile compounds of distilled Crystal grape spirits of different alcohol concentrations: Wine sprits in the Shangri-La region of China. Food Science and Technology, 38(Suppl. 1), 50-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.12117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.12117...
; Holt et al., 2019Holt, S., Miks, M. H., de Carvalho, B. T., Foulquié-Moreno, M. R., & Foulquié-Moreno, J. M. (2019). The molecular biology of fruity and floral aromas in beer and other alcoholic beverages. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 43(3), 193-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuy041. PMid:30445501.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuy041...
). Amyl alcohols, especially 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol are the prominent odor imparting chemicals, usually noticed in many fermented alcoholic beverages made of cereal. They divulge malt-like fermented odor to Makgeolli (Park et al., 2013Park, H.-J., Lee, S. M., Song, S. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2013). Characterization of volatile components in Makgeolli, a traditional korean rice wine, with or without pasteurization, during storage. Molecules, 18(5), 5317-5325. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055317. PMid:23698045.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055...
). The fermentation process of fruits and grains, generally produce 2,3-butanediol, which has a sweet aromatic malt-like fermented fragrance (Ehsani et al., 2009Ehsani, M., Fernández, M. R., Biosca, J. A., Julien, A., & Dequin, S. (2009). Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(10), 3196-3205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02157-08. PMid:19329666.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02157-08...
). The metabolite profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Makgeolli results 3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol, due to the thiol functionality it has the characteristic oniony-vegetable odor (Etschmann et al., 2008Etschmann, M. M. W., Kötter, P., Hauf, P., Bluemke, W., Entian, K.-D., & Schrader, J. (2008). Production of the aroma chemicals 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol and 3-(methylthio)-propylacetate with yeasts. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 80(4), 579-587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1573-4. PMid:18597084.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-157...
).

The presence of aromatic 2-phenethylethanol, which is primarily found in the extract of rose, orange blossom, and other fragrant flowering plants give pleasant floral-sweet odor. 2-phenethylethanol is also recognized as an auto-antibiotic produced by the pathogenic yeast called Candida albicans (Morales & Hogan, 2010Morales, D. K., & Hogan, D. A. (2010). Candida albicans interactions with bacteria in the context of human health and disease. PLoS Pathogens, 6(4), e1000886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886. PMid:20442787.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1...
). The aliphatic acids butanioc acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-methylbutanoic acid reportedly present in Makgeolli gives acrid cheesy rancid taste. Whereas the aliphatic esters compunds, such as ethyl decanoate, ethyl dodecanoate and ethyl tetradecanoate conveys sweet floral honey type aroma to Makgeolli (Imark et al., 2000Imark, C., Kneubühl, M., & Bodmer, S. (2000). Occurrence and activity of natural antioxidants in herbal spirits. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 1(4), 239-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1466-8564(00)00018-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1466-8564(00)...
; Heinonen et al., 1998Heinonen, I. M., Lehtonen, P. J., & Hopia, A. I. (1998). Antioxidant activity of berry and fruit wines and liquors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(1), 25-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf970489o. PMid:10554191.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf970489o...
). The aromatic ester compounds, such as ethyl benzoate, ethyl phenyl acetate and 2-phenethyl acetate reported by Jung et al (2014)Jung, H., Lee, S.-J., Lim, J. H., Kim, B. K., & Park, K. J. (2014). Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses. Food Chemistry, 152, 624-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127. PMid:24444985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
has a characteristic pleasant odor described as floral-fruity, sweet, reminiscent of tropical flowers. These compounds are also observed as essential oils of plant part of various species. The distinctive aroma of aliphatic esters in Makgeolli depends majorly on the concentration and perception threshold of individual aroma-active compounds (Verstrepen et al., 2003Verstrepen, K. J., Derdelinckx, G., Dufour, J.-P., Winderickx, J., Thevelein, J. M., Pretorius, I. S., & Delvaux, F. R. (2003). Flavor-active esters: Adding fruitiness to beer. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 96(2), 110-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(03)90112-5. PMid:16233495.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(03)...
; Conner et al., 1994Conner, J. M., Paterson, A., & Piggott, J. R. (1994). Interactions between Ethyl Esters and Aroma Compounds in Model Spirit Solutions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42(10), 2231-2234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00046a029.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00046a029...
).

4 Flavor varieties in Makgeolli and Health Benefits

Commercially, many brewing companies produce Makgeolli in variety of flavors such as banana, peach, green grapes etc. including original (unflavoured) flavor. Many research works are also documented by incorporating bitter melon, carrot, blueberries, ginseng roots etc. and studied the composition, biochemical properties and variation in microbial community. Park et al. (2017)Park, J.-H., Lee, S.-J., & Park, J.-H. (2017). Quality characteristics of makgeolli added with carrot powder. Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life, 27(5), 569-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.17495/easdl.2017.10.27.5.569.
http://dx.doi.org/10.17495/easdl.2017.10...
studied that, brewing Makgeolli with carrot powder will prolong the fermentation duration and reduce the sugar level. The carrot imparts β-carotene and other functional materials to Makgeolli with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Cho et al. (2016)Cho, K.M., Hwang, C.E., Lee, H.Y., Ahn, M.J., Joo, O.S. (2016). Quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of makgeolli prepared using rice nuruk containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia). The Korean Society of food Preservation, 23(2), 259-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.2.259.
https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.2....
suggested the preparation of rice Nuruk with bitter melon powder, remarkably improve the beneficial Bacteroidetes by dimishing pathogenic Firmicutes. Makgeolli derived from these Nuruk have higher content of soluble bioactive phenolic compounds and markedly increase the antioxidant characteristics.

Glucose is the major free sugar detected in banana Makgeolli. During the fermentation process, after 6th day of fermentation significant decrease in the glucose content was observed. In addition to glucose and fructose, maltose were also utilized by yeast to generate alcohols, and the reduction of these sugars impart a specific taste to Makgeolli with mineral and vitamin nutrients (Kim et al., 2013Kim, E., Chang, Y. H., Ko, J. Y., & Jeong, Y. (2013). Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of the Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with Banana during Fermentation. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 18(3), 203-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3.203. PMid:24471133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3....
). Park et al. (2018)Park, N., Nguyen, T. T. H., Lee, G. H., Jin, S. N., Kwak, S. H., Lee, T. K., Choi, Y. H., Kim, S. B., Kimura, A., & Kim, D (2018). Composition and biochemical properties of L‐carnitine fortified Makgeolli brewed by using fermented buckwheat. Food Science & Nutrition, 6(8), 2293-2300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.803. PMid:30510729.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.803...
reported L-carnitine fortified Makgeolli using fermented buckwheat. During Makgeolli brewing, increasing contents of L-carnitine and biogenic flavonoids in buckwheat promote the health benefits and effectively increase the alcohol production. Lee et al (2016)Lee, S.-J., Park, S., Bae, G.-U., Park, H. Y., Kim, C., Park, C.-S., & Kim, G.-W. (2016). Extract of Makgeolli suldeot downregulates NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, thereby inhibiting invasive activity in a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Food Science and Biotechnology, 25(3), 893-898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0146-z. PMid:30263350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-014...
reported inhibitory effects of 70% ethanol extract of Makgeolli against human breast cancer cells. Dealcoholized Makgeolli exhibited anti-angiogenic effect without cytotoxicity and useful for the prevention of cancer cell growth. These findings afford new mechanistic insights on Makgeolli, as therapeutic agent.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program (10077367, Development of a film-type transparent/stretchable 3D touch sensor/haptic actuator combined module and advanced UI/UX) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea). The work was also supported by Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2018R1A6A1A03025526).

We acknowledge Dr. Won-Hyeong Park, Dr. Hye-Sun Lee, Dr. Hyun U Ko, Dr. Dong-Soo Choi, Ms. Eun-Jae Shin, Mr. In-Ho Yoon, Mr. Heo-Yong-Hae, Mr. Seok-Han Lee, Mr. Tae-Hoon Kim, Mr. Seong-Won Jeong, Mr. Seong-Ho Kim, Mr. Si-Ho Ryu, Mr. Do-Yeongseok, Mr. Hyeong-Hoi Choi, Mr. Yeong-Ju Hong (Interaction Lab members) for discussions on Makgeolli and cherishing it with delicious Korean foods and We also acknowledge Cooperative Equipment Center at KoreaTech for formal discussions.‬‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

  • Practical Application: This review provides the composition and health benefits of Korean rice wine – Makgeolli, aimed to its potential application in probiotic and natual cosmetic industries.

References

  • Arranz, S., Chiva-Blanch, G., Valderas-Martínez, P., Medina-Remón, A., Lamuela-Raventós, R. M., & Estruch, R. (2012). Wine, beer, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and cancer. Nutrients, 4(7), 759-781. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4070759 PMid:22852062.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4070759
  • Bintsis, T. (2018). Lactic acid bacteria: Their applications in foods. Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access, 6(2), 89-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.00182.
    » https://doi.org/10.15406/jbmoa.2018.06.00182
  • Chai, C., Lim, G.-S., Kim, Y. J., & Oh, S.-W. (2015). Microbial community changes in Makgeolli during brewing. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121(2), 304-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.227
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.227
  • Cho, K.M., Hwang, C.E., Lee, H.Y., Ahn, M.J., Joo, O.S. (2016). Quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of makgeolli prepared using rice nuruk containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia). The Korean Society of food Preservation, 23(2), 259-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.2.259.
    » https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.2.259
  • Conner, J. M., Paterson, A., & Piggott, J. R. (1994). Interactions between Ethyl Esters and Aroma Compounds in Model Spirit Solutions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42(10), 2231-2234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00046a029
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf00046a029
  • Durak, İ., Avci, A., Kagmaz, M., Buyukkoqak, S., Burak Simen, M. Y., Elgun, S., & Serdar Ozturk, H. (1999). Comparison of antioxidant potentials of red wine, white wine, grape juice and alcohol. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 15(4), 316-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007999909116503 PMid:10640265.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007999909116503
  • Erdag, D., Merhan, O., & Yildiz, B. (2018). Biochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Biogenic Amines. In C. Proestos. Biogenic Amines London: IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81569.
    » https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81569
  • Ehsani, M., Fernández, M. R., Biosca, J. A., Julien, A., & Dequin, S. (2009). Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(10), 3196-3205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02157-08 PMid:19329666.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02157-08
  • Etschmann, M. M. W., Kötter, P., Hauf, P., Bluemke, W., Entian, K.-D., & Schrader, J. (2008). Production of the aroma chemicals 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol and 3-(methylthio)-propylacetate with yeasts. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 80(4), 579-587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1573-4 PMid:18597084.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1573-4
  • Gerogiannaki-Christopoulou, M., Athanasopoulos, P., Kyriakidis, N., Gerogiannaki, I. A., & Spanos, M. (2006). trans-Resveratrol in wines from the major Greek red and white grape varieties. Food Control, 17(9), 700-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.04.006
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.04.006
  • Gomez-Gomez, H. A., Borges, C. V., Minatel, I. O., Luvizon, A. C., & Lima, G. P. P. (2018). Health Benefits of Dietary Phenolic Compounds and Biogenic Amines. In J.M. Mérillon & K. Ramawat (Eds) Bioactive Molecules in Food (Reference Series in Phytochemistry). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54528-8_27-2
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54528-8_27-2
  • Heinonen, I. M., Lehtonen, P. J., & Hopia, A. I. (1998). Antioxidant activity of berry and fruit wines and liquors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(1), 25-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf970489o PMid:10554191.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf970489o
  • Hemarajata, P., & Versalovic, J. (2013). Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation. Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, 6(1), 39-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756283X12459294 PMid:23320049.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756283X12459294
  • Holt, S., Miks, M. H., de Carvalho, B. T., Foulquié-Moreno, M. R., & Foulquié-Moreno, J. M. (2019). The molecular biology of fruity and floral aromas in beer and other alcoholic beverages. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 43(3), 193-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuy041 PMid:30445501.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuy041
  • Imark, C., Kneubühl, M., & Bodmer, S. (2000). Occurrence and activity of natural antioxidants in herbal spirits. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 1(4), 239-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1466-8564(00)00018-7
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1466-8564(00)00018-7
  • Jang, D., Lee, H., Pyo, S., Roh, S. W., Rhee, J.-K., & Lee, H.-S. (2014). Fermentation and Quality Evaluation of makgeolli, Korean Rice Wine Supplemented with Alcohol-tolerant Pediococcus acidilactici K3. Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 42(4), 367-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/kjmb.1409.09002
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/kjmb.1409.09002
  • Jagadeesh, K. S. (2015). Lactic acid bacteria as a source of functional ingredients. South Indian Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(2), 70-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.22205/sijbs/2015/v1/i2/100422
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.22205/sijbs/2015/v1/i2/100422
  • Jung, H., Lee, S.-J., Lim, J. H., Kim, B. K., & Park, K. J. (2014). Chemical and sensory profiles of makgeolli, Korean commercial rice wine, from descriptive, chemical, and volatile compound analyses. Food Chemistry, 152, 624-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127 PMid:24444985.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.127
  • Jung, S., & Chung, C.-H. (2017). Production and properties of ale beer with Nuruk, a Korean fermentation starter. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 49(2), 132-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49.2.132
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49.2.132
  • Kim, E., Chang, Y. H., Ko, J. Y., & Jeong, Y. (2013). Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of the Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with Banana during Fermentation. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 18(3), 203-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3.203 PMid:24471133.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2013.18.3.203
  • Kim, H. R., Kim, J.-H., Ahn, B. K., & Bai, D.-H. (2014a). Metabolite Profiling during Fermentation of Makgeolli by the Wild Yeast Strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5. Mycobiology, 42(4), 353-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.4.353 PMid:25606007.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.4.353
  • Kim, J. Y., Kim, D., Park, P., Kang, H.-I., Ryu, E. K., & Kim, S. M. (2011). Effects of storage temperature and time on the biogenic amine content and microflora in Korean turbid rice wine Makgeolli. Food Chemistry, 128(1), 87-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.081 PMid:25214333.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.02.081
  • Kim, M. S., Kim, S., Ha, B.-S., Park, H.-Y., Baek, S.-Y., Yeo, S.-H., & Ro, H.-S. (2014b). Diversity, Saccharification Capacity, and Toxigenicity Analyses of Fungal Isolates in Nuruk. The Korean Journal of Mycology, 42(3), 191-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/KJM.2014.42.3.191
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4489/KJM.2014.42.3.191
  • Kim, S., Cho, H., Ahn, J., Weon, H.-Y., Joa, J.-H., Kim, J.-S., & Kwon, S.-W. (2019). Paenibacillus nuruki sp. nov., isolated from Nuruk, a Korean fermentation starter. Journal of Microbiology, 57(10), 836-841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-019-9118-3 PMid:31250399.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-019-9118-3
  • Lee, A. R., Kang, S.-H., Kim, H. R., Lee, J.-E., Lee, E.-J., & Kim, T.-W. (2017a). Quality characteristics of distilled spirits by different nuruk-derived yeast. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 49(4), 383-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49.4.383.
    » https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2017.49.4.383
  • Lee, H., Kim, Y.-S., Kim, D.-Y., Kim, S.-Y., Lee, W.-K., Lee, S.-M., Park, J.-D., & Shon, M.-Y. (2015). A study on manufacturing of red ginseng Makgeolli using the red ginseng starch and changes of physicochemical components of red ginseng Makgeolli during storage periods. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 22(3), 369-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2015.22.3.369
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2015.22.3.369
  • Lee, J., Lee, Y., Ha, J., Yoo, M., & Jang, H. W. (2018). Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Korean rice wine (makgeolli) by solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 139-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1414841
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1414841
  • Lee, J.-E., & Kim, J.-H. (2017). Concept of Nuruk on Brewing Technology. In M. Kanauchi. Brewing Technology (Chap. 6, pp. 123-134). London, UK: IntechOpen. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69380
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.69380
  • Lee, J.-E., Lee, A. R., Kim, H. R., Lee, E. J., Kim, T. W., Shin, W. C., & Kim, J. H. (2017b). Restoration of traditional Korean Nuruk and analysis of the brewing characteristics. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 27(5), 896-908. http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1610.10039 PMid:28238000.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1610.10039
  • Lee, S.-J., Park, S., Bae, G.-U., Park, H. Y., Kim, C., Park, C.-S., & Kim, G.-W. (2016). Extract of Makgeolli suldeot downregulates NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, thereby inhibiting invasive activity in a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Food Science and Biotechnology, 25(3), 893-898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0146-z PMid:30263350.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0146-z
  • Lee, J. H., Kim, J. H. (2019). Chemistry of The Korean Traditional Alcoholic Beverage Makgeolli (Chap. 7). In C. H. Do, A. M. Rimando & Y. Kim. Chemistry of Korean traditional food and beverages (ACS Symposium Series). Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-2019-1303.ch007.
    » https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2019-1303.ch007
  • Maangchi. (2020). Korean rice liquor – Makgeolli Retrieved from https://www.maangchi.com/recipe/makgeolli
    » https://www.maangchi.com/recipe/makgeolli
  • Marshall, E., & Mejia, D. (2012). Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods (Diversification booklet, no 21). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i2477e.pdf
    » http://www.fao.org/3/a-i2477e.pdf
  • Morales, D. K., & Hogan, D. A. (2010). Candida albicans interactions with bacteria in the context of human health and disease. PLoS Pathogens, 6(4), e1000886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886 PMid:20442787.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886
  • Mousavi, Z. E., Mousavi, M., Razavi, S. H., Emam-Djomeh, Z., & Kiani, H. (2011). Fermentation of pomegranate juice by probiotic lactic acid bacteria. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 27(1), 123-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-0436-1
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-0436-1
  • Nile, S. H. (2015). The nutritional, biochemical and health effects of makgeolli – A traditional Korean fermented cereal beverage. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 121(4), 457-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.264
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jib.264
  • Özogul, Y., & Özogul, F. (2019). Biogenic Amines Formation, Toxicity, Regulations in Food, In B. Saad & R. Tofalo. Biogenic amines in food: analysis, occurrence and toxicity (pp. 1-17). London, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/9781788015813-00001.
    » https://doi.org/10.1039/9781788015813-00001
  • Park, H.-J., Lee, S. M., Song, S. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2013). Characterization of volatile components in Makgeolli, a traditional korean rice wine, with or without pasteurization, during storage. Molecules, 18(5), 5317-5325. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055317 PMid:23698045.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18055317
  • Park, J.-H., Lee, S.-J., & Park, J.-H. (2017). Quality characteristics of makgeolli added with carrot powder. Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life, 27(5), 569-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.17495/easdl.2017.10.27.5.569
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.17495/easdl.2017.10.27.5.569
  • Park, M. K., Choi, H.-K., Kwon, D.-Y., & Kim, Y.-S. (2007). Study of volatile organic acids in freeze-dried Cheonggukjang formed during fermentation using SPME and Stable-Isotope Dilution Assay (SIDA). Food Chemistry, 105(3), 1276-1280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.012
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.012
  • Park, N., Nguyen, T. T. H., Lee, G. H., Jin, S. N., Kwak, S. H., Lee, T. K., Choi, Y. H., Kim, S. B., Kimura, A., & Kim, D (2018). Composition and biochemical properties of L‐carnitine fortified Makgeolli brewed by using fermented buckwheat. Food Science & Nutrition, 6(8), 2293-2300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.803 PMid:30510729.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.803
  • Park, Y.-U., Kim, M.-D., Jung, D.-H., Seo, D.-H., Jung, J.-H., Park, J.-G., Hong, S.-Y., Cho, J.-Y., Park, S.-Y., Park, J. W., Shin, W.-C., & Park, C.-S. (2015). Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from korean rice wine makgeolli. Food Science and Biotechnology, 24(5), 1761-1766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0229-2
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-015-0229-2
  • Seow, Y.-X., Ong, P. K. C., & Liu, S.-Q. (2010). Production of flavour-active methionol from methionine metabolism by yeasts in coconut cream. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 143(3), 235-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.08.003 PMid:20805008.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.08.003
  • Sharma, R., Sanodiya, B.S., Bagrodia, D., Pandey, M., Sharma, A., & Prakash, S. B. (2012). Efficacy and potential of lactic acid bacteria modulating human health. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 3(4), 935-948.
  • Shin, H. M., Lim, L. W., Shin, C. G., & Shin, C. S. (2017). Comparative characteristics of rice wine fermentations using Monascus koji and rice nuruk. Food Science and Biotechnology, 26(5), 1349-1355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0187-y PMid:30263669.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0187-y
  • Siddiqi, M. Z., Siddiqi, M. H., Im, W. T., Kim, Y.-J., & Yang, D.-C. (2015). Paenibacillus kyungheensis sp. nov., isolated from flowers of magnolia Free. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 65(11), 3959-3964. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.000521 PMid:26268929.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.000521
  • Sugiyama, M., Fukaya, T., Moon, J. Y., Ishida, K., Matsushita, A., Kim, S. Y., & Yeo, S. H. (2019). Analysis and enhancement of the ethanol resistance of Pichia kudriavzevii N77-4, a strain newly isolated from the Korean traditional fermentation starter Nuruk, for improved fermentation performance. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1282, 012062. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1282/1/012062
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1282/1/012062
  • Szutowska, J. (2020). Functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in fermented fruit and vegetable juices: a systematic literature review. European Food Research and Technology, 246(3), 357-372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-03425-7
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-019-03425-7
  • Verstrepen, K. J., Derdelinckx, G., Dufour, J.-P., Winderickx, J., Thevelein, J. M., Pretorius, I. S., & Delvaux, F. R. (2003). Flavor-active esters: Adding fruitiness to beer. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 96(2), 110-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(03)90112-5 PMid:16233495.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(03)90112-5
  • Walker, W. A., Goulet, O., Morelli, L., & Antoine, J.-M. (2006). Progress in the science of probiotics: from cellular microbiology and applied immunology to clinical nutrition. European Journal of Nutrition, 45(S1), 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-006-1101-1
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-006-1101-1
  • Wei, X.-F., Ma, X.-L., Cao, J.-H., Sun, X.-Y., & Fang, Y.-L. (2018). Aroma characteristics and volatile compounds of distilled Crystal grape spirits of different alcohol concentrations: Wine sprits in the Shangri-La region of China. Food Science and Technology, 38(Suppl. 1), 50-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.12117
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.12117
  • Weiskirchen, S., & Weiskirchen, R. (2016). Resveratrol: How Much Wine Do You Have to Drink to Stay Healthy? Advances in Nutrition, 7(4), 706-718. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.011627 PMid:27422505.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.011627
  • Yan, F., & Polk, D. B. (2020). Probiotics and Probiotic-Derived Functional Factors—Mechanistic Insights Into Applications for Intestinal Homeostasis. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 1428. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01428 PMid:32719681.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01428
  • Yang, K. R., Yu, H.-C., Huang, C.-Y., Kuo, J.-M., Chang, C., Shieh, C.-J., & Kuo, C.-H. (2019). Bioprocessed Production of Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Wine: Simultaneous Rice Wine Fermentation, Extraction, and Transformation of Piceid to Resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum Roots. Foods, 8(7), 258. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070258 PMid:31311091.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070258
  • Yoon, M.-A., Jeong, T.-S., Park, D.-S., Xu, M.-Z., Oh, H.-W., Song, K. B., Lee, W. S., & Park, H.-Y. (2006). Antioxidant effects of quinoline alkaloids and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 29(4), 4-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.735 PMid:16595909.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.29.735
  • Zhang, C.-X., Wang, H.-Y., & Chen, T.-X. (2019). Interactions between Intestinal Microflora/Probiotics and the Immune System. BioMed Research International, 2019, 6764919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6764919 PMid:31828119.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6764919

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    26 Feb 2021

History

  • Received
    18 Sept 2020
  • Accepted
    18 Dec 2020
Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Av. Brasil, 2880, Caixa Postal 271, 13001-970 Campinas SP - Brazil, Tel.: +55 19 3241.5793, Tel./Fax.: +55 19 3241.0527 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revista@sbcta.org.br