Resumo em Inglês:Abstract MicroR-146 (miR-146) plays crucial roles in attenuating nerve injury during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of miR-146 against cerebral I/R injury. Rat model of cerebral I/R injury was established using 4-vessel occlusion and reperfusion. In this study, miR-146 expression was significantly decreased in neurons in cerebral I/R injury rat compared to sham group. In addition, miR-146+/+ significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, neuron cell apoptosis and the infarct size in cerebral I/R injury rats (p<0.05). Transfection of miR-146 reduced apoptosis, autophagy and autophagy-related proteins LC-3, Beclin-1 and increased p62 in the neuron cells compared to control group. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-146 was indicated to directly targeting NF-κB and activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR expression in neuron cells. In conclusion, these findings suggested that miR-146 could protect against rat ischemia-reperfusion injury by targeting NF-κB-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which offered a potential molecular for the treatment of cerebral I/R injury.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactococcus lactis, and a yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivated by heat (121 °C, 10 min), from binding to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), as well as the interaction between these microorganisms, aflatoxin M1 and the Minas Frescal cheese matrix after 2 and 30 days of storage. The ability of LABs and S. cerevisiae to bind AFM1 to Minas Frescal cheese was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) composed of a fluorescence detector. The interaction between these microorganisms and AFM1 was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope composed of a backscattered electron detector with a voltage of 15 kV and magnifications of 1000 ×, 5000 × and 8000 ×. The use of microorganisms as a biological method is efficient in reducing AFM1 in Minas Frescal cheese and does not affect the microbiological parameters. AFM1 reduction varied according to the microorganism used in the treatments. S cerevisiae showed greater capacity to bind AFM1 over time, compared to LABs. Scanning electron microscopy was especially useful, confirming that lactic acid bacteria and S. cerevisae were able to bind AFM1 particles in Minas Frescal cheese.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The present study was designed to prepare to wean food by replacing plant proteins with egg proteins. The weaning foods containing 14, 16 and 18% extruded soy proteins were replaced with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% egg proteins using whole egg powder. Physicochemical analysis of raw material and weaned products, water activity, bulk density, in vitro study for protein digestibility, color analysis, microbiological analysis, and sensorial evaluation. Protein content significantly (p < 0.05) varied from 13.76% to 19.89% for formulated weaning foods with the highest value in T12. Treatment T5 and T11 exhibited minimum water absorption capacity (1.86 mL/g) and maximum (2.63 mL/g), respectively. Treatment T1 exhibited the highest (0.76 mL/g) values of bulk density, while the treatment T7 and T12 had the lowest values (0.69 mL/g). The maximum in vitro digestibility was observed in treatment T15 (83.8%) while the minimum (65.4%) was observed in treatment T1. The sensorial evaluation results for all the treatments are significantly (p < 0.05) varies with an overall acceptable score. Results indicate that the microbial loads also within acceptable limits. The weaning foods composite animal proteins can be a cost-effective and possible tool to overcome malnutrition among children in developing countries.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The importance of functional foods added with probiotics and prebiotics is directly related with the promotion of the health benefits of human. In this study the survival of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in a semi-ripened cheese added with agave juice, was determined. Cheese ripening was carried out at 14 °C for 35 days. The pH changes were measured and the hydrolysis of the protein was evaluated through the analysis of free amino groups by the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) method and SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At the end of the study, in the symbiotic cheese, the viability of the probotic was increased in two logarithmic cycles (from 6.73 to 8.72 log CFU). A more active proteolytic process was observed with the addition of agave juice, due to the high production of low molecular weight peptides and the concentration of free amino groups (8.63 mg/L). The pH did not have a significant difference between the control and the cheese studied. With the obtained results, it is seen that agave juice is an ingredient that can be added to semi ripening cheeses with the objective of improving the survival capacity of probiotic microorganisms, which are used as starters.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Guizhou Majiang organic blueberries from China are a prevalent fruit in the health industry and have high anthocyanin contents. This study used the ethanol extraction method, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, AB 8 macroporous resin adsorption purification, and the addition of 3% citric acid to extract anthocyanins, and through single-factor tests and orthogonal tests, the optimum extraction conditions of anthocyanins from blueberries was determined. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: the extraction temperature was 40 °C, the ethanol volume fraction was 80%, the solid-liquid ratio was 1:10, the ultrasonic extraction time was 60 min, and the extraction amount was 2.56 mg/g. Anthocyanins were identified by HPLC, and the effects of storage conditions on their contents were investigated. K+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ had little influence on anthocyanin contents, while hydrogen peroxide had a highly destructive effect. With increasing illumination time, the retention rate of anthocyanins decreased gradually; the higher the temperature was, the stronger the damaging effect on anthocyanin contents, and the appropriate storage temperature was determined to be -4 °C or below. The absorbance was the highest when pH =2. Taken together, the results of our study revealed the optimal extraction process and appropriate preservation conditions of anthocyanins from organic Guizhou blueberries.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Germination increases total phenolic compounds (TF) concentration and antioxidant activity (AOx). The characterization and quantification of TPC, total flavonoids content (TPC), and AOx of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) sprouts, germinated for ten days was performed. Results showed that the highest concentration of TPC for both sprouts was in days 6 and 7 (685.21 and 910.69 mg GAE/100 g dry matter) and TF varied only for beans. AOx of the pea sprouts was 512.64 and 6083.55 mg ET/100 g dry matter to DPPH and ORAC method, respectively, is higher than for bean. Regarding FRAP, bean sprouts showed better values (421.07 mg ET/100 g dry matter) compared to pea; in the CUPRAC analysis, sprouted bean showed better activity than a pea (85.76 and 44.05% inhibition). Germination induced variations in gallic and syringic acids in pea sprouts and of catechin and quercetin in the bean. Germination time and legume type are important factors the biological activity of sprouts.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this article, by studying some clinical cases of myopia patients and performing the related analyses, we proposed a conjecture for the causes of myopia and its underlying genetic pathway. Based on that, we designed an experiment to prove the hypothesis of individual evolution. Individual evolution refers to the process of individual trait changes caused by certain external environmental factors, which can be inherited to the next generation. The generation (n) of cloned mice will be classified into X (n1, n1…nx) groups, and the daily exercise amount of each group will be defined as Tx (exercise time). Firstly, we will compare the changes in weight and muscle volume among all groups. Subsequently, the first generation of cloned mice will be used to obtain the second generation of cloned mice, and then grouped in the same way. Then, we will evaluate the effects of exercise on gene expression. For the nth generation, the expression levels of individual genes will be determined, and the individual evolution related indexes will be measured. Environmental factors can affect the changes in an individual state, and such alteration can be fed back to the genetic pathways and passed from one generation to the next.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In the study, the microencapsulation method was applied in the production of white cheese from goat milk to prevent the loss of viability of Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum due to environmental factors during their storage period. For this purpose, the cheese was obtained using three types of microcapsules - symbiotic microcapsules containing probiotic bacteria and probiotic + fructooligosaccharide, probiotic + inulin. In addition, probiotics, fructooligosaccharide and inulin have been added to cheese in free form, and a total of 7 different cheeses have been produced with the control sample. In the microencapsulation, 1% sodium alginate was used as coating material and the extrusion method was applied. The cheese samples have been stored at +4 0C for 180 days. It has been determined that the viability of L. paracasei and B.longum has been preserved with the microencapsulation technique, while the viability of probiotic bacteria is preserved at a higher level in cheese samples obtained with the addition of prebiotics to microencapsules. It has been concluded that probiotic microorganisms are available above the minimum therapeutic effect value in grams of cheese samples containing microcapsules and these cheese could be considered as probiotic.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aims to investigate the possible usages of terebinth as a functional additive in noodle formulation. For this purpose, raw terebinth and roasted terebinth in different temperatures (100 °C, 125 °C, 150 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C) were added to the formulation at rates of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% to produce noodles. According to the results of this study, the use of terebinth in the noodle formulation decreased the amount of phytic acid in the noodles while it significantly increased the amount of ash, protein, fat, total dietary fiber, total phenolic content and antioxidant (p < 0.05). In the sensory analysis, the highest score in the context of general acceptances was obtained from the sample B1 which 10% terebinth roasted at 100 °C while the lowest score belonged to the sample F3 which 30% terebinth roasted at 200 °C was added.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Clinical evidence suggests that T2DM and its complications can be prevented through regular intake of functional foods. This cost-effective way of managing T2DM in developing world might prove very beneficial. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare effects of Fenugreek and Cinnamon on treatment of newly diagnosed cases of T2 DM. Subjects were selected from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Islamabad. Study was carried out in three phases: Phase I, baseline; Phase II, after 90 days and Pahse III at end of washout period. Subjects, from both genders, were within the age range of 40-65 years. There were 26 subjects in each group. Serum levels of FPG, HbA1c, fasting insulin levels, lipid profile were measured at baseline and at the end of 2nd and 3rd phases. BMI, WC and WHR were also studied in all phases of the study. SPSS (version 22) was used for analysis. Cinnamon seemed to have more effect on both anthropometric (BMI & WC) and biochemical (FPG, HbA1c, serum Insulin, serum cholesterol, HDL & LDL) parameters, as compared to Fenugreek, which had effect on WC, FPG, HbA1c, serum cholesterol and TG only. Although, the magnitude of these effects was similar in both groups.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Sepsis has become the focus of research in the field of intensive care medicine due to its high mortality and complicated pathogenesis. To evaluate the effects and mechanism of Progranulin (PGRN) affects inflammation in lung damage of burn-induced Sepsis. In mice of burn-induced Sepsis, PGRN gene expression was increased in lung tissue. So, PGRN promoted inflammation in vitro model through SIRT1/ROS/NLRP3 pathways. Down-regulation of PGRN reduced inflammation via SIRT1/ROS/NLRP3 Pathways. The activation of SIRT1 reduced the effects of PGRN on inflammation in lung cell by LPS via SIRT1/ROS/NLRP3 pathways. The inactivation of NLRP3 decreased the effects of PGRN on inflammation in vitro model. Our data suggest that PGRN is serves as inflammation-response biomarker and promoted lung damage in burn-induced Sepsis via the SIRT1 Pathways by ROS/NLRP3 pathways.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aims to develop a batter system with natural purple and functional quality for vacuum fried breaded shrimp. Purple sweet potato flour (PSPF), soy protein isolate (SPI), and xanthan gum were used as coating materials. The effect of the ratio of SPI and xanthan gum on the rheological properties, coating pick-up, color, moisture content, oil content, texture, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity were investigated. Compared with the control group, it was observed that the batter system with PSPF, SPI and xanthan gum had better rheological properties. The result showed that a ratio of 2:1 for SPI to xanthan gum had the highest coating pick-up value (49.83%), the more attractive purple (a* = 3.07), less oil content (20.55%) and retained higher anthocyanin content (51.71 mg/100 g). Based on the results of anthocyanin content, vacuum fried shrimps were analyzed for antioxidant activity. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (•DPPH), hydroxyl (•OH) radical-scavenging assay test, PSPF vacuum fried shrimps showed high free-radical scavenging activity (60.19% for •DPPH and 35.97% for •OH). Therefore, the batter system with PSPF, SPI and xanthan gum is a promising coating material, which is widely used for vacuum fried breaded products, such as pork chop, steak, chicken nuggets and fish fingers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanism of circ 0006282 in Diabetic nephropathy (DN) in vitro and in vivo. 6-week-old male db/db mice were induced by intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of STZ (50 mg/kg, S0130, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) for five consecutive days. HK-2 cells was incubated with high glucose for vitro model. Western blotting, immunostaining, and biochemical assays were used to obtain that inflammatory factor and protein expressions. The current study demonstrated that the serum circ 0006282 expression were reduced, and serum miR-155 expression in patients with DN were increased. Circ 0006282 reduced inflammation in kidney cell by high glucose. MiR-155 promoted inflammation in kidney cell by high glucose. Circ 0006282 reduced inflammation via activation of SIRT1/NLRP3 signaling pathway by suppression of miR-155 expression. MiR-155 regulated the anti-inflammation effects of circ 0006282 on inflammation in kidney cell by high glucose by SIRT1/NLRP3 signaling pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that circ 0006282 may represent promising strategy for the therapy of DN.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of α-methyl-5- hydroxytryptamine (α-methyl-5-HT) on ATP-activated current (IATP) in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp experiment was performed on cultured rat DRG neurons. One minute after treatment with α-methyl-5-HT, ATP (10-4 mol/L) activation current in rat DRG neurons was inhibited. However, this inhibitory effect was independent of the current caused by α-methyl-5-HT. The dose-response curve for IATP showed that α-methyl-5-HT significantly shifted it. The Kd values of ATP-activated currents before and after the pre-addition of α-methyl-5-HT were similar (4.23×10-5 mol/L vs. 6.81×10-5 mol/L). Furthermore, cyproheptadine (10-6 mol/L), an antagonist of 5-HT2 receptor, can reverse the inhibition of α-methyl-5-HT. After intracellular dialysis of KN93 (CaMKII inhibitor) and H7 (PKC inhibitor), this inhibition was also completely eliminated. In conclusion, our results showed that α-methyl-5-HT inhibited ATP-activated current through activating the 5-HT2 receptor and resulting in phosphorylation of the ATP receptor. It was caused by the activation of G protein coupled receptor and corresponding intracellular signaling transduction cascade.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the application of thermosonication for the viability of Staphylococcus aureus and the antioxidant activity of HM. The US effect on the S. aureus was measured by counting viable cells in discarded HM immediately before and after different treatments varying time (1, 5 and 10 minutes) and temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) through surface plating on standard agar. The antioxidant activity evaluation was carried out by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method. With Regarding microbiological quality, it can be concluded that treatment with US at 60 °C for 10 minutes was the most effective in terms of reducing the viability of S. aureus, in addition to presenting a significant increase in the content of antioxidants when compared to raw and pasteurized milk samples.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This work evaluates the effect of temperature and soluble solids on the degradation rate of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of extracts from Bixa orellana L. leaves. The temperatures were studied in the range of typical food processes (70-90 °C) and food storage (−20-37 °C). The results showed that the thermal degradation of the phenolic compounds follows first-order kinetics, in which the degradation rate depends on the temperature, the amount of soluble solids, and the pH. The loss of antioxidant activity also follows first-order kinetics. Under different storage conditions, the half-life times of the total phenols were in the range 40.72-202.47 days, while for the antioxidant activity, the half-times were from 55.87-68.83 days for the ABTS and from 57.85-107.03 days for the FRAP method. The antioxidant activity of the extracts follows the same pattern of thermal degradation as the phenolic compounds. Therefore, we conclude that antioxidant activity is due to its phenolic compounds.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To clarify the correlation between qualitative and quantitative parameters of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and regional distribution differences of microvessel density (MVD) and vasculogenic mimic (VM) in breast cancer. 119 female patients with suspected breast cancer were involved. The clinicopathological parameters of patients were collected. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed on patients. After the operation, according to the unified standard, the marginal zone, the central region and the paracancerous area of the breast cancer were sampled respectively. The MVD were labeled by immunohistochemistry with CD34, and tumor VM was labeled by CD34/PAS double staining. The distributions of MVD and VM in the marginal zone, the central area and the paracancerous area were decreased (P < 0.05, respectively), but the correlations between MVD, VM and contrast-enhanced ultrasound were not consistent. The quantitative parameters of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in marginal zone and central area were correlated with MVD. The positive rate of VM in marginal zone was also higher when breast cancer mass was larger and clinical stage was higher. When histological grade of breast cancer was high, the positive rates of VM in three regions were also high. The correlation between contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MVD was better than that of VM, but VM was associated with more prognostic factors than MVD.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Incorporation of the coloring agent, tartrazine and curcumin affects healthy physiological system leading to changes in hematology, biochemistry and enzymatic activity. Consequences of oral administration of tartrazine and curcumin were explored for 15, 30 and 45 days in female adult rat. Two doses were based on the admissible daily intake (ADI) of 9.6 and 96 (high) mg/kg/body weight for tartrazine, 3.85 and 38.5 mg/kg/body weight for curcumin. Phytochemicals such as saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannin, carbohydrates and phenolics were present in coloring agents. The renal function tests and lipid profile showed alterations in the values of uric acid, urea, total protein, albumin and cholesterol in all treatment groups. Additionally, the levels of liver enzymes fluctuated after 45 days of treatment with curcumin and tartrazine. Histopathological changes were also recorded in liver and kidney. In contrast, blood biochemistry depicted the significant reduction of RBCs, Hb, MCH, glucose, WBCs, MCHC and LDH at 15, 30 and 45 days. Besides, IgG, IgM and overall antibody GMT at 45 days were significantly increased. Study indicated that ADI and doses up to 10 times of the ADI of food colors intake exerted adverse effects on immune response and altered the biochemical parameters.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study consisted of determining the effect of Bacillus strains inoculated alone or in combination with phytopathogenic fungi on the production of human health-related compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in tomato fruits. Seedlings were cultivated under greenhouse conditions and inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus and B. subtilis alone or in combination with Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans. Fully ripe fruits were harvested and evaluated for carotenoid, phenol and VOCs contents. Lycopene was the most abundant carotenoid (46.4-167.62 µg/g), followed by β-carotene and lutein. Fruits from plants inoculated with Bacillus had the highest carotenoid content. In contrast, phytopathogens decreased the carotenoid contents, especially the lycopene content. The content of total phenols ranged from 0.42 to 0.90 mg GAE/g. The content of these compounds increased 1.5-fold in fruits from plants inoculated with Bacillus strains, especially those treated with B. methylotrophicus, but the greatest increase (1.9-fold) was observed in plants inoculated with phytopathogens. Both Bacillus strains and pathogens increased the antioxidant capacity, with a 2.8-fold increase compared to the control. Thirty-two VOCs were identified in the tested tomatoes. The Bacillus strains caused an increase in the concentration of VOCs, which could be associated with an increase in fruit quality.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract For the high-value utilization of tuna liver, the effects of acid-aided (Acid-pH) and alkali-aided pH-shifting (Alkali-pH) on the physicochemical and functional properties of the protein powder prepared by pH-shifting and freeze-drying were studied. As expected, the protein powder with high purity could be obtained through Acid-pH or Alkali-pH followed by freeze drying, while the Alkali-pH led to a higher protein yield, higher protein ratio, lower lipid ratio and lower heavy metal content than Acid-pH. The amino acid profile of the protein powder prepared by Alkali-pH (Alkali-PP) was similar with that prepared by Acid-pH (Acid-PP). In addition, compared with Acid-PP, the Alkali-PP possessed the greater capacities in emulsion activity, foaming capacity and fat absorption capacity. Furthermore, the foaming capacity, foam stability and fat absorption capacity of Alkali-PP was better than soy protein powder. Therefore, Alkali-pH followed by freeze-drying would be a better alternative to prepare high-quality protein powder from tuna liver in the food industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Sago is a carbohydrate-producing food commodity in large quantities but has a low protein content. The interaction of protein and carbohydrates in sago noodles is expected to help improve nutritional value. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of the fortification of skipjack tuna fish meal in increasing the quality of sago noodles. Experimental design using a completely randomized design of one factor, namely the fortification of fish meal with five levels (0%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%). Sago noodle characteristics with the fortification of fish meal were investigated. Result evaluation showed that the fortification of fish meal had the optimum concentration that can be used to increase the nutritional content of sago noodles is fortification of fish meal 14% with chemical characteristics, namely 2.16% ash content, 7.70% protein content, and 0.17% fat content.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To explore the critical care treatment and clinical outcome of patients with severe aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SaSAH), and to provide clinical evidence for the treatment of patients with SaSAH. 160 patients with SaSAH of Hunt and Hess (H&H) grade III or above in the neurosurgical critical care unit at ourospital between June 2016 and June 2018 were enrolled in this study. Patients were treated with brain protective bundle based on step-wised protocol under multimodal monitoring and followed up for 3 months. The incidence of various clinical complications and the clinical prognosis after discharge were statistically analyzed. Furthermore, it carried on the correlation analysis to the risk factors and the prognosis. In 160 patients with SaSAH, 127 patients had responsible aneurysms located in the anterior circulation, and the other 33 patients were located in the posterior circulation. 70 patients (43.8%) underwent transcranial clipping, 81 patients (50.6%) underwent endovascular embolization and 9 patients (5.6%) did not intervene. Patients with IV and V grades of Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were considered good recovery, and those with grade I, II and III were poor prognosis. The 30-day good prognosis rate was 41.3% (66/160) and the poor prognosis rate was 58.7% (94/160). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the Hunt & Hess classification correlated well with prognosis (OR: 4.367,95% CI, 2.254-8.460, P < 0.001). The clinical prognosis of patients with SaSAH is still poor. In particular, under the critical care of neurosurgery, the application of brain protective bundle based on step-wised protocol under multimodal monitoring might improve the clinical prognosis of patients with SaSAH.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Background The relationship between the solid fuels and the occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Methods A birth cohort study of 10,452 pregnant women without chronic hypertension was conducted from 2010 to 2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship. Results Compared to pregnant women using gas as cooking fuel, pregnant women using coal (OR=2.55, 95% CI: 1.85-3.51)and biomass (OR=3.58, 95% CI: 2.29-5.60) were associated with an increased risk of PIH, gestational hypertension (biomass: OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.68-6.80), and preeclampsia (coal: OR=2.89, 95% CI: 1.98-4.21; biomass: OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.95-5.84).The relationship between cooking fuel and PIH is modified by maternal age(p<0.0001), pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.0001), gestational weigh gain(p<0.0001), parity(p<0.0001), and multiple birth (p<0.0001). Conclusions During pregnancy, exposure to coal or biomass was associated with an increased risk of PIH and preeclampsia.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To analyze the clinical value of turbidity-elimination gout soup combined with external application of traditional Chinese medicine to improve pain and the volume of tophi in patients with gout. A total of 94 patients with gout were selected as the study samples. They were randomly divided into control group treated with colchicine tablets and observation group treated with turbidity-elimination gout soup combined with external application of traditional Chinese medicine. Two groups of patients were compared before and after treatment in terms of pain, volume of tophi, score of TCM symptoms and laboratory indicators. There was no significant difference in NRS score, volume of tophi, redness and swelling of joints, heat and pain and other laboratory indicators between the two groups before treatment (P>0.05); NRS score, tophi, the integral of symptoms and other symptoms, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, blood uric acid level and etc. laboratory indexes of patients in the observation group were lower than those of the control group after treatment (P<0.05). Combination will effectively reduce the pain of patients with gout, reduce the volume of tophi, correct clinical symptoms and improve the level of laboratory indicators, with clinical reference and implementation efficiency.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Applewood (Feronia limonia) or ‘Kawista’ in Indonesia is a rare plant with a unique flavor. The research objective is to optimize the extraction process to get the best Applewood Flavor Extract (AFE) using a mono-factor design. Extraction was carried out in two stages; firstly, it was maceration with dichloromethane, glycerin, and alcohol solvents. Secondly, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane solvent. The best results are based on sensory values , and UV-Vis analysis on maceration alcohol (70%) is 18 hours with stirring. The best LLE at 12 hours was obtained from alcohol-dichloromethane (ALC-DCM) extract with a yield 28.55% fruit pulp base. The ALC-DCM extract was then analyzed by the chemical components of GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and sensory of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) method. GC-MS analysis succeeded in characterizing 91 volatile compounds. LLE technique of ALC-DCM extract can increase the absorption of ester compounds by 66.67% compare with dichloromethane (DCM) extract. There are 30 organic compounds from LC-MS/MS analysis. The volatile chemical marker on ALC-DCM extract with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is the ester, and the aroma marker from QDA is apple-like and vinegar.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to analyze the main components of ethyl acetate extract of Chimonanthus salicifolius (EAECS) and investigate its effect on intestinal mucositis in mice induced by 5-fluorouracil. EAECS was prepared, and its main components were analyzed. Fifty mice were randomly divided into control, model and 3, 6 and 9 g/kg EAECS groups. The latter three groups were intragastrically administrated with 3, 6 and 9 g/kg EAECS for 7 days, respectively. The intestinal mucositis model was established in latter four groups from the 1st to 7th day of administration. Results showed that, the main components in EAECS were rutin, scopolamine, isofraxidin, scoparone, quercetin and kaempferol. After administration, compared with model group, in 9 g/kg EAECS group the body weight was increased; the serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 levels were decreased, and the interleukin 10 level was increased; the intestinal tissue superoxide dismutase level was increased, and the malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels wer decreased; the liver tissue TNF-α level was significantly decreased (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, EAECS has rich flavonoids and coumarins. It can alleviate the intestinal mucositis in mice induced by 5-FU. The mechanism may be related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the possible modifications due to industrial processing in the volatiles (HS-SPME/GC-MS), bioactive compounds (content total, and phenolic profile by UFLC-DAD) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, ORAC) of fresh and processed mango pulp with addition of additives, pasteurized, and pasteurized with additives. The physicochemical characteristics of the samples were evaluated. All parameters were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by processing. According to the PCA analysis, the stability of the samples was influenced by the thermal processing and the work clearly demonstrated the separation between the analyzed samples as a function of the effect of thermal processing. It is concluded that industrial processing, although important for the preservation of useful life and maintenance of the microbiological quality of mango pulp, influence the functional and aromatic properties, causing a significant reduction in the volatile and bioactive compounds, which can negatively influence the acceptance of the processed product by consumers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study described and evaluated the acidity, alcohol content, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and sensory attributes of rice wine (Tapuy) made from black, red, brown and white rice during a 7-day fermentation. Acidity of Tapuy made from the different pigmented rice had similar pH profiles characterized by a steep decrease at day 1 from 6.38 ± 0.4 to 3.38 ± 0.2, and remained relatively unchanged until the end of fermentation. Tapuy made from black rice (Ballatinao) contained 16.07% alcohol, second to white rice (Bongkitan) that contained 18.58% alcohol, although they were not significantly different from each other (p>0.05). At the end of fermentation, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Tapuy made from black rice was significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) than Tapuy made from the other pigmented rice. Total phenolic content of Tapuy made from black rice was at 9.73 mg GAE/mL and antioxidant activity leveled-off at 70.63% DPPH radical scavenging activity; whereas Tapuy made from the other pigmented rice were declining. Thus, Ballatinao black rice is a suitable rice variety for making Tapuy and has the potential to be a health-promoting functional food.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In order to investigate the controlled release and antifungal effect of thyme essential oil on peach fruit, the four polysaccharides such as xanthan gum, gum tragacanth, arabic gum and pullulan were used to construct the essential oil-chitosan based composite film. The physical and chemical properties of composite film and its inhibition effect on Monilinia fructicola of peach fruit in vitro and in vivo were evaluated. The results showed that thyme essential oil contained some antifungal compounds such as 2-methoxy-3- (2-propenyl)-phenol, D-limonene and thymol. The addition of four polysaccharides decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of composite film, and caused obvious fluctuation in the peak at 3263, 2884, 1552 and 1025 cm-1. Particularly, the strong interaction was found between chitosan and arabic gum which improved the antifungal effect of thyme essential oil in vitro. Moreover, the chitosan composite film combined with arabic gum exhibited the best inhibition effect on Monilinia fructicola of peach fruit in vivo regardless of the coating of film solution or film fumigation method. The work showed that chitosan-arabic gum composite film would be a potential application for improving the antifungal effect of essential oil on the preservation of peach fruit.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The effect of oregano essential oil (OE) and rosemary extract (RE) on the survival and growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and the total aerobic bacteria (TA) in cooked ground chicken meat stored at different temperatures had been evaluated. Five treatments including i) Control (no additives); ii) 150 ppm OE; iii) 350 ppm RE; iv) 150 ppm OE + 350 ppm RE; and v) 14 ppm of butylatedhydroxyanisole and butylatedhydroxytolune mixture (BHA/BHT) were prepared. After cooking, all samples were stored (7 days) at different temperature (10, 25, 43 °C) using oxygen permeable bags and tested for TA, and total viable count of Staph. a. In addition, all additives were showed significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial effect during storage time compared to the control. Both OE and RE showed comparable antimicrobial effect compared to the synthetic (BHA/BHT) additive at all storage temperatures. However, the combination treatment (OE + RE) was the highest among other additives suppress bacterial growth (APC & Staph. a) during storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that both OE and RE were showed significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial activity, but this effect could be higher if meat treated by their combined mixture.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage and their combination on quality and antioxidant capacity of postharvest blueberries were evaluated here. To investigate the most appropriate approach for maintaining fruit quality, blueberries were subjected to four different treatments, a control (CK), 1-MCP, 3% O2 + 10% CO2 (CA), and 1-MCP combined with 3% O2+10% CO2 (1-MCP + CA), then stored for 80 days at 0 °C. It was found that the applications of 1-MCP, CA and 1-MCP + CA were effective at delaying the increase in weight loss and inhibiting the decrease in firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) contents and titratable acidity (TA) contents. In addition, 1-MCP, CA and 1-MCP + CA treatment could significantly suppress MDA accumulation and relative electrolytic leakage promotion. Moreover, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as O2- and H2O2, was reduced by all the treatment, which was associated with increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Taken together, our findings indicate 1-MCP, CA and 1-MCP + CA have potential applications in maintaining the quality and improving the antioxidant capacity of harvested blueberries, and 1-MCP + CA is the most effective treatment.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To determine the effect of transportation vibration on the nutritional quality and antioxidant activity of sweet cherry fruits in the process of cold chain transportation. Two kinds of sweet cherry “Summit” and “Nanyang” with different storage and transportation resistance were used as experimental materials. The results showed that the content of soluble solids, titratable acids and vitamin C in sweet cherry fruits were significantly reduced, while the content of superoxide anion radical, malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzyme activities of CAT, APX, POD and PPO increased significantly, At the same time, the content of total phenols and flavonoids were increased under transport vibration stress, but the ability of DPPH and ABTS+ free radical scavenging of sweet cherry were reduced significantly. In particular, transportation vibration stress had a greater impact on the nutritional quality and antioxidant activity of “Nanyang”, a sweet cherry with poor storage resistance. The results of this study indicated that transportation vibration has a great impact on the nutritional quality of sweet cherry, and that there is a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and nutritional quality. This study confirmed that transportation vibration during cold chain transportation can significantly reduce the nutritional quality and antioxidant activity of sweet cherry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study was aimed to determine the retention of bioactive fatty acids and oxidative stability of fish powder (FP) supplemented extruded products. The Labeo rohita fish meat was minced, microwave vacuum dried, and extruded. Product formulations containing FP (0-25%) and semolina (75-100%) were optimized using response surface methodology. The maximum bioactive fatty acids retention was 94.84% in the final product. The highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were 87.97% and 85.66% at 25 °C for 30 and 60 days. Maximum TBARS values were 0.42 and 0.44 mg MDA/kg at 25 °C for 0 and 30 days, respectively. The highest carbonyl contents were 6.02, 7.67, 9.37 nmol/mg protein for 0, 30, and 60 days of storage at 25 °C, respectively. The moderate barrel exit temperature (125 °C) and feed moisture contents (20%) and high screw speed (150 rpm), FP (25%) exhibit the highest retention of PUFAs in a product.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To determine the efficacy and safety of Endostar combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin in the treatment of NSCLC, and provide evidence-based reference for clinical drug use. Retrieved from Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP database, randomized controlled trials (RCT) were collected. Pooled standard mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were analyzed using R software with a random-effects model. Data from a total of 27 RCTs were included, involving 1646 patients were analyzed. Results of meta-analysis showed that response rate and clinical benefit rate of trial group were significantly higher than those of control group. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal reaction between 2 groups. The results showed that Endostar combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin may generally improve therapeutic efficacy of NSCLC patients, without increasing the incidence of adverse reactions.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Kefir is a refreshing fermented dairy product which has flowing consistency, uniform and bright appearance with mild yeast taste and flavor. Traditional or industrial methods can be applied for the production of kefir using kefir grains or lyophilized culture. Changes in product rheology caused by the using different types of milk and different incubation temperatures in kefir production are effective on selecting the equipment such as pump, pipeline, mixer, filling machine. In this study, microbiological flora and rheological properties of kefir were investigated for cow, sheep or goat milks with kefir grain or lyophilized culture. The pasteurized cow, sheep and goat milk were cooled to 28 °C and fermented with kefir grain and incubated at 20 °C, 25 °C or 30 °C for 24 hours. Then, the grains were filtered and stored at + 4 °C for 24 hours. At the end of the storage period, rheological and microbiological analyzes were carried out on kefir samples. The same procedures and analyzes were carried out lyophilized culture. It was found that the incubation application at different temperatures was effective on the consistency coefficient even in the fluid type unchangeable samples.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Although Ginsenosides are a major physiological component of red ginseng (RG), some isolated ginsenosides are known to have cytotoxic activity. This study was intended to reduce cytotoxicity and promote anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenosides by mixing the crude ginsenosides (RG-CG) and polysaccharides (RG-CP). RG-CG-CM, fractionated from RG-CG, not only had higher anti-inflammatory activity than that of RG-CG at 100 μg/mL, but also showed increased cytotoxicity, while RG-CP-4P and RG-CP-8P, fractionated from RG-CP, showed no anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity. To reduce the cytotoxicity without affecting the high anti-inflammatory activity of RG-CG-CM, RG-CG-CM and RG-CP-4P were mixed in a ratio of 2:8. The anti-inflammatory activity was significantly increased at a concentration of 75 μg/mL, while no cytotoxicity was observed. A combination of RG-CP and RG-CG effectively reduced the cytotoxicity and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of RG-CG, specifically RG-CG-CM fraction, providing scope for its industrial application.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To study the effects of prolactin (PRL) in pituitary on the reproduction of the Striped Hamsters via the photoperiods. Mature female striped hamsters were raised under various photoperiods to study the differential expression pattern of PRL in pituitary, and prolactin receptor (PRLR) in the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary. Photoperiods affect the pituitary PRL mRNA level and pituitary, hypothalamus and ovaries PRLR mRNA levels in striped hamsters. Positive correlations of PRL mRNA expression in the pituitary with that of PRLR in hypothalamus and ovaries, and that of GnRH in hypothalamus were determined. The serum concentration of PRL, FSH, LH and GnRH were significantly different among the striped hamsters from different photoperiods. Serum concentration of PRL is positively correlated with that of FSH, LH and GnRH of the striped hamsters. Photoperiod was important environment factor modulating the expression profile of PRL and PRLR in the striped hamsters.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Evidences showed that Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) is one important predictive factor for some cancers. However, the association between PNI and colorectal cancer is still unclear. In this study, we aim to explore the association between PNI and death in patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer. We enrolled 400 patients with colorectal cancer. The pathological results was used to confirm it. The patients received radical resection. The PNI at baseline was set as the exposure variable, death was the outcome variable, and other potential confounders were also analyzed. There was no association between PNI and the deaths of local advanced colorectal cancer and radical resection of colorectal cancer (HR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-1.00).Applying the cubic spline function, we found that it is not linear between PNI and death. Two-piecewise cox model showed that there was 68% decrease of risk of deaths when PNI change per 1 (HR=0.32; 95% CI, 0.13-0.79) on the left side of the inflection point (41.35). On the right of the inflection point, there was no association between PNI and death. PNI and deaths are linear correlation. Within a certain range (PNI=26-41), PNI is an independent protective factor for death risk.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Poor storability is the largest problem thwarting the marketization of fresh goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.). In this study, the storability of fresh fruits from 31 varieties of goji berry was evaluated by their decay index and rate of decay to choose 13 varieties of fresh fruit with excellent, medium and poor storability. Correlation and partial least squares regression analyses were adopted to explore the correlations between storability and 16 physical and chemical indicators from summer and autumn fruits. The storability calculated by the decay rate is significantly positively correlated with the content of flavonoids in the summer fruits, while the storability calculated by the decay index is significantly negatively correlated with the color difference b* and total acids in the summer fruits (P < 0.05). Similarly, the storability calculated by the decay rate is significantly positively correlated with the content of flavonoids, chewiness and elasticity of the autumn fruits (P < 0.05). The storability calculated by the decay index is significantly positively correlated with the content of flavonoids and the chewiness of autumn fruits (P < 0.05).The content of flavonoids in the fresh goji berry revealed a significantly positive correlation with the storability.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Evaluation of volatile aroma compounds from Chinese wild grape species aimed to explore new grape species via fruit aroma. In this study, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from ten grape cultivars belonging to nine different grape species were detected, by using headspace solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS. Chinese wild grape species were studied along with table grape (Muscat Hamburg, Concord) and wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) cultivars belonging to different origins. Total forty-five volatile compounds were detected, upon which several VOCs including pentanoic acid, cyclobutyl ester, maltol, (+)-neoisomenthol, and 8-methyloctahydrocoumarin were detected in Chinese wild grapes that have not been detected in other Vitis species. The results revealed that C6 volatile compounds were pre-dominant VOCs. Esters were found abundant in V. labrusca (Concord) and terpenoids were dominant in V. vinafera (Hamburg Muscat). The principal component analysis showed that Chinese wild grape cultivars V. yeshanensis, V. facifolia, V. davidii, V. betulifolia V. heyneana, V. amurensis and V. adenoclada are correlated with wine grape cultivar ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, while table grape cultivars are distributed separately. These results can provide a reference for the utilization of new germplasm for specific purposes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To explore the effect of turning-Q laser in combination with topical Chuangfukang collagen mask to improve facial appearance, greenish brown birthmark area and color depth of patients with facial greenish brown birthmark. 130 female patient were selected as the study object. The patients were treated with turning-Q laser treatment instrument 1064 nm, while the control group was treated with water bags for 20 minutes after cold irradiation. In the control group, the cure rate and total effective rate were 52.31% (34/65) and 84.62% (55/65), respectively, which were 67.69% (44/65) and 95.38% (62/65) (all P < 0.05). In the first week after treatment, the reduction rate (more than 80%) of the area of facial greenish brown birthmark in the experimental group was significantly more than that in the control group (P < 0.05). In six months after the treatment, only one case of dry desquamation occurred in the experimental group; three cases of dry desquamation, three cases of pruritus and two cases of rubella occurred in the control group. The application of turning-Q laser in combination with topical Chuangfukang collagen mask in the treatment of facial greenish brown birthmark can significantly improve the clinical efficacy and the facial appearance.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The Brazilian food industry and government reached a consensus on progressively reducing the content of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in food products due to its health effects. French fries are popular among young people and this study evaluates four brands of frozen pre-fried French fries marketed in Brazil and four brands of French fries from the main fast-food chains in Brazil regarding their fatty acid profile and total fat content. The total fat content of fast-food chain French fries was 14-21g/100 g, with a total TFA content of 0.01-0.14 g/100 g. In turn, the total fat content of frozen pre-fried French fries ranged from 3.3 to 7.4 g/100 g, with a total TFA content of 0.01-0.03 g/100 g. Deep fat frying of these products did not include partially hydrogenated fat. Two most sold pre-fried French fries brands available in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil were selected and evaluated using air frying cooking method regarding sensory acceptance. Mean acceptance among consumers was 5.7 and 5.1 for brands A and B, respectively. Brand A was further evaluated by children and young people, with mean acceptance of 4.48 and 7.2, respectively, showing good acceptance for pre-fried French fries with reduced fat content.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand molecular connections between meat proteins and quality traits. In order to research the total proteome difference and molecular mechanisms related to quality traits in different parts of yak meat. This study was designed to investigate the differences in the proteomes of yak different muscles. In this paper, Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) coupled Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to study the variations of proteome in different parts of yak after it is slaughtered. In total, 88 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified among striplon (WJR), slivsid (HGT) and chuck (JR). The quality analysis of DEPs showed heat shock proteins (HSPs) and structural proteins could be used as tenderness marker proteins for different parts of yak meat. Myosin and troponin-T may be flavour marker protein in yak meat. The bioinformatics analysis revealed that DEPs are involved in glycolysis, protein structure and phosphorylation. PPI analysis revealed thatmyosin, HSPs and metabolic enzymes may have the potential to be biological markers. This study highlights that the DEPs were responsible for meat quality different.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to investigate the potential use of cold-pressed pomegranate seed oil by-product (PGOB) and grape seed oil by-product (GOB) as a natural antioxidant in a salad dressing. Firstly, bioactive compounds from oil by-product were extracted and powdered by spray drier to produced grape seed oil by-product powder (GOBP) and pomegranate seed oil by-product powder (PGOBP). This study was the first attempt to evaluate the oxidative stability of the salad dressing by OXITEST at 90, 100, and 110 °C, and at 6 bar (the oxygen pressure). The samples enriched by GOB (3.22-26.76h) and PGOB (2.49-24.76h) showed high IP compared to control samples (0.43-8.82 h). The oxidation rate was modeled by zero, first and second-order kinetic models, and the oxidation kinetics constant (k) value estimated. PGOBP and GOBP significantly reduced k value. The activation enthalpy (ΔH++), activation entropy (ΔS++) and activation energy (Ea) were 69.78-101.93 kJ/mol, 59.55-81.07 J/mol and (-18.36)-(-83.37) J/mol respectively. The ΔG++ of the control, PGOBP and GOBP enriched samples were 87.36-88.10 Kj/mol, 88.65-91.61 Kj/mol, and 88.14-91.48 kJ/mol respectively. This study suggests that PGOBP and GOBP could be used as a natural antioxidant source for salad dressings.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Pickled cabbage is a traditional and typical fermented food, which occurs as a result of fermentation of bacteria that exist in the medium naturally. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus paraplantarum on the pickled cabbage fermentation were investigated. The physicochemical (total acidity, salt and pH) and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeast-mould) changes that occurred during the fermentation were observed. In addition, the amounts of biogenic amine (BA) and metabolites were determined with HPLC. It was found that the amount of acidity (%) was lower in Lactobacillus samples. Important microbiological changes were observed in the L. plantarum 46 and L. pentosus samples. The total BA amount was found to be the lowest for the sample L. plantarum 61. It was also seen that the BA was less than any poisonous rate affecting the human health. On day 60 of fermentation, the amount of metabolite was maximum in the L. plantarum 61and L. paraplantarum samples. As a result, the total amount of BA was observed to be lowest in the L. plantarum 61 sample inoculated with L. plantarum 61 culture and in the metabolites synthesized highly. It is suggested that the use of such Lactobacillus for the natural pickle process will allows for the production of a tastier and more reliable product, contributing to the food industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study evaluated relations among nutrients, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of commercial tomato varieties grown in field conditions in order to identify their biological potential by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Four commercial tomato varieties (Long Life, Italian, Khaki and Cherry), homogenized by their maturation stage (color, sugar/acidity ratio and pH) were evaluated regarding macro components (sugars, pectin and minerals) and functional ones (carotenoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid). Cherry tomatoes stood out for their pectin and lycopene contents and their sugar/acidity ratio. Tomato samples were good sources of Cu and Ca. The PCA showed that the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds was related to protocatecoic acid and quercetin concentrations. Italian and Cherry varieties stood out for their carotenoid contents. In field conditions, Cherry and Italian tomatoes were the best sources of functional compounds among the most common varieties found in the human diet.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Globally, tea, coffee, soft and energy drinks are daily consumed as a source of caffeine. Energy drinks gained a great public and scientific issues, thus this study assessed the caffeine content in some caffeine-containing beverages. Given the increasing demand for newly formulated healthy drinks, the date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Siwi) was used to develop a fruit-energy drink as an alternative for the energy drinks. Results displayed that the coffee addition even to 80 mg/250 mL, did not significantly altered the acidity of the final developed drink. It contained rapidly metabolized sugars of 27.86 g/250 mL without added sugar and was slightly neutral (pH = 6.04). The sensory assessment revealed that the added coffee (up to 320 mg/L) enhanced its aroma and taste but negatively affected the color. The high naturally occurring vitamins and minerals content and the gross energy; made this drink a super energy drink to fulfill the needs of athletes. Some of the tested local caffeine-containing beverages contained caffeine higher than those mentioned on the product label. On the other side, Turkish coffee brews contained 1.99-9.46 mg/g and the instant coffees had provided the highest ever caffeine (24.71 mg/g), such that their daily consumption should be alarmed.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Expression analysis of antioxidant related genes may provide key information to develop plants more tolerant to abiotic and biotic stress. For this purpose, in this study, proteosome was inhibited by using MG132 proteosome inhibitor in Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) tissues with high antioxidant content. We aimed to explain the response of gene isoforms associated with oxidative stress metabolism as a result of proteasome inhibition induced by MG132 in tomato. Gene expression levels of SLGR1, SLPhGPX, SLCAT1, SLFe-SOD, SLGPX, SLCu/Zn-SOD, SLcAPX and SLGST genes which are known to be associated with antioxidant mechanisms, were determined by real-time PCR in tomato. There was no significant change in SLPhGPX, SLCAT1, SL-Fe-SOD and SLcAPX genes in root, stem and leaf tissues. In addition, expression of SLGR1 and SLGST genes in root tissue was increased. In leaf tissue, expression of SLGPX, SLCu/Zn-SOD and SLGST genes increased significantly. There was no significant change in the expression of the genes studied in the shoot tissue. These results obtained from tomato root, stem and leaf tissues by creating proteasome inhibition will help to understand the relationship between antioxidant system and proteasome system in plants.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The generation of value from the strawberry agro-chain requires in some cases the disintegration of the structure and formulation of the fruit, resulting in suspensions that behave as thermodynamically unstable colloidal systems and are affected by various forces, such as Van der Waals, electrostatic, steric, hydration, hydrophobic, and phase separation. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the homogenization process and the concentration of gum arabic (GA) on the stability of strawberry-based suspensions. Strawberries with a 9% solid content were used and a centralized-composite central design was proposed (pressure (P) from 4.14-10.34 MPa), time (t) (3-5 min), and GA (0.2-0.4%)) and the dependent variables zeta potential (ζ), spectral absorption index (R), viscosity (μ), and particle size were evaluated. The ζ potential and R-index were not affected by the homogenization process and GA; the suspension was stabilized by the increase of ζ due to t, the GA effect, and the t-GA interaction. Particle size was affected by P but not by t, whereas GA mainly affected D [3,2], D [4,3], and D90. The results indicate that the homogenization and the use of GA as a hydrocolloid confer chemo-physical stability to the strawberry suspension.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study evaluated the effect of including clove essential oil (EOcl) in Nile tilapia diets on animal performance and antioxidant power, lipid oxidation, gene expression, texture, pH, color and sensory analysis in fillets. Three levels of EOcl in the diets were evaluated (0.70, 1.05 and 1.40 g/kg), provided over three periods before slaughtering the animals (15, 45 and 60 days). The antioxidant power in the diets increased after including EOcl. There was an interaction effect between the level and period of inclusion of EOcl on the antioxidant power and lipid oxidation of fillets stored up to 14 days after slaughter. Lipid oxidation was reduced by 43.3% compared with the control group. EOcl inclusion in the diet, regardless of level and period, improved texture and promote less gene expression of catalase and glutathione synthetase. This demonstrates that the antioxidant in the tilapia diet acts against the oxidative stress process. Considering the results for the interactions and parameters evaluated, including 1.05 g/kg of clove essential oil in the rations for 15 days before slaughter is indicated because it contributes to a higher fillet quality.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Sunflower seeds and kernels are very common in the preparation of protein meals. Dehulling sunflower seeds for meal preparation and direct consumption is a very important operation. High-oleic sunflower contains the most oleic fatty acids in the oil which significantly improves the oxidative stability of the meal with this sunflower compared to meals with standard linoleic sunflower seed. In this work, a air-jet impact dehuller was used to determine, optimize and compare the effectiveness of dehulling of two types of sunflower: high-oleic (HOSS) and linoleic sunflower seed (LSS). A two-factorial experimental design (32) was used to estimate the effect of seed moisture and applied air pressure on the efficiency (E criterion) and quality of dehulling (K1 and K2 criteria). Samples with a moisture content of 6, 8 and 10% were dehulled at an air pressure of 400, 600 and 800 kPa. The most efficient dehulling of HOSS, was achieved at a dehulling pressure in the range of 600-800 kPa and moisture content of 6.0%. As for the LSS sample, the highest efficiency of LSS and the highest K2 criterion were obtained at the dehulling pressure of 800 kPa, and moisture content of 7.3%.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this research was to analyze the industrial potential of a bacaba powder (Oenocarpus bacaba) obtained by different drying methods, evaluating antioxidant activity, spectroscopic and morphological behavior and addition to the composition of inorganic elements. The content of anthocyanins, flavonoids and carotenoids of each powder were determined as well as the total phenolic compounds. The structure of the granules of the powder were visualized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the elemental composition was attained by the X-ray spectroscopic energy dispersive system (EDS). The data suggest that the freeze-drying method is more efficient in obtaining the bacaba powder material. The increase in temperature applied in the convection drying process caused a reduction in the bioactive compound content and elements with antioxidant activity, it severely damaged the morphology of the plant membrane and influenced the composition of the spectral bands. Thus, this study indicates that the freezer-drying method could be particularly useful for obtaining bacaba powder in off-season periods, and that bacaba itself is a raw material that could be exploited by several industrial segments.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Fibrinogen supplies the primary building block of the blood clot or thrombus after α-thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin during the final phases of coagulation. When the homeostasis system is disrupted, blood clots that aggregate in the blood vessels can lead to thrombosis. Fibrin-degrading enzyme from Bacillus subtilis K2 (Subtilisin K2) of Indonesian moromi has many excellent characteristics apart from its strong fibrinolytic activity. Bioinformatic analysis using the CDART webserver indicated that the enzyme appeared to share a conserved domain with the peptidase s8 superfamily also known as the subtilase family. This study used molecular docking between these fibrin-degrading enzymes and specific substrates (fibrin and fibrinogen) using the HADDOCK webserver and aimed to predict the enzyme mechanism of action. This analysis revealed that the enzyme interlocked with the two substrates; however, it suggested no productive interactions between Subtilisin K2 and fibrinogen. A hydrolysis reaction is suggested between Subtilisin K2 and the fibrin substrate. There was a strong indication that amino acids Asp19, His51, and Ser208 in Subtilisin K2’s active site interacts with Leu168, Ile171, and Leu172 of the fibrin substrate with a ∆G of -19.4 kcal/mol. Subtilisin K2 tends to act more as a fibrin-degrading enzyme than as a fibrinogen-degrading enzyme.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To study the caramel reactions of disaccharides with water, the type I maltose caramel products (MCPs) and sucrose caramel products (SCPs) at three reaction stages were yielded and their reaction rates, UV absorptions, flavor compounds, and antioxidant activities were also detected. It was found that the caramel reactions of sucrose were faster than those of maltose and their reaction rates quickly increased to a high level in the middle stage. UV absorption of SCP in the late stage at 305 nm was much stronger than those of MCPs. Both the MCP and SCP obtained at 180 °C and 4 min had the highest concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and total flavor compounds. Moreover, the total flavor concentrations of SCPs were much larger than those of MCPs and the antioxidant effects of SCPs were also stronger. Thus, a preferred condition for both two disaccharide caramel reactions was suggested at 180 °C for 4 min and the sucrose caramels could give better flavors than maltose caramels.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Carbohydrates are digested in in vivo gastrointestinal hydrolysis system in the body. To investigate glycemic evaluation of carbohydrate digestion, a lot of in vivo study in the literature, in vitro glycemic study to research postprandial glucose composition with biochemical hydrolysis systems for carbohydrates hasn’t been met. In this study, it was investigated glycemic evaluation by using postprandial glucose after digestion of the bread species from different countries such as the United States, Sweden, and Germany with our constructed biochemical hydrolysis system at in vitro conditions. The assays of GI and GL values of these bread species were carried out with the methods based on spectrophotometric. GI and GL values of American white bread (AWB), Sweden white bread (SWB), German white bread (GWB) were calculated by using Turkish white bread (TWB) as reference carbohydrate. AWB, SWB, and GWB have lower GI values than TWB. GL values were also determined for each bread species by using spectrophotometric biochemical in vitro hydrolysis system because the value indicated for consumption of a foodstuff. TWB had higher GL value than the other bread species. GL values of all bread samples were bigger than 20.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Preservative effect of oregano essential oil (OE) and rosemary extract (RE) on ground chicken meat stored at different refrigeration time had been evaluated. Six treatments were prepared: T1) Control (No additives); T2) Combination (CM1) of 100 ppm OE and 300 ppm RE; T3) CM2: 100 ppm OE + 350 ppm RE; T4) CM3: 150 ppm OE + 300 ppm RE; T5) CM4: 150 ppm OE + 350 ppm RE; T6) 14 ppm of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Meat patties were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags stored at 4 °C, and analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, and CIE color values at 0, 4, and 7 days. Individual cooked thigh meats were used to evaluate different sensory attributes. All additives showed significant (P < 0.05) antioxidant effect delaying lipid and protein oxidation after day 4 comparing to the control treatment samples. However, the highest significant (P < 0.05) effect among all treatments was by CM4. The CM4 was the highest stabilizing raw meat color, and preventing meat discoloration. In addition, it showed (CM4) highest overall acceptability scores values regarding sensory evaluation. Based on current results, both OE and RE had a potential antioxidant activity; however, this could be stronger if used together.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract It has been reported that xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Asp312Asn is related to esophageal cancer (EC). Nevertheless, in 12 recent years, some researchers have put forward different points of view. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relation between XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism and the risk of EC in Chinese. Related studies were searched in the databases between the beginning to October 2019. An OR with 14 the corresponding 95% CI was carried out to appraise the relevance. There were 8 studies with 2553 esophageal cancer cases and 3091 controls in 15 this meta-analysis. Due to no heterogeneities among the selected studies of all the four genetic models, fxed-effect model was used in each genotype. There was not significant relationship between XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism and EC in overall analyses by pooled ORs and subgroup analyses stratified by geographic area and source of controls. In conclusion, there may be not association between XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism and EC in Chinese populations. Further studies about other ethnic groups are needed to confirm this conclusion.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study revealed for the first time the dynamic changes of bacterial community and physic-chemical properties in the process of tomatoes fermentation. In the early phase of fermentation, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes account for 86.04% and 9.97%, respectively. Then, Firmicutes replaced Proteobacteria to be the dominant phylum from day 10. Among then, Lactobacillus decreased from 20 to 30 days and then rapidly increased. The total sugar showed a gradual decreased while the nitrite content increased in the early phases. The total acid content increased from initial 0.6% to 2.03% on day 30, mainly including citric acid, malic acid and lactic acid. In the later stages, the number of microorganisms and bacterial community tended to be stable, along with the content of organic acids and nitrite. During fermentation, the physic-chemical parameters inevitably change, mainly due to microbial metabolism, affecting in turns the development of the micro-ecosystem. These results contribute to our knowledge about bacterial participation in the process of fermentation and will help improve the quality of fermented food and vegetables.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Wheat based products are consumed as staple food in most the of Asians countries, hence different wheat cultivars are purposely developed to meet the diverse ecological conditions. These cultivars carry difference in their rheometry nutrition and gluten microstructure that affect the overall product quality. In the present investigation ten wheat varieties were selected from two most common ecological zones i.e. rain fed and irrigated. In general, non-significant differences were observed in most of nutritional parameters however, tremendous variations were studied in rheometry and functional features. More than fifteen parameters were linked through Principal Competent Analysis (PCA) which has segregated the cultivars in to four groups. Analyses of secondary structure of gluten were also analysed through Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and hierarchical cluster for FTIR gluten structure divided wheat cultivars in three groups. Results revealed that wheat cultivars (Borlog-2015 and Zincole-2016) having high protein contents (15%), more water absorption capacity (72.0%), dough development time (11.2 min), stability time (15 min) and mixing tolerance index (11.0 min) made their own cluster and showed variable spectra estimated between the 1750 to 1500 cm-1. On the bases of findings of both PCA model and clustering of FTIR proteins, it was revealed these two cultivars are suited for bread making. In contradiction to above features other two cultivars (Pirsabak-2005 and Wafaq-2001) were found good for making biscuits.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Fenugreek leaves contains bioactive compounds, which are helpful in maintaining human health. These compounds are adversely affected in conventional drying methods. Therefore, this study was carried out to retain maximum amount of these components through microwave-assisted drying and extraction technique. The technique was optimized for simultaneous drying and extraction process for fenugreek leaves. The drying rate and drying time were influenced by the level of microwave power; time was reduced from 21 to 5 minutes, when microwave power was changed from 30 to 100 W. Unlikely, the drying rate increased from 1.79 to 4.56 ± 0.05 g/(100 g.min) with the change in power (30 to 100 W). Moreover, moisture ratio analysis determined that two term model was the best to demonstrate the fitness with experimental values. The energy consumption was lowest for 100W compared to other powers. Furthermore, comparison between microwave-based extraction and methanol-extraction indicated that the antioxidant activity was better preserved compared to conventional ones even at higher microwave power levels.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to optimize the extraction solvents for Bordo grape (Vitis labrusca) seeds by response surface methodology regarding to the antioxidant activity (AA) and trans-resveratrol content. Fatty acids (FA) and AA of the oil obtained by pressing cold method were also determined. The extraction optimization was determined by the statistical simplex-centroid mixing scheme, enabling the analysis of solvents effects (water, ethanol and acetone) and their mixtures on the responses. AA was performed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods, and by total phenolic compounds and flavonoids. FA were determined by GC and trans-resveratrol by HPLC. The extracts containing ternary fraction of solvents showed greater AA, increasing about 20 times compared to pure solvent. The composition that showed the best response ranged between 45-48% of water, 14-20% of ethanol and 35-38% of acetone for both grape seeds, with polarity ranged from 0.705 to 0.706. The oil from seeds showed high concentrations of PUFA, particularly linoleic acid. The optimized extraction method improved the use of this residue as a potential antioxidant source for food industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Currently, there is a deficiency of protein, vitamins, macro- and microelements in the diet of people. When processing and manufacturing meat, a large amount of co-products is obtained that have a high nutritional value, are a source of protein, minerals and vitamins, etc. Therefore, the rational use of co-products in the production of meat products is relevant in terms of solving the problem of the growing demand for protein. The article is devoted to the development of two new types of sausages. Based on the research results, a recipe for two new types of meat products has been developed using liver and carrots. In the finished meat products, organoleptic indicators, pH, moisture, ash, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, sodium nitrite were determined. It was revealed that at the technological stages of the manufacture of meat products, biochemical processes occur that determine a decrease in the level of amino acids, the content of proteins, fats, vitamins, etc. The qualitative and quantitative composition of free and bound amino acids of proteins of meat products is determined, their usefulness in relation to essential and limiting amino acids, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, etc. is indicated.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study was aimed at evaluation of effects of ball-milled roasted chickpea (RC) powder on physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties of yogurt supplemented with RC levels of 1 (RCY1), 2 (RCY2), 3 (RCY3), 4 (RCY4), and 5 g/100 mL (RCY5). Results showed a gradual decline in the pH of pre-inoculated samples with corresponding increases in powder concentration from 1 to 5 g/ 100 mL. Degrees of lightness and yellowness increased in supplemented samples as compared to control (RCY0). Higher firmness was exhibited by RCY3 and RCY5 samples in the range of 59.39-78.56 g. RCY3 showed the highest consistency value (1480.214 g/s). Overall, the syneresis was significantly lower (p<0.05) in supplemented samples as compared to control. The addition levels of more than 3% RC resulted in smoother and more gradual dispersive patterns of particles, and RCY4 showed the most prominent polydispersity and resembled RCY5. Comparatively, supplemented samples exhibited a significantly lower degree of shear-thinning as compared to control samples. RCY5 showed the maximum texture score among all supplemented samples, and supplemented samples showed comparable sensory attributes to those of control samples. It was evident from this study that RC powder can be employed as a functional food ingredient in yogurt production.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Phosphorylated peptide from Antarctic krill (P-AKP) was prepared by the dry-heating method with sodium pyrophosphate in order to improve its antioxidant activity and osteogenic activity. P-AKP exhibited more competitive DPPH• and OH• scavenging activities compared to the native Antarctic krill peptide (AKP). In hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage of MC3T3-E1 cells, both AKP and P-AKP pretreatment could dose-dependently improve superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities through attenuating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, AKP and P-AKP prevented oxidative stress-induced down regulation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and matrix mineralization. Particularly, the promoting effects of P-AKP on the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, differentiation and mineralization was higher than that of AKP. These results suggested that phosphorylation might be a promising approach to improve the antioxidant and osteogenic activity of AKP, and P-AKP could be a beneficial agent for attenuating oxidative stress-related bone loss.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The composition and quality of goat milk is determined, but there is no similar studies on Turkish camel’s milk. Raw camel’s milk was collected from one-humped camels at a farm in western Turkey and evaluated for its physicochemical components and microbial properties. The dispersion of chemical composition values were found to be at similar levels in this study. However, they were lower than small amounts of monosaccharides such as fructose and glucose. Also, the camel’s milk was found to be a good source of zinc and vitamin C. The levels of yeast, mold, and coliform bacteria in the camel’s milk samples were low. Gas liquid chromatography analysis of milk fat showed that the predominant fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1, C14:0, C16:1 and C18:0. Saturated fatty acids average content was 59.33% and unsaturated fatty acids content was 40.74% of total fatty acids with low (2.12) atherogenic index (AI). The ratio of unsaturated/saturated acid (0.69%) was more favorable in these samples of Turkish camel’s milk compared with that of cow’s or goat’s milk as well as some other camel’s milk studies. The study’s results suggest that environmental and geographic conditions where camels are raised may cause variation in the composition of raw camel’s milk.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Ala-Pro (AP), Ile-Pro-Ala (IPA) and Ile-Pro-Ala-Val-Phe (IPAVF) as DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were purified from Antarctic krill protein hydrolysate (AKH). Diabetic zebrafish model was rapidly induced with combination of high glucose immersing and cholesterol diet for evaluation the three DPP-IV inhibitory peptides activity. Physiochemical indexes including DPP-IV activity, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol; the relative gene (insa, glucagon and pck1) expressions levels were detected. The results showed that after 15 days of peptides treatment, the physiochemical index levels of peptide groups were significantly higher than that of negative control and showed dose-dependent effect. The insa gene expression level would be increased with the enhancement of peptide concentration, whereas gene expression levels of glucagon and pck1 would be decreased. These results indicated that three peptides all had hypoglycemic effects in different degree. It suggested the potential of AKH containing DPP-IV inhibitory peptides could be as functional food supplement to treat diabetes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To analyze the effect of AI deep learning techniques on understanding possible complications and improving clinical nursing quality of patients with coronary heart disease. The clinical data of 182 patients with coronary heart disease who received treatment were collected, among which 80 patients received routine nursing management only during hospitalization, set as the control group; AI deep learning techniques were applied to the other 102 patients During treatment and nursing, the incidence of related complications in the control group was higher than that in the observation group, and the average hospitalization time of the patients was longer than that in the observation group. In the observation group, AI deep learning techniques were applied to predict the incidence of complications of coronary heart disease in 14 patients, with an accuracy rate of 87.50% (14/16) and an error rate of 12.50% (2/16). Both the clinical nursing quality and patients’ satisfaction score of the observation group were higher than those of the control group, and the overall nursing satisfaction rate of the patients was higher. Applied in prediction of possible complications of hospitalized patients with coronary heart disease, AI deep learning techniques were of high accuracy rate.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To investigate effects of high-fat diet (HFD) on body length, weight and depression-like behavior of prenatal stress (PS) offspring rats. PS rat model was established by restraint stress. Sucrose preference and forced swimming tests were performed. Moreover, the effects of HFD on the growth and depression-like behavior in offspring rats were observed. Length of male and female HF group was significantly longer than that control, but length of male PS+HF group was significantly shorter than HF group. Body weight of male and female HF group was significantly higher than control, and body weight of male PS+HF group was significantly lower than HF group. No significant differences were observed in length between female PS +HF and HF groups. Compared with male PS+HF group, growth rate of male HF group was significantly higher. Moreover, HFD could reduce sucrose preference, and prolong immobility time of PS offspring rats. HFD can promote weight gain of male and female normal offspring rats. PS can partially inhibit effects of HFD on weight gain of PS male offspring rats, but exert no significant effects on PS female offspring rats. HFD can aggravate PS-induced depression-like behavior in offspring rats.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Antidesma bunius is an edible berry fruit with many benefits, such as natural antimicrobials, anticancer, natural dyes, etc. However, data on chemical content in the fruit is still limited. The purpose of this research is to identify volatile compounds of Antidesma bunius fruit. We extracted and analyzed the A. bunius fruit’s chemical content using GC-MS and HPLC–DAD-ESI-MS methods. Forty-nine compounds representing 99.91% of the total chromatogram’s relative peak area were detected. Antidesma bunius is rich in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and ten other compounds with relative peak area >1%, such as furaldehyde, citric acid and others. We also found 109 compounds tentatively identified through HPLC–DAD-ESI-MS. Antidesma bunius contained HMF, several volatile compounds, organic acid, long-chain fatty acid, and photochromic compound.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Many studies have analyzed the relation about xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln polymorphism on esophageal cancer risk; however, the results were inconclusive. The present study was designed to assess the relationship in China. We searched the relevant articles from the databases of PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Database, CNKI and Chinese Biology Medicine up to December 2019. An OR with the corresponding 95%CI was adopted to evaluate this association. This meta-analysis included 12 studies with 4195 esophageal cancer cases and 4762 controls. Overall, a positive association between XPD Lys751Gln and esophageal cancer risk was found in all the analysis model (Gln vs. Lys, OR= 1.26, 95% CI= 1.14-1.44; Gln/Gln vs. Lys/Lys, OR= 1.73, 95% CI= 1.29-2.31; Gln/Gln vs. Lys/Lys + Asp/Asn, OR= 1.63, 95% CI= 1.22-2.18; Gln/Gln+ Asp/Asn vs. Lys/Lys, OR= 1.25, 95% CI= 1.13-1.39). Subgroup analyses by geographic area and source of controls were further conducted; there was no substantial change in subgroup analyses. Our study suggested that XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism could increase the risk of esophageal cancer in China. Further studies in other ethnic populations are wanted to confirm these conclusions.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Inactivation mechanism of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CD) combination with Thymbra spicata essential oil (TEO) treatments on bacteria in tryptone soy broth (TSB) and juices was investigated. Salmonella Typhimurium was significantly inactivated by 3.45 and 5.55 logs after SC-CD+TEO treatment of TBS for 35 min at 7.6 and 10.13 MPa respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae showed higher resistance to treatments than other two bacteria and Escherichia coli showed higher resistance to treatments than S. Typhimurium. Approximately 5.27, 4.68 and 3.82 logs inactivation of S. Typhimurium, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained in the treatment of watermelon juice with SC-CD+TEO at 10.13 MPa after 35 min, while 6.89, 4.82 and 4.55 logs inactivated, respectively, were observed in melon juice. Research indicated that the inactivation mechanism involves inducing cell damage, increasing membrane permeability, increasing cell rupture, precipitation of cytoplasmic contents, extracting cellular substances and lysing cells. Different sensitivities of Gram-negative bacteria to the treatments may be attributed to the differences in the cell structure, compositions of membrane and presence of capsule, pressure level and exposure time. pH, total soluble solid and browning degree of juice did not significantly change after treatments and during 7 days of storage.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Choosing the right supplier is vital as it helps to achieve high-quality products at relatively lower costs on the one hand and increases profitability by increasing customer satisfaction on the other. Cost alone is not enough in the supplier selection process. Managers should also consider other criteria such as quality, reliability, crisis management, green product simultaneously. Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem involving both qualitative and quantitative criteria. This study uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is one of the MCDM methods. The aims of this study are to determine the most essential supplier selection criteria in the catering industry and to choose the most suitable supplier. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to identify the supplier selection criteria and conducted with 30 experts. Based on the identified criteria by the experts, six experienced supply chain managers from six different catering firms were invited to complete the pair-wise comparison survey. Finally, the supplier with the highest overall score, using the seven highest-ranked criteria, have been selected from the three alternatives. This study concludes that the most critical criterion is crisis management. Cost is relatively less critical criterion in the catering industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To investigate the imaging features and clinic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). 139 RCC patients underwent MRI and CT examination before surgery, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of MRI and CT in diagnosing ccRCC were analyzed and compared. There were 93 true-positive, 11 false-positive, 11 false-negative and 24 true-negative in MRI screening with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 89.42%, 68.57%, 84.17%, 89.42% and 68.57% respectively. Whereas there were 72 true-positive, 4 false-positive, 32 false-negative and 31 true-negative in CT screening with the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 69.23%, 88.57%, 74.10%, 94.74% and 49.21% respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of MRI were better than those of CT, while the specificity of CT was better than that of MRI. MRI and CT have respective advantages in the diagnosis of ccRCC. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of MRI are superior to those of CT, while the specificity of CT is superior to that of MRI. Clinically, different examinations are selected according to different situations.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To determine whether ozone can regulate fruit ripening and delay fruit aging, Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Guichang') was fumigated with different ozone concentrations (100 μL/L, 200 μL/L, 300 μL/L) for 3 h, stored at 1 °C and 85 ± 5% RH for three months, and then matured at 20 °C and 85% RH for 12 days. Compared with controls, the optimal concentration of ozone delayed kiwifruit ripening during cold storage by delaying the respiratory burst that precedes fruit decay. Consequently, fruit firmness, nutrient content, and enzyme activity remained stable; the expression of AdACS1 and AdACO1 as well as the activity of ACC synthetase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) was downregulated, whereby ACC and MACC were accumulated. In addition, ozone-treated fruit showed significantly reduced infection with grey mold. The effect of ozone on kiwifruit at 200 μL/L was the best suited for delaying fruit senescence, maintaining high quality during storage and fruit ripening compared with other fruits. Overall, our study indicated that ozone may play a major residual role in the physiological process of fruit ripening; furthermore, ozone can affect ethylene biosynthesis and fruit changes associated with endogenous ethylene production.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Phytonutrients get attention now days due to their wide application and their tendency to improve the productive and reproductive performance in humans. Hydrolysable tannin (HT) is one of these bionutrients. The present study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of HT on the induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in rats. Forty-five adult female rats with 4 to 5 days regular estrous cycle were selected. The PCOS was induced by a single intramuscular injection of Estradiol Valerate 4 mg/rat/kg. The rats were offered 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% of HT/kg body weight through oral gavage for two months. The results had shown a reduction (p<0.05) in average feed intake, body weight and weight gain, total oxidative stress and nutrient digestibility in PCOS rats. Similar reduction trend (p<0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone and insulin was observed; while serum follicular stimulating hormone, serum prolactin and total antioxidant capacity were improved (p<0.05). The ovarian histopathology showed no signs of reduction in cystic follicles while no improvement was observed in healthy follicles. The study concluded that the treatment with 1.5% level of HT had shown the best therapeutic potential for weight management, reduction of oxidative stress and improvement in reproductive health of PCOS rats.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Genetic and process factors influence the final quality of dried pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.), particularly the physical properties and the proximal composition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature (45, 50, 55 and 60 °C) and cooking on physical and the proximal composition in two pea varieties (“Obonuco Andina” and “Sureña”). The physical properties and the proximal composition were determined for the best drying treatment. All pea samples were dried until a final moisture content ≤ 15% (w.b) was reached. The results showed that the drying temperature had a statistically significant effect on the final quality of both pea varieties. The treatment at 55 °C was determined to be the most suitable because it did not present any testa detachment or generate off-flavors.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The bioconversion of porungo cheese whey into galactooligosaccharides (GOS) was investigated using immobilized β-galactosidase in batch system. Two enzymatic immobilization strategies were tested for optima pH and temperature and the best immobilization strategy was used to evaluate the GOS production in two steps. First, different lactose sources (substrates) were tested, and subsequently, different concentrations of porungo cheese whey (200 g L-1 and 400 g L-1) and temperatures (37 °C to 46 °C) were evaluated. Immobilization of β-galactosidase increased the range of operational pH (7.0-7.5) when immobilized in calcium-alginate support. However, the pH range decreased when the immobilization was conducted using calcium-Concanavalin A support. Batch reactions using the calcium-alginate immobilized biocatalyst produced the highest yields of GOS (63.2%) from porungo cheese whey, compared to the control substrate of lactose solution at concentration of 50 g L-1 (41.1%). The temperature of 46 °C and 400 g L-1 of substrate shown the better condition to GOS production, with lactose conversion of 61.4%. These results suggest the possible use of porungo cheese whey as substrate in the biotechnological production of GOS.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study, Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the microbial diversity ofwine grapes and soil from three vineyards indifferent localities on the eastern foothills of Helan Mountain in Ningxia, China. The results of 26 samples showed thatthere were 4 fungal phyla with 1107 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 11 bacterial phyla with 4630 OTUs. At the genus level, the dominant fungi in the grapes included Aspergillus, Alternaria, Exobasidum, Aureobasidium, and Cladosporium, while the dominant fungi in the soil included Gibberella, Gliomastix, Coprinellus, Fusarium, and Chaetomium, Chryseobacterium, Mesorhizobium, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium and Acinetobacter were the dominant bacteria in the grapes, while Arthrobacter, Pontibacter, Massilia, Skermanella, and Candiatus-Nitrosocosmicus were the dominant bacteria in the soil. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial diversity differed in the three vineyards from different geographical locations. This study provides a theoretical basis for the utilization and development of the characteristic microorganisms in vineyards.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aims to determine the effect of heat treatments on milling quality and some nutrients of germinated glutinous purple rice; we performed an experiment in a 3x2 factorial design with three replications. The first factors were three heating methods, namely; baking (80, 100 °C) and steaming (100 °C), and the second factors were two heating periods (15 and 30 min). Dried germinated rice was used as control. Heating method and duration as well as their interactions, significantly affected the milling quality and anthocyanin extraction (P < 0.05). Steaming at 100 °C for 30 min significantly increased head rice (73.4%), while baking at 100 °C for 30 min resulted in the highest amount of broken rice (42.3%). These method also maintained the GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) content of the rice, while anthocyanin extraction was decreased from 52.1 to 29.9 mg•g-1. Heating at 80 °C for 30 min, 100 °C for 10 and 20 min and 125 °C resulted in a higher free radical scavenging ability when compared to unheated rice.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Significant opportunities exist in the use of seafood by-products to create new beneficial products. Moreover, cephalopod skin is a good source of bioactive compounds. The present study compares the chemical structure properties and antioxidant activity of pigments extracted from the skin of Octopus vulgaris (OVS) and Dosidicus gigas (DGS) with methanol-HCl (T1) and ethanol-HCl (T2). The solubility and spectroscopic analysis (UV-Vis and 1H NMR) indicated that extracted pigments belonged to the ommochrome family. Xanthommatin, dihydroxanthommatin, and kynurenine compounds were identified in the extracts using correlated homonuclear spectroscopy (COSY). The results showed that OVS yielded a higher recovery rate of pigments with antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) than DGS in both solvents. T1 extracted the highest level of antioxidant pigments. The kynurenine proportion and proton peaks observed at 3.0-5.0 ppm (amino-aromatics) in the 1H NMR spectra may explain the differences in antioxidant activity of OVS and DGS.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In recent years, agro-industrial by-products derived from processing and consumption mainly of fruits have become an important source of bioactive products, as fiber with or without prebiotic potential, and polyphenols with antioxidant activity against free radicals. In this research the chemical composition, including dietary fiber, besides polyphenols and TEAC, mean growth rate and mean duplication time, and prebiotic activity score of mango peel flour and potato peel flour were determined to evaluate the feasibility as functional ingredient in yogurt. Yogurt formulated with mango peel flour presented lower syneresis and higher viscosity during storage, as compared to yogurts with potato peel flour or control yogurt. Higher titratable acidity and lower pH was the reflect of the prebiotic capacity of both peel flours, with no detrimental effect on consumer acceptance. Mango peel flour and potato peel flour, with a prebiotic capacity potential due their dietary fiber content and polyphenols content, can be employed as prebiotic to improve probiotics colonization of gastrointestinal tract, with a concomitantly effect on host health.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dipping in solutions of citric (2%), benzoic (0.2%), sorbic (0.2%) and ascorbic (0.5%) acids and in acidic electrolyzed water on the quality attributes and surface microbiota of fresh-cut apples, cvs ‘Florina’ and ‘Ionathan’, packaged in disposable plastic containers under normal atmospheric conditions during 14 days storage at 8 °C. The colour, firmness, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and surface microbial load were determined weekly throughout storage. The colour results indicated that acidic electrolyzed water reduced browning while the ascorbic and citric acids were less effective in controlling the enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apples. After 14 days of refrigerated storage, the samples treated with 2% citric acid and acidic electrolyzed water maintained significantly higher firmness, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than the other treated and control samples. The microbiological analysis revealed that organic acids successfully suppressed bacterial growth throughout the storage period as compared to the control samples. The sorbic and benzoic acids at 0.2% were also effective on yeasts but these dip treatments determined a higher darkening, yellowing and loss of firmness and of antioxidant activity during storage.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a bread enriched with varying level of ginger powder. Ginger powder incorporated in white flour at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% level to get a bread enriched with antioxidants and good rheological and sensorial properties. Total phenolic content (TPC) was gradually decreased with increasing percentage of ginger powder and maximum inhibition of DPPH was recorded (47.23%) at 2% supplemented sample. Texture of supplemented bread samples was increased in terms of hardness, gumminess and chewiness as compared to control sample. Mineral contents increased in each sample with increasing percentage of ginger powder such as Na (451.69 mg/kg), Ca (127.32 mg/kg), K (427.61 mg/kg), Fe (15.19 mg/kg), Zn (7.04 mg/kg) and Cu (3.47 mg/kg) respectively. However, showed worst results regarding rheological properties with hard dough structure. Among studied samples, a range of 2-4% ginger powder presented high antioxidants with better rheological characteristics compared with control samples.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate meat yield and centesimal composition of the Amazonian fish species, A. ocellatus, P. castelnaeana, and L. friderici, in the dry and flood seasonal cycles of rivers. In each seasonal cycle (flood and dry), a total of 60 fish were collected, comprising 20 specimens of each of the following species: A. ocellatus, P. castelnaeana, and L. friderici. Were evaluated the meat yield, cuts yield and centesimal composition of the fish samples. Meat yield in the clean body cuts and skinless filet varied between species and hydrological period. The results showed that seasonal variation influenced the centesimal composition and yield of the species studied, with significant differences between the cuts produced during processing. These findings highlight the need to apply a variety of technological processes to ensure efficient use of these species throughout the year. The total waste represented more than 50% of the whole fish, and the head size was directly proportional to the amount of waste generated. These results underscore the importance of waste utilization for animal and/or human nutrition.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Green bactericides are excellent strategies for reducing food spoilage. Phloretin was regarded as efficient, broad-spectrum and safe preservative, which showed enormous potential in food industry. Inhibitory mechanism of phloretin on Listeria monocytogenes was systematically elucidated through integrity of cell membrane, intracellular protein content, energy level, and nucleic acid morphological character. SEM and TEM results showed minimal injury of cell membrane, which was further proved by a leakage of potassium ions, ATP and little protein and nucleic acid. There were drastic reduction of intracellular or total protein and ATP compared to cell without phloretin treatment. However, the specific activity of hexokinase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were unaffected after phloretin treatment. From these results, we concluded that phloretin’s bacteriostatic mechanism is decreasing the intracellular protein content and energy level resulting from DNA aggregation. This finding was prospective to fully illustrate the phloretin’s mechanism and develop it into a natural preservative in food industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Ecuador has one of the highest soursop productions worldwide; however, as this fruit represents a promising market to the country, its organic waste is becoming a major problem. The aim of the study was to use the Mixolab to predict the quality of wheat flour partially substituted by soursop residues flour for bread making. The experiment was performed through a process mixture design; 21 premixes were made, and 10 significant variables were chosen. Using a desirability function, three criteria were optimized: 1) to maximize the use of soursop residues flour (SRF) (20% SRF substitution), 2) to form a loaf with strong gluten network characteristics (5% SRF substitution), and 3) to form a loaf with weak gluten network characteristics (13.2% SRF substitution). Results showed with a 95% confidence level that the new formulation with strong gluten network characteristics, 5% soursop residue flour and 95% wheat flour, was statistically equal to a control bread in moisture, pH and total ashes content. Additionally, an affective test was performed in order to identify the acceptability of the bread among potential consumers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Food services establish an important link with the food production chain, not only from the economic point of view, but also associated with the environmental impacts resulting from their activities. This paper deals with an analyze of publications from 2009 to 2019 on factors responsible for waste generation and sustainability in food services. The results show that food waste occurs in a systematic and multifaceted way, requiring a broader and interdisciplinary approach, not only considering the measurement of waste, but also the complexity involved in the production and processing of collective meals. Finally, it is clear that a great part of the studies focuses on the generation of knowledge about the problem of waste and its quantification, evidencing a lack of studies aimed at the use and improvement of tools, techniques and methods concerning the identification and control of factors responsible for the generation of waste at its origin. These results contribute to the food science to emphasize the need for more assertive propositions to control and mitigation of food waste taking into account the total complexity involved in its generation in commercial and institutional food services.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Fish and fish products of the most available protein sources for human beings. Indian mackerel is the most available and economic fish sold in markets in different countries and is included in many local dishes. Indian mackerel are characterized by dark muscles because of the high contents of myoglobin and lipids. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition, saturated and unsaturated fatty acid contents, and fatty acid fractions in Indian mackerel muscle. Indian mackerel (R. kanagurta) were purchased from the central fish market in Jizan, which is caught from the port of Jizan, Saudi Arabia. The samples were analyzed to estimate the proximate chemical composition, Lipid Fractions, and Fatty acid analyses from Indian mackerel. In this study, revealed that moisture, protein, and fat are the main constituents of Indian mackerel. The Indian mackerel contained high and comparable levels of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and the different samples exhibited somewhat similar fatty acid contents. Among unsaturated fatty acids, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acids, and those with the highest levels in Indian mackerel were palmitoleic, palmitic, myristic, oleic, 15-tetracosenoic, linolenic, and stearic acids in addition to docosanoic, eicosanoic, 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentanoic, and 11-eicosenoic pentadecanoic acids. We conclude Indian mackerel is a rich source of protein and lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are the main constituents of lipids, which exert positive effects on the body by providing the main nutrients and preventing disease in the consumer.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To investigate the regulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in SA- and JA-dependent systemic defense pathways in tomato seedlings damaged by cotton bollworm. The lower two leaves of four-leaf tomato plant seedlings were treated with cotton bollworms. The upper leaves were then removed at various time points and assessed for systemic changes in H2O2 levels, enzyme activity and defense-related genes expression. Wild-type seedlings, def-5 mutant seedlings (deficient in JA accumulation) and transgenic nahG seedlings(deficient in SA content) were constructed at four-leaf stage. Wild-type plants were further treated with dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and 2,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester (DHC). Bollworm feeding in the lower leaves induced rapid systemic accumulation of H2O2 in the upper leaves. H2O2 accumulation further increased activities for SA- and JA-dependent enzymes including proteinase inhibitors (PIs), pathogenesis-related gene 1 (PR-1), cathepsin D inhibitor (CDI), β-1,3-glucanse (BGL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Furthermore, H2O2 accumulation enhanced mRNA expression of BGL-2, PR-1, PI, CDI and PPO genes. Suppression of H2O2 accumulation using H2O2 scavengers substantially diminished these effects. mRNA expression of PR-1 was not induced in transgenic nahG plants. SA- and JA-dependent signaling pathways are involved in the tomato systemic defense responses to herbivores, and that H2O2 generation is required for both systemic pathways.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study investigated the effect of addition of hydrocolloids (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose: HPMC, and xanthan) and frozen storage on the structure and rheological properties of frozen roti dough supplemented with rice bran. The roti dough was frozen by air blast freezing and stored at -18 °C for 84 days. Changes in the protein structure of the frozen roti dough with HPMC produced greater changes in the gluten network and random coil conformations than that of the xanthan supplemented dough during frozen storage. The resistance to extension and the elastic modulus of the frozen roti dough with HPMC tended to decrease while the extensibility slightly increased with a longer frozen storage time. However, these parameters did not change in the frozen roti dough with xanthan. The freezable water in the frozen roti dough with HPMC and xanthan significantly increased (p < 0.05) with increasing frozen storage time from 0 to 84 days.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to design and produce optimal formula of cupcakes containing eggplant fiber by surface response methodology (RSM). The wheat flour replaced with eggplant fiber in five levels, 0-40%, whole-egg and sugar were set at the same time, 55-75% and 70-90% based on (wheat-flour + eggplant-fiber) weight, respectively. Considering the most important textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness), density, weight, and also by mean comparisons with Duncan's test at the level of 5% significance, optimal formulas include: formula (a) (12% eggplant-fiber, 71% whole-egg, 70% sugar) and formula (b): (8% eggplant-fiber, 57% whole-egg, 70% sugar) were appropriately suggested. Chemical properties of the optimal formulas including, protein, fat, carbohydrate, moisture, insoluble ash in acid and calorie were calculated and compared with the blank. Using of the eggplant-fiber in cupcake formulation caused calorie reduction and increased its nutritional value. Formula (b), in terms of many factors, demonstrated similarity to the blank. The eggplant-fiber had an impact on all of the textural properties except springiness. The impacts of whole-egg content on springiness, chewiness and density are also remarkable. Sugar content will be shown in weight differences and is expressed as one of the most effective variables on sample weight.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The effect of ohmic heating on bioactive compounds in bignay (Antidesma bunius) fruit juice during ohmic heating were evaluated. The parameters measured were total phenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, and antioxidant activity. Ohmic heating was conducted at 70, 90, and 110 °C, and samples were collected at heating times of 0, 15, 30, and 45 minutes. Electrical conductivity of bignay fruit juice increased linearly with temperature with values ranged from 0.012 S/m at 32 °C to 0.039 S/m at 110 °C. Insignificant change in total phenol was observed, while anthocyanin and flavonoid showed significant degradation and the degradation kinetics followed the first-order kinetic model. The degradation rate constants for anthocyanin ranged from 0.0016 to 0.0213 min-1 with activation energy (Ea) of 63.880 kJ/mol and the degradation rate constants for flavonoid were in the range of 0.0107 to 0.0209 min-1 with activation energy of 18.210 kJ/mol. Antioxidant activities (IC50) obtained from DPPH method ranged from 0.106-0.168 mg/mL while those obtained from ABTS method ranged from 0.131-0.161 mg/mL. The results indicate that anthocyanin and total phenol in bignay fruit juice is much more stable during heating compared to flavonoid.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In recent years, since excess adiposity is thought to be responsible for the development of chronic diseases, many ingredients have been developed for the specific purpose of fat replacement in functional dairy foods. Carob bean gum (CBG) is widely used in food systems to modify quality attributes and shelf-life as thickening and gelling agents. Objective of this study was to develop reduced fat (12%) and low fat (6%) yoghurt using CBG as a carbohydrate based fat replacer. The results revealed that the addition of CBG increased the textural and sensory attributes of reduced fat yoghurts. In this present study, the textural properties such as firmness, and stickiness of yoghurt samples were significantly higher in the low fat yoghurt (6%, T5) with CBG, and yellowness index was increased in low fat (6%, T3 and T5) yoghurts. The addition of CBG to reduced fat and low fat yoghurts (T4, T5) improved the sensory properties and acceptance index.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Rheological characteristics, i.e., farinograph and extensograph test in dough, specific-volume, hardness, sensory-properties, and the physicochemical-properties of toast-bread containing four levels (0-15%) of Portulaca oleracea leaf-powder (PLP) based on flour weight were determined. The water absorption and development-time of the dough sample increased with the addition of PLP. The increase in the PLP content in the dough sample from 10% to 15% showed significant differences in dough-stability. The energy and extensibility of dough increased for 5 and 10% and then decreased for 15% PLP substitution levels at dough resting time 45, 90, and 135 minutes after production. The specific-volume decreased and the pressure force reversely increased stepwise by 5 up to 15% dosage. Sensory-evaluation indicated that 10% of PLP in the bread is the most acceptable-level, more enriched-bread variants were less acceptable mainly owing to having less significant colour and sensory indices (p < 0.05), meanwhile dough water-absorption and specific-volume had no significant difference compared to less enriched bread samples (p > 0.05). As expected, the colour changed, too, from light brown (the control) to dark green (for 15% the PLP in bread). The moisture, dietary-fiber, protein, ash, and fat content significantly increased in the toast-bread, reflecting the enhancement levels.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study determines the possibility of using spread (SC) and compound chocolate (CC) as delivering agents of betalains, bioactive compounds and coloring agents. Therefore, the effects of various beetroot powder concentrations (0.0-1.00 g/100 g) on SC and CC’s quality parameters and the associated visual properties over a 12-week period under accelerated shelf-life conditions were investigated. The hardness and plastic viscosity values of CC significantly increased as the amount of beetroot powder increased (P<0.05), the particle size while melting behavior, water activity, moisture content and sensory properties did not significantly change (P<0.05). The D90 and textural properties (firmness, stickiness, adhesion, work of shear) of the SC samples were significantly affected with the addition of beetroot powder (P<0.05), but no significant differences were observed in moisture content, water activity and some sensory properties (P>0.05). The use of beetroot powder for both groups caused a significant decrease in the samples’ color values, and the redness associated with the pigment source also significantly increased (p<0.05). The findings revealed that high concentrations of beetroot powder did not significantly impact CC’s color stability to the same extent that it impacted the SC’s color stability. This study was made as a preliminary study to produce functional foods.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Preparation practices and physicochemical characteristics of moin-moin commercialized in Salvador (Brazil) as a street food by typically clothed women called baianas de acarajé were studied. Four moin-moin samples were collected from each of the thirty sales points included in the study and analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, fiber, total carotenoids, weight, color and texture. The ingredients used for the preparation of moin-moin were as follows: grated dry shrimp heads (100.0%), grated onions (96.7%), salt (73.3%), Crude Palm Oil (53.3%) or Crude Palm Olein (46.7%) and garlic (16.7%). Peanut, codfish, cashew nuts, wheat flour, ginger and tomatoes are further ingredients frequently used. Texture analysis revealed that moin-moin is a soft, fragile and brittle food product. The content of total carotenoids ranged from 6.99 to 64.88 ppm with an average value of 28.49 ± 4.00 ppm, giving the product an ocher-orange/yellow-orange color. An average sized moin-moin ball (186.6 g) contained 14.08% protein, 13.08% lipids, 30.83% carbohydrates, 4.01% fiber and 297.42 kcal, corresponding to 18.77%, 23.78%, 10.28% and 14.87% of the daily requirements of an adult for protein, lipids, carbohydrates and energy, respectively.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The functional properties, resistant starch (RS), and glycemic index (GI) of fresh noodles substituted with banana flour (BF) were investigated. When the substitution with BF was increased from 0 to 40%, the viscoelastic properties increased, while tensile strength and elasticity decreased from 53.23 to 26.84 gf and 44.65 to 15.04 mm, respectively. GI was reduced from 77.05 to 62.62 while RS content increased from 5.56 to 23.31%. This is considered a very high RS content and the modified noodles are classified as intermediate GI food. Furthermore, the effects of xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) individually at 1.0% and 1.5% levels on quality of dried noodles substituted with 30% BF (DBF30) were investigated. DBF30 with XG had the shortest rehydration time (6.5 min), while DBF30 with CMC had the slowest rehydration (8.5 min). The added hydrocolloids increased rehydration and decreased the cooking loss of DBF30, also increasing tensile strength and elasticity of DBF30. Furthermore, the hydrocolloids increased RS content and reduced GI of DBF30. The results reveal that adding BF and hydrocolloids to noodle products provides high nutritional quality with enhanced quality characteristics.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In order to obtain the extraction process of defatted walnut powder (DWP), an ultrasound-assisted extraction based on artificial neural network was established, and the activity of the extract was evaluated. The artificial neural network (ANN) was used to model different parameters, including the yield of extraction, the concentrations of glansreginin A and ellagic acid, and obtained the optimal extraction process: solvent to material ratio of 9.5 mL/g, ethanol concentration of 68%, extraction period of 55 min, and extraction three times. Then, the antioxidant scavenging ability of DWP obtained by ANN was compared with other extraction methods. The results showed that DWP extracted by artificial neural network demonstrated good activity in scavenging DPPH and ABTS radicals.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this study was carried out to evaluating the productive performance, the physical-chemical quality of the milk, the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of rennet cheeses obtained from the milk of goats submitted to diets with diferente levels of guava agroindustrial waste (GAW). The goats were randomly distributed in a Latin square (4x4) according to the substitution levels (0, 14, 28, and 42%) of inclusion GAW in the diet. The consumption of natural and dry matter increased with the increase in hay substitution. However, the physical-chemical requirements of milk and cheese were not altered.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Kebar grass (Biophytum petersianum) is traditionally believed as a food ingredient to increase the health of the reproductive. The specific bioactive compounds with antioxidant effect in this plant have not been reported before. The objective of this research was to identify the specific bioactive compounds as a source of functional food ingredients of Kebar grass (KG) which have antioxidant activity by using a metabolomic approach. Samples chemical profile (extract and fraction) used HPLC, followed by metabolomic analysis by OPLS. Chosen samples were isolated by TLC and then identified by UHPLC-MS/MS. Specific bioactive compounds were identified from chromatogram with putative identification by MZmine referring to online databases. The metabolomic result obtained ethyl acetate fraction (FEA) as the sample that most contributed to antioxidant activity. FEA identification result showed ten specific bioactive compounds that are thought to contribute to antioxidant agents. Two of the compounds were identified as caffeic acid and cassiaoccidentalin A, while the other eight compounds have not been identified. The finding of cassiaoccidentalin A in KG is a novel finding and can be used as a specific marker for petersianum species of Biophytum genus and as a source of functional food ingredients as antioxidant agents to improve reproductive health.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and organoleptic properties of nuggets based on Moringa oleifera leaves and Arius thalassinus. The ratio of the giant catfish and M. oleifera leaves were 100:0, 100:5, 100:10, and 100:15. The increase of M. oleifera leaves affected the characteristics of nugget products, viz., texture profile, protein, amino acids, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC). Based on sensory tests, the four types of giant catfish nuggets with M. oleifera leaves did not differ significantly. Giant catfish nuggets and moringa leaves have the potential of being developed into products that can be consumed widely.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Salmonella Enteritidis is the major cause of foodborne salmonellosis affecting human health. The light emitting diodes (LEDs) is a novel approach to inactivate of the foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of 405 nm LEDs illumination on S. Enteritidis and S. Enteritidis PT4. The irradiance of the 405 nm LEDs was 27.7 mW/cm2. Bacterial cultures suspended in tryptic soy broth were illuminated by 10-watt LEDs at a distance of 4.5 cm for 24 hours at 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. Approximately 7-log reduction in colony forming unit (CFU) counts of both S. Enteritidis and S. Enteritidis PT4 at each temperature were observed following exposure after 7.5 hours to the LEDs, concluding that temperature did not affect the inactivation of the bacteria. The decimal reduction times (D-values) for the serotypes ranged from 55.78 to 67.88 min at 4, 25 and 37 °C after 405 nm LEDs illumination. No significant difference in D-values was observed among both the serotypes and temperatures, except for S. Enteritidis which had lower D-value at 4 °C. The LEDs technology has shown antibacterial efficacy and can be implemented in the food processing for reducing S. Enteritidis.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The effect of black garlic powder on the quality of spent duck meat nuggets during storage was investigated. This study used a completely randomized design with 4×4 factorial. The first factor was black garlic powder (0%, 1%, 2%) and 200 ppm Butylated hydroxytoluene then the second factor was the storage period (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) in refrigerator temperature. Physical quality, chemical quality, antioxidant activity, and total plate count (TPC) data were collected and analyzed using analysis of variance. Sensory quality data were collected and analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test. The results showed that the addition of 2% black garlic powder significantly increased (P<0.01) the color redness (a*), total phenol, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition. However, it decreased (P<0.05) the pH, lightness (L*), peroxide value, TPC, color, aroma, and acceptability. Storage time increased (P<0.05) was decreased the pH, L*, a*, tenderness, protein, total phenol, and DPPH inhibition but increased (P<0.01) the yellowness (b*), peroxide value, and TPC. The addition of 1% black garlic powder was recommended to increase the spent duck meat nugget quality during storage without decreased the sensory quality of nuggets.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The unique flavor of the proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the key reasons why consumers prefer it. Fatty acids and amino acids have an important influence on the nutrition and flavor of proso millet. In this study, we identified fatty acids, amino acids, and volatile compositions in waxy and non-waxy proso millet porridge by a headspace headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We identified 8 fatty acids, 7 essential amino acids, and 59 volatile compounds from the proso millet. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) clearly demonstrated the profiles of waxy and non-waxy samples and it was observed that better clustering of waxy proso millet porridge can be achieved. There were also some correlations between fatty acids, amino acids and aroma substances. This study will provide the basis for the research of volatile components of proso millet and promote the application of proso millet in food industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This research objective was to determine the additional effect of biopolymer materials of red palm oil and miserly leave extract on mechanical and functional characteristics of canna starch based edible film. The method used in this research was factorial randomized block design with two treatment factors consisting of red palm oil (0.5; 1.0; and 1.5%v/v) and miserly leave extract (1.0; 2.0; and 3.0%v/v). Research results showed that edible film had thickness of 0.18 to 0.24 mm, elongation percentage of 16.7 to 19.00%, compressive strength of 33.87 to 48.40 gf, water vapour transmission rate of 11.97 to 44.32 g.m-2.d-1, total phenol of 389.31 to 488.45ppm, antioxidant activity of 389.31 to 488.45 ppm and inhibition zone diameters of 0.1 to 0.73 mm, respectively. The concentration increase of red palm oil had increased the thickness, compressive strength, total phenol, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the edible film, but the percent elongation and the rate of water vapor transmission had decreased. Water vapor transmission rate, compressive strength, total phenol, antioxidant and antibacterial activity had increased with the increase in miserly leave extract concentration. The best edible film formula was red palm oil with a concentration of 1.5%(v/v) and 1%(v/v) miserly leave extract (A3B1).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Biofilms arise as an alternative to replace synthetic polymers, which have generated environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to extract starch from Hass avocado seeds (Persea americana Mill) to produce biofilms. Starch was extracted using the wet method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Moisture, ash content, gelatinization temperature, and color were determined. Two types of biofilms were produced: T1 (starch) and T2 (starch and glycerol). The colour was measured, and the films were characterized by mechanical tests. A yield of 11.38% was obtained for the isolated starch. Glycerol addition significantly influenced the tensile strength being T1 higher than T2. In elongation percentage, T1 was lower than T2. The results indicate that it is possible to use Hass avocado seed waste for starch extraction and produce biofilms to give it added value. This biofilm can be used in low moisture food coatings.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Refined sunflower oil has dissimilar shelf life compared to cold-pressed sunflower oil, which increases the use of refined oil, and it is more abundant in the diet. On the other hand, the production of cold-pressed oils does not require chemical processing. Moreover, these oils contain significant amounts of bioactive components with a beneficial health effect. Breeders are trying to create new sunflower hybrids for the production of cold-pressed oil with improved oxidative characteristics. This study aims to examine the rancidity of 24 cold-pressed sunflower oils of new hybrids under accelerated thermal stability test conditions (Rancimat and Schaal oven tests) and to compare the obtained results with refined sunflower oil. According to investigated oxidative parameters, the most similar to refined sunflower oil was the H20 sample with the induction period determined by the Rancimat test of 9.55 ± 0.00 h, compared to 9.49 ± 0.00 h, obtained in refined sunflower oil. The total oxidation value of the H20 sample amounted to 3.26 ± 0.12, while in refined sunflower oil this value was 2.12 ± 1.73.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Kombucha is a fermented beverage containing organic acids by yeast and acetic acid bacteria. In this study, microbial community analysis of kombucha produced in Korea was performed, and changes in components during kombucha fermentation were analyzed using commercial kombucha pellicle and culture broth as starter. The major phylum-level strains of commercial kom-1 and kom-2 showed differences in proteobacteria of 35.60% and 78.1%, and Firmicutes of 64.06% and 15.57%, respectively. During fermentation with pellicle (Kom-P) and broth (Kom-F), the level of reducing sugar during fermentation tended to decrease rapidly. The production of acetic acid and D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL) in Kom-P and -F tended to increase with increasing fermentation time. In Kom-P, lactic acid and glucuronic acid production increased until 7 days of fermentation and then decreased, whereas in Kom-F, it continued to increase with fermentation time. ABTS radical scavenging activity tended to decrease with increasing fermentation time. However, DPPH radical scavenging activity increased within 7 days of fermentation and then decreased slightly (Kom-P) or remained constant (Kom-F). It has been found that the use of culture broth rather than the use of pellicle as a starter is advantageous to increase the active compound content and DPPH radical scavenging ability.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Whey protein is preferred in sports nutrition because of its rich essential amino acids and protein digestibility rate compared to other protein sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the amino acid content and in vitro protein digestibility of whey protein supplements and evaluate their protein quality using the in vitro protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) method. The amount of amino acids were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the protein digestibility was determined by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract. A high levels of glycine and very low levels of cysteine were detected in some samples. The ratio of glycine in 4 out of 14 samples ranged between 7.4 and 40.3%. The ratio of essential amino acids and branched chain amino acids in all samples were less than the reference protein. The in vitro protein digestibility of whey proteins ranged from 50.4 to 79.6%, which was very low compared with the values indicated in the literature. The PDCAAS values of whey proteins were very low and ranged from 0.08 to 0.71 in the samples. Based on these results, manufacturers should revise their processing techniques in order to provide high quality whey protein.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To study the purification conditions of polysaccharide from Solanum nigrum L. by S-8 macroporous adsorption resin. The effect of multi-factors on the purification of polysaccharide from Solanum nigrum were studied by static - dynamic adsorption and desorption methods with indexes of adsorption and desorption rates. The optimized purification process condition was as follows: the concentration of sample was 5 mg/mL, pH level was 7.0, temperature was 30 °C, the adsorption velocity was 0.5 mL/min, the maximun loading amount was 10 BV, 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution 5BV was used as eluent, elution flow rate was 4 mL/min. With this condition, the purity of Solanum nigrum polysaccharide was 91.00%, which was 1.989 times higher than before. S-8 macroporous resin can be used to separate and purify the solanum nigrum polysaccharide and improve the purity and quality of polysaccharides.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To study the effect of okra aqueous extract on the intestinal flora of diabetic rats. Taking normal SD rats as CK group, diabetic rats induced by 40 mg/(kg•bw) streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally as M group, normal and diabetic rats gavaged with 500 mg/(kg•bw) okra aqueous extract were CKO and MO groups,respectively. The bacterial flora of the cecum contents of rats was analyzed with 16S rRNA V3-V4 sequencing after 8 weeks of the experiment. Compared with CK, M increased Firmicutes 14.00% and decreased Proteobacteria 19.32% (P <0.01). Compared with M, MO down-regulated Lachnospiraceae 2.64% (such as Blautia, Anaerostipes), up-regulated Peptostreptococcaceae 1.20% in Firmicutes, and down-regulated Desulfovibrioceae 3.78% (such as Desulfovibrio) and up-regulated Burkholderia 5.24% (such as Parasutterella) in Proteobacteria. It is worth noting that MO up-regulated Christensenellaceae (LDA>4), which was negatively correlated with body mass index, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome. The okra aqueous extract reverses the changes of the intestinal flora of STZ-induced diabetic rats, which decreased Firmicutes and increased Proteobacteria by down-regulating Lachnospiraceae and Desulfovibrionaceae, up-regulating Burkholderiaceae, Christensenellaceae. The okra aqueous extract has the potential as a functional food with regulating intestinal microecology balance of diabetes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the drying system using a dryer with furnace automatically fed with eucalyptus chips and another dryer manually fed with eucalyptus firewood, as well as assessing the quality of corn grains. Harvest was mechanically performed and the grains were transported by trucks to the storage unit for drying. Corn grain drying was conducted in mixed-flow dryers with a nominal capacity of 100 tons per hour. For air heating, two direct-fired furnaces were used, one automatically fed with eucalyptus chips and the other manually fed with firewood. Corn grains were evaluated for moisture content, apparent specific mass, thousand-grain weight, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), electrical conductivity and color. Drying corn grains with direct fire using firewood or chips as fuel causes contamination by PAHs. In general, the use of firewood or chips did not influence the quality of thousand-grain weight, apparent specific mass and color, while the use of chips increased electrical conductivity. It is essential that research advances in this subject, prioritizing the contamination of food, with proven carcinogenic activity, which should be treated as a high risk to public health.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Honey has a remarkable commercial value as a natural product for producers. This study aimed to examine the differences in the physicochemical properties of the flower honey produced in Kastamonu, a province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, in different years to see if they changed and if the physicochemical properties met the quality standards for honey. To this end, the honey samples (Apis mellifera) produced in Kastamonu province were studied. The samples were collected from 40 producers of honey between 2016 and 2019. We carried out the quality analysis according to the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on Honey and compared it with the EU standards. The results showed that fructose/glucose ratio, total fructose and glucose (%), diastase (shade), proline (mg/kg), electrical conductivity (ms/cm), HMF (mg/kg), and acidity (meq/kg) did not change during four years while the moisture content differed significantly. In other words, the quality of the studied samples remained stable in four years. The majority of the studied honey samples obtained from the Black Sea Region of Turkey were compatible with the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on Honey and the EU standards.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This article focuses on increasing the shelf life of both pasteurized (Pa) and traditional (Tr) butters wrapped in Ag-Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) film in concentration of 2.5%, 7.5%, 12.5%, and 17.5% at refrigerated temperature up to one month. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized (20.63 nm) through the chemical reduction followed by the melt mixing method to produce Ag-LDPE films. A mixed model-ANOVA Repeated Measurement presented that total bacteria, S. aureus and E. coli were eliminated from the Pasteurized butter samples wrapped with 17.5% Ag/LDPE films. In comparison, psychrophilic bacteria can be eradicated by 2.5-17.5% Ag/LDPE films after 30d. Peroxide value showed a slight fall from 0.50 and 0.28 meq/kg, respectively for Pa and Tr butters on the 1st day in the control group to 0.31 and 0.24 meq/kg, respectively in the butter wrapped with 17.5% Ag-LDPE film at the end of the storage with no significant difference (p > 0.05) with other treatments. Iodine value was decreased after 30d. It is concluded that the use of 17.5% Ag/LDPE as a coating of butter can safely preserve pasteurized butter at least a month.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Fish meats comprise an important part of diets; however, their rich nutrient composition and various sources mean these products can be spoiled quickly. The present study assessed the chemical and microbiological quality of imported chilled, frozen, and locally cultured fish in Saudi Arabian markets. Physiochemical, heavy metal, and microbial analysis were performed for 50 samples of fish from three sources. The results indicated that locally cultured fish were of better quality than imported fish. All of the locally cultured fish samples were under the limit of total volatile basic nitrogen TVB-N (30 mg/100 g) for fish, while 22.73% and 7.16% of frozen imported and chilled imported fish respectively were over TVB-N limit. Furthermore, chemical and microbial contamination in some fish samples exceeded the recommended permissible levels. We conclude that there was poor sanitation practice and unsuitable conditions during the production and handling processes of fish.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is one of the significant medicinal and aromatic plants and used as the source of food additives, natural dyestuffs, healthy beverages and cosmetics in various countries. In this study, extracts of three safflower genotypes (Remzibey-05, Dincer 5-18-1, and Arizona SC III) were prepared and examined for the first time in terms of their total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities using radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) and copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays after subjecting them to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Additionally, the antibacterial potential of the flower extracts was determined. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in antioxidant activities between the extracts of the different genotypes of safflower; the highest antioxidant activity was observed in Remzibey-05, while the phenolic content reached its maximum in Arizona SC III. After gastric digestion (PG), in comparison to the initial values, significantly lower recovery levels of TPC (5-8%), DPPH (11-39%) and CUPRAC (7-15%) were observed for the safflower extracts. The highest inhibition zone was observed in the Dincer 5-18-1 extract applied against Listeria monocytogenes. The results showed that the extracts of the safflower genotypes displayed potent antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and the safflower extracts were important in terms of the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To explore the gene expression profiling in gazami crab’s hepatopancreas and gill tissues which were challenged with CuO-NPs. Specimens of gazami crab P. trituberculatus were collected and challenged with CuO-NPs, then their hepatopancreas and gill tissues were dissected for RNA extraction. The cDNA libraries were synthesized and sequenced. De novo assembly of crab transcriptome was conducted for gene expression quantification and differential expression analysis. Finally the results were validated by RT-PCR. 56 unigenes displayed differential expression pattern in CuO-NPs treated hepatopancreas tissue. and 273 unigenes displayed differential expression pattern in CuO-NPs treated gill tissue. The gene expression pattern between control and CuO-NPs treated hepatopancreas was very closed to each other, while the gene expression pattern between control and CuO-NPs treated gill was more distinct. 13 genes were mutually exclusive to participate, and he data generated from RNAseq was well consistent with those obtained from RT-PCR. CuO-NPs could induce toxic effects in crab gills as well as in genetic level and the 13 genes might be the potential marker genes for CuO-NPs toxicology.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study assessed the effect of different concentrations of (Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum) on lipid oxidation, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of four different formulations of fresh pork sausage and smoked (control, F1, F2, F3), with the substitution of industrial antioxidant for the natural one. Lipid oxidation values (TBARS) did not display significant differences (P>0.05) among the treatments, and at different times of analysis (storage). The only significant differences were between the different types of sausages (fresh and smoked). The enumeration of all the microorganisms searched was below the standard required by Brazilian laws. F2 formula received the highest scores for acceptance but did not display significant difference (P>0.05) as it refers to taste, with the remaining formulations. The substitution of the synthetic antioxidant by the natural one displayed similar results, demonstrating that the natural extract from the balloon pepper does not affect the technological and sensorial properties of the sausages, which proves the viability of the product.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The drying is one of the stages of processing Brazil nuts, being an important stage due to the high moisture content and water activity of the product. This study aimed to adjust mathematical models to the drying kinetics data of Brazil nuts, calculating the effective diffusion coefficient and obtaining activation energy for the drying process. Brazil nuts were collected in amazon region, and then the product was homogenized for processing. The nuts were subjected to drying in a forced ventilation oven at temperatures of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C in 4 replicates, each one consisting of approximately 200 g of samples in aluminum containers. Mathematical models were adjusted to the experimental data of the moisture content ratio. Thompson, Midilli, Logarithmic and Two Terms models are suitable for estimating the drying of Brazil nuts. The Two Terms model was selected to represent the drying phenomenon for presenting better results in the analyzed parameters. The effective diffusion coefficient increased with increasing temperature and the activation energy for the liquid diffusion in the drying was 35.69 kJ mol-1.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Freeze concentration process was used to concentrate milk until the third stage of freeze concentration. Thus, two samples of ice creams were manufacture, one with milk and the other with concentrated milk from the first stage of block freeze concentration, and denominated ice cream 1 and ice cream 2, respectively. Both ice creams were characterized according to physicochemical characteristics, overrun, microscopy, melting rate, texture, color, and rheological properties. The use of concentrated milk influenced the physicochemical properties of ice cream 2, promoting an increase in the total solids, protein, carbohydrates, and ashes content. Moreover, it was noted that ice cream 2 had a higher overrun, lower firmness, smaller ice crystals, and tended to color greenish and yellowish, however had a higher melting rate and larger hysteresis area. The models of the Power Law and Casson satisfactorily described the rheological behavior of ice creams, which proved to be a Newtonian fluid.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study’s main highlight to the effect of replacement of milk by different proportions of concentrated whey in the elaboration of ice creams and the characterization of their physicochemical and microstructural properties. Ice creams have high levels of total solids, acidity, and low pH values. All ice creams exhibited Newtonian fluid behaviors while the Power and Casson Law model adequately explained the flow properties. Viscosity and hysteresis area increased as a higher ratio of concentrated whey was added. Ice cream formulations containing a higher proportion of milk showed greater brightness, the ice creams showed a greenish-yellow coloring tendency. The overrun values ranged from 27 to 44%, and ice cream with partial replacement of milk by concentrated whey showed greater resistance to melting. The addition of concentrated whey did not influence the size of the ice crystals, fat globules, and air bubble diameters. However, the higher total solids content influenced the texture of the ice creams, promoting smoother and creamy ice creams. These results highlight the application of concentrated whey on the 50% substitution level, thus being an attractive alternative for the food industry, mainly about the cost-benefit and added value to the product, by enhancing the color, flavor, and texture.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The most important microorganisms contaminating milk, such as staphylococci, exert their influence by producing toxins and biogenic amines (BA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of cell-free supernatants (CFS) related to the probiotic strains of Lactococcus lactis and Bifidobacterium bifidum on the expression of BA-producing genes, histamine decarboxylase, and tyramine decarboxylase in staphylococci isolated from milk. Staphylococci isolates of cow raw milk were identified and isolated using standard methods. Samples containing these strains were analyzed by HPLC for BA production. Bacteria with target genes were treated with L. lactis and B. bifidum CFS, and the expression of target genes was measured by Real time PCR. Generally, 60 strains of Staphylococcus were isolated, and 90% of strains had HDC and TDC genes in genome. The levels of BAs were significantly higher on the second and third days after sampling compared with the first day (p <0.02). The analysis RT-PCR indicated that the under expression of target genes was statistically significant (P<0.05). This study showed that the use of probiotic bacteria can reduce the production of these amines and increase the quality of milk through reducing the expression of tyramine and histamine producing genes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Korean traditional grain syrup (Jocheong) is prepared by removing moisture from saccharified-starch suspensions. The addition of ginger (0-6.4%) to grain syrup did not change the solid content (moisture content) or sugar content. The grain syrup resulted in increased Mn, P, Zn, Na, Mg, Ca, and P contents upon addition of ginger. The ginger-added grain syrup had increased total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities, compared with normal grain syrup. Staphylococcus aureus exhibited slight growth inhibition in medium containing ginger-supplemented grain syrup and the fungi did not grow at all on ginger (3.2%)-added grain syrup during 6 days of incubation. The addition of ginger may contribute to improving the nutritional quality of grain syrups, enhancing health functions and extending the storage period.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Changes in the population's eating habits have expanded the French fries market. However, the need for refrigerated storage to supply sprouts and maintain a constant supply to the industry has led to a reduced number of cultivars suitable for processing due to the accumulation of sugars and browning after frying. Because of this, the objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the Donata and BRS F132 cultivars for use in the pre-fried potato processing industry. The tubers were stored at 6 and 8 °C for up to 180 days and the analysis of sprouting, total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugar (RS), non-reducing sugar (NRS), post-frying color by scale visual color used by the industry and L* and b* parameters. The sprouting was higher at 8 °C and in the BRS F 132 cultivar. The sugar content was high in both cultivars, however, the color remained adequate. It is concluded that the Donata and BRS F132 cultivars are suitable for the potato processing industry, and Donata presented better quality parameters. Conditioning at 8 °C is recommended in both cultivars that maintained the quality for 180 days.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Shewanella and Pseudomonas are considered to be the main spoilage bacteria for chilled fish. This work focused on the spoilage and adhesion ability of two spoilage bacteria (Shewanella spp. S-1 and Pseudomonas spp. P-1), and the adhesion inhibitory effects of Bacillus subtilis against the spoilage bacteria in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). We aimed to develop a feasible solution to prolong the shelf life of large yellow croaker. The spoilage and adhesion characteristics of Shewanella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. strains were compared. It was found that Shewanella spp. induced more significant spoilage of large yellow croaker than Pseudomonas spp. at low temperature in vitro. In addition, Shewanella spp. demonstrated stronger adhesion to the intestinal mucus than Pseudomonas spp. in vitro. The results of a one-week feeding experiment showed that Shewanella was more likely to adhere to large yellow croaker intestines than Pseudomonas. The supplementation of B. subtilis strain BS08 effectively inhibited the proliferation of Shewanella and slowed the spoilage process of large yellow croaker.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production and antioxidant activity during fresh cheese processing with single and co-fermentation processes of the high-GABA producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum L10-11. For a mini-batch of fresh cheese, milk with 0.1% monosodium glutamate was fermented for 18 h and GABA production was monitored by thin layer chromatography and ion chromatography. GABA could be detected in co-L10-11 at 12 h of fermentation and at greater amounts after 18 h. The 18 h fermented milk of co-L10-11 and single-L10-11 contained GABA at 11.30 and 1.21 mg/100 mL, respectively, while GABA was not detected in the control. After whey separation, GABA remained in the cheese curd portion, resulting in 14.91 mg/100 g being found in the co-L10-11 cheese curd. ABTS antioxidant and metal chelating activities significantly increased during 18 h of fermentation and were retained in the cheese curd in the range of 783.11-922.00 μmol TE/kg and 216.71-266.98 μmol EDTA equivalents/kg cheese, respectively. Moreover, there were no significant difference in the textural characteristic between co-L10-11 and the control cheese curd. These results suggested that Lb plantarum L10-11 could be exploited as adjunct to improve health-promoting effects of the GABA in fresh cheese.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of different drying methods on the drying kinetic, total bioactive content, in-vitro bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, and color and microstructural properties of pomegranate arils. Drying methods significantly affected all selected parameters of dried pomegranate arils (P<0.05). Freeze-drying (FD) showed higher bioactive compounds, lower shrinkage, and better color quality than those of other samples. Ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying (UAVD) showed lower drying times, lower shrinkage, and higher bioactive compounds than vacuum drying (VD) and hot air drying (HAD). The ABTS, CUPRAC, and DPPH results were 34.53-63.71 μmol TE/g, 29.70-61.60 μmol TE/g and 64.82-93.69% DPPH radical scavenging activity, respectively. Also, the highest values of antioxidant capacity for all methods were obtained from the samples dried with FD followed by UAVD, VD, and HAD. The recovery of TPC in dried and fresh samples changed from 2.58% (fresh pomegranate) to 10.32% (vacuum-dried pomegranate). The recovery of TPC for freeze-dried samples (2.62%) was closest to the fresh ones and VD showed the highest TPC recovery. This study suggested that UAVD and VD should be used as alternative methods to HAD due to higher bioactive compounds retention, better color and surface quality, and higher recovery of bioactive compounds.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The segment of isotonic beverages has been expanding its market, introducing new flavors and meeting the growing demand for new products. Cajuína, a drink for which Piaui holds a geographical indication certificate, was used in the development of a new sports drink. This work aimed to evaluate the shelf life of isotonic cajuína beverages conditioned at room temperature and under refrigeration, by analyzing the physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological parameters. The analyzed samples had stable pH (< 3.0), titratable total acidity (0.18 g/100 mL), and °Brix (6.1 °Brix), and presented an acceptable soluble solids total/total titratable acidity (SST/ATT) ratio during storage. There was a vitamin C reduction of 83.3% and 75.27% from the initial amount in the beverage samples stored at room temperature and under refrigeration, respectively. Sensory analysis using the 9-point hedonic scale indicated good acceptance of the sports drink, and good buying intention. The sports drink also demonstrated high microbiological quality, with the absence of total coliforms, E. coli, molds, yeasts and Salmonella sp. The data from the stability study indicated that the isotonic cajuína drink retains its quality and safety, and can thus be consumed, for up to 150 days of storage.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of koumine on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Koumine was extracted from Gelsemium Elegans Benth. The CIA model was established in Balb/c mice. Forty successfully modeled mice were randomly divided into model group and 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg koumine groups, 10 mice in each group. Another 10 normal mice were selected as control group. The 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg koumine groups were treated with 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg koumine, respectively, for three successive weeks. At the end of treatment, compared with model group, in 4 and 8 mg/kg koumine groups the arthritis index was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the peripheral blood interleukin-17 level and T helper 17 (Th17) cell percentage were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the peripheral blood interleukin-10 level and regulatory T (Treg) cell percentage were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the spleen tissue RORγt protein expression level was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the spleen tissue Foxp3 protein expression level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, koumine has therapeutic effect on CIA in mice. The mechanism may be related to its regulating the RORγt/Foxp3 expressions, thus correcting the Th17/Treg immune imbalance.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To observe the influence of thalidomide on tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) of spontaneous type-2 diabetes rat (kk-Ay rat) model, and to explore the clinical value of TNF-a mediated inflammation approach to improve the injury on epithelial cell of kidney tubules. There are 30 kk-Ay rates being chosen to establish the Diabetic Nephropathy model and divided into thalidomide group and the model control group, 15 pieces for each group respectively. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, interleukin -6 (IL-6) and interleukin -18 (IL-18) of kk-Ay in the thalidomide group and the model control group were both at a higher level before treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0.05); The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, interleukin -6 (IL-6) and interleukin -18 (IL-18) in kk-Ay rats 8/10/12 weeks after the treatment in the thalidomide group were significantly decreased, with statistically significant differences compared with the model control group (P < 0.05). The histopathological changes of kidney tubules epithelial cell injury on rats were observed through dissection. Thalidomide will effectively lower TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels in kk-Ay rat models, reduce inflammatory response, and thus improve damage on kidney tubules epithelial cell, which is worthy of further exploration and application.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Worldwide, there are a large number of retailers in popular markets offering fresh orange juice, which is preferred for its nutritional and health value. Incorrect management during the preparation, the presence of pests, and inadequate environmental conditions can affect the microbiological quality of the juices sold in popular markets and can even make them a reservoir for enteropathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and presence of enteropathogenic bacteria in freshly prepared orange juice sold in popular markets, by quantifying the fungi, yeasts, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and total and fecal coliforms. The fecal colonies were subjected to tests to confirm the presence of enteropathogenic bacteria. The results showed that none of the juice sold at popular markets had fungi, while all of them had yeasts, mesophilic bacteria, and total coliforms, and only 14% did not present fecal coliforms. The identification of the fecal bacteria was positive for E. coli and Salmonella. The microbiological quality of the orange juices sold in popular markets needs to be improved, since the high microbial load makes them a health risk.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To isolate and characterize anti-tumor compounds through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of ethyl acetate extract of R. japonicus Houtt root and their cytotoxic effects were evaluated in terms of measuring inhibition of growth of three cancer cell lines: human hepatoma cells (HepG2), cerebral glioma cells (U251) and ovarian carcinoma cells (SK-OV-3/DDP). The roots of R. japonicus Houtt were extracted with ethanol, and partitioned with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract was separated chromatographically using macroporous resin, positive and negative phase silica gel and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data. Ten compounds were isolated form the ethyl acetate extract of R. japonicus roots. Their structures were determined as emodin (1), chrysophanol (2), aloe emodin (3), physcion (4), quercetin (5), resveratrol (6), β-sitosterol (7), 3β-acetoxy-28-hydroxyurs-12-ene (8), sucrose (9) and dibutyl phthalate (10). Among of them, compounds 1, 3, 4, 6 and 8 exhibited highly significant (p<0.05) cytotoxicities against HepG2 to a certain extent. Compounds 3-6 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against U251 with IC50 values of 19.8, 23.5, 23.8 and 17.8 µM, respectively. Compounds 1, 2 and 7 also exhibited cytotoxicities against U251 to a certain extent with IC50 values of 48.3, 50.1 and 85.3 µM, respectively. Compounds 1-6 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against (SK-OV-3/DDP) with IC50 values of 62.8, 64.2, 31.3, 61.0, 47.4 and 42.0 µM, respectively.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To explore and analyze the pain characteristics and countermeasures to improve intraoperative pain for patients with temporomandibular joint disorder during treatment of orthodontics. The patients were randomly divided into control group and the observation group. The control group received routine nursing. It is found in the study that the occurrence of pain in orthodontic treatment is accompanied by certain regular changes, and there is little difference between the proportion of masticatory pain and occlusal pain. In the observation group, the total clinical effective rate increased after nursing (P<0.05. The VAS pain score of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group 4h and 8h after nursing intervention was implemented, and the duration of pain symptoms was significantly shorter than that of the control group, with significant statistical difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The targeted nursing intervention for patients with temporomandibular joint disorder undergoing orthodontic treatment based on their characteristics will shorten the pain time of patients effectively and improve the treatment effect, maintaining significant application value.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This work aimed to show heterogeneities in shelf life of table grapes from a same batch during road refrigerated transportation. The monitoring of temperature and relative humidity of air was done with a wireless sensor network strategically distributed among grapes boxes and pallets. The ambient conditions and time of exposure were associated with a linear predictive model of water loss in order to estimate fruits shelf life. Results showed that the loss of dynamic life of grapes varied according to the box position on different pallets within the refrigerated transport vehicle, due to differences in the conditions that fruits were exposed to. It was observed high heterogeneity in shelf life of the evaluated batch of grapes during transportation, with differences of 71 days between grape boxes. With that, one can conclude that these differences must be taken into account in the following stages of grapes cold chain.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts of lotus rhizome with different solvent by gradient extraction was determined. The extraction yield and total phenolic content of extracts were determined. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid assay were conducted to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Results showed that the yield of butanol extract was the highest. The order of total phenolic content in different extracts was as follows: water extract < petroleum ether extract < chloroform extract < butanol extract < ethyl acetate extract, the same with that of the DPPH scavenging activity. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with DPPH scavenging activity (R2 = 0.9363). All extracts, except water extract with too poor antioxidant activity, showed obvious antioxidant activity against β-carotene-linoleic acid, and the antioxidant activity of butanol extract was significantly lower than others. There was no significant correlation between the antioxidant activity against β-carotene-linoleic acid and the total phenolic content (R2 =0.1995).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aims to find out the optimum treatment of the feed moisture in porang glucomannan (PGM), and Ca(OH)2 in the production of the restructured rice using a pasta extruder. Feed moisture (35-45%), PGM (3-7%), and Ca(OH)2 (0.04-0.10%) were the independent variables, while the water absorption index (WAI), the water soluble index (WSI), whiteness, and hardness were responses using a response surface methodology (RSM). Data were analyzed for the chemical components, the 3D surface, the microstructure, the cooking characteristics, and the estimated glycemic index (eGI). The results reported that the WAI and WSI ranged from 2.904 to 3.99 g/g and 2.018 to 3.302%, respectively, whereas whiteness and hardness ranged from 72.83 to 85.02 and 4.921 to 7.537 kgf. The chemical components, the cooking characteristics, and the eGI of the optimum restructured rice PGM reported a significant difference when they were compared to milled rice. The result of the 3D surface of the optimum restructured rice with PGM is similar to milled rice which is seen to be like a convex shape.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Kombucha can be produced by coculture of a consortium of bacteria and fungi in a sweetened black tea. Determining the type of microbial population as well as their survival is important because they lead to beneficial and sensory properties of the product. In this study, microorganisms were isolated from kombucha and identified using culture and molecular methods and vacuum dried. Also total phenol content, and antioxidant properties of beverage were characterized. Microorganism viability and sensory evaluation was conducted by flow cytometery and a 5-point hedonic test before and after drying. 8-isolated species were recorded in NCBI. Lactobacillus and Kumagataeibacter and Weissella spp. were the bacterial species, while Starmella bacillaris and Hanseniaspora uvarum were the 2-yeast species identified in kombucha beverage. Microbial count increased from 3.59% on the start day to 96.6% on day 14. The results of sensory evaluation show that, in general, the produced kombucha drink was accepted by the evaluators. The highest score for overall acceptance on day 14 was equal to 4.6. Starmella bacillaris and Hanseniaspora uvarum were first isolated from kombucha with enhanced antioxidant properties. These strains, together with yeast are recommended for use in beverage fermentation processes to production of bioactive compounds.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Resistant starch (RS) has gained interesting because of its health benefits as the control of diseases, such as diabetes. Modifications in starches have been applied in order to increase RS content and consequently the range of industrial food applications. The heat-moisture treatment (HMT) combined with the addition of organic acids was the aim of this study, and also to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and other properties of corn starches. In both botanical sources, the RS content increased significantly, for the normal type and the waxy. Among organic acids used, citric, followed by lactic and acetic acid, promoted the most evident alterations and showed promising results in the increasing of RS. The results obtained by this combined method open opportunities for further applications in functional foods as well as starch based encapsulation process.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of select spices and herbs added to cooked rice in the growth of Bacillus cereus. The results showed the actual role of herbs and spices as food flavoring ingredients rather than acting as a preservative agent. Herbs and spices extracts were added to rice before and after the cooking process, then observed the differences in Bacillus cereus growth. From all herb and spices extract used, clove was the most effective one against B. cereus. It provided a good zone of inhibition, while the others did not have similar effects. The ethanolic extracts for all tested herbs and spices at concentrations of 50-200 µg/mL showed good activity in media. The zone of inhibition was from 10 to 25 mm in diameter. Rice with Spiced/herbs was inoculated with 108 spores of B. cereus then the growth of B. cereus vegetative cells was detected at different temperature. As the result showed no different in the growth of B. cereus, We concluded that the temperature for rice cooking/reheating has main effect on the control of B. cereus cells while herbs and spices can be used only for flavor with no role in controlling the contamination in rice.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Introduction In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between the I/D gene polymorphism of ACE and the risk of AF in Chinese population. Materials and methods: Studies searched in several databases from beginning to July 2019 were included in our study. After screening by evaluation, thirteen articles were selected. Results: Our results showed that I/D gene polymorphism of ACE increased the risk of AF. The stratified analyses by case types and control sources suggested a markedly increased association in lone AF, hypertensive patients with AF, and un-typed AF, as well as in studies with hospital person and healthy person. The stratified geographical analysis indicated the risk of AF increased significantly in North China. Conclusions: All in all, our results indicated the marked relationship between I/D gene polymorphism of ACE and the increased risk of AF in Chinese population.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To investigate the expression and variation of MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 in mice with bloodstream infection caused by four types of bacteria. ICR mouse models of bloodstream infection with Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp) were established. Mice were infected by bacteria for 0.5h, 1h, 3h, 6h, 12h, 24h and 48h, while mice in control group was injected with PBS. MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 in serum were detected by Luminex xMAP assay and were compared among different groups at different time points. MIP-1β increased significantly after bacteria were injected for each time point (p < 0.05). MIP-1β and MIP-2 in Ec and Kp groups were significantly higher than those in Sa and Ef groups (p < 0.01). IL-12p40 peaked at 3h after injection and remained at high level for12h in four groups. IL-12p70 in Sa group increased significantly and reached the maximum value 6h after infection, while in the other three groups, it increased significantly 3h after infection (P < 0.05).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To evaluate the liver stiffness measurement (LSM) of normal people before and after diet using real-time shear wave elastography (SWE), and to explore the effect of diet on liver elasticity. Fifty-four healthy volunteers were selected and 480 mL of a standard diet containing 391 kcal were administrated. The LSM before diet and at 30 minutes after diet was significantly higher than baseline LSM. The LSM at 60 minutes after diet was significantly higher than that before diet. The LSM at 120 minutes after diet was significantly less than that before diet. 75% of the volunteers reached the peak of liver stiffness at 30 minutes or 60 minutes after diet. The LSM increased by more than 20% in 31% subjects, increased by less than 20% in 48%, and remained or decreased in 21%. The blood flow volume of portal vein was 692.02 ± 130.69 mL/min before diet, and it reached the maximum value of 776.41 ± 151.45 mL/min at 30 min after diet. Diet could affect the Young’s modulus measurement of liver. In order to avoid the effect, it is suggested to use real-time shear wave elastic imaging to measure the Young's modulus of liver on an empty stomach.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Cloudy apple juice (CAJ) is popular due to its potential health benefits and pleasant flavor. However, the common used sterilization methods of CAJ by High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) or high-temperature short time (HTST) still showed many inadequacies. The present work studied the impact of HHP (400MPa/10 °C/10 min) and HTST (98 °C/50s) on CAJs made from a new cultivar Changfu 2 planted in Loess plateau area. We comparatively evaluated the microbes inactivation, enzymatic activity, phytochemical parameters, and sensory quality after the HHP and HTST treatment and during the cold storage (4 °C). Results showed that during the cold storage, both HHP and HTST treated CAJ showed a declining trend in sensory attributes like aroma, taste and overall acceptability. HTST showed a higher killing rate of bacteria, and the CAJ was detected a higher diversity of microorganisms (expressed as OTU) during the cold storage. At the end of shelf-life, Rickettsia, oxyphotobacteria, and pseudomonas were detected as the dominant genera in both HHP and HTST treated CAJs. Spearman bivariate correlate analysis determined the relationship between the bacterial profiles and enzymatic activity, phytochemical parameters, and sensory quality after the HHP and HTST treatment.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Rapid, accurate, affordable, point-of-care tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic tests are essential for controlling TB. We aimed evaluate the diagnostic performance of tuberculous pleural effusion by combining medical thoracoscopy with blood interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA). Patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion measured by chest X-ray or ultrasound were prospectively enrolled in this study. Medical thoracoscopy, blood IGRA and pleural fluid ADA were conducted.A total of 154 patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion were enrolled. Among them, 98 patients (63.6%) were diagnosed as TPE. Patients in TPE+ groups were significantly younger. The diagnostic thresholds obtained via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were: ADA 23.4 U/L with AUC 0.91 (95% CI: 0.85-0.97, Figure 2) and IFN-γ 6.9 pg/mL with AUC 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82-0.93). By combining all three test together, we achieved sensitivity of 0.92, perfect specificity and NLR of 0.082. The AUC of the combination test was 0.96 (0.93-0.99), which was significant higher than any individual test (p < 0.001). The combination of medical thoracoscopy with Interferon-Gamma release assay and adenosine deaminase performs better than individual test in diagnosis TPE. The combination diagnosis has very high diagnostic rate, can be easily and safely carried out.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract A two-phase study was designed to investigate the effects of pH and salt concentration of washing solution on quality and yield of surimi from pearl mullet fillets and edible coatings on quality of the resultant surimi during cold storage. In the first phase, higher salt concentration increased gel strength of surimi and improved some other textural attributes. Surimi obtained by conventional method was found to be superior as higher yield, dry matter and protein contents were achieved. In the second phase of the study, surimi samples coated by 4 different coating formulations were stored at 4°C for 10 days along with fish mince and uncoated surimi as control. TVB-N values of coated samples were not significantly increased during storage while that of fish mince reached to 53.6 mg/100 g sample on the 7th day of storage. Acidity of all samples increased leading to lower ultimate pH values while ultimate pH of coated samples was not significantly different from that of control. In general, gelatin and chitosan based edible coatings were found not meaningfully effective in extending the shelf life of surimi under conditions studied and coating formulations used with while surimi itself showed prolonged shelf life compared to fish mince.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study, the effects of microwave power, vacuum degree and load weight on the moisture content of seedless white grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) during microwave vacuum drying were investigated. The result found that during microwave vacuum drying, the effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of seedless white grapes ranged between 1.0232 × 10−9 and 4.6354 × 10−9 m2/s. The Deff values increased with the increase in the microwave power and the decrease in the load weight, the vacuum degree played a relatively minor role. The kinetics of moisture ratio and drying time were established, with the drying process following the Page model, as reflected by the fitting between model-predicted and measured data. The Page model was demonstrated to precisely describe and predict the moisture content variation in seedless white grapes during microwave vacuum drying.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Flaxseed flour has gained popularity among consumers worldwide due to the various nutrients and bioactive compounds it contains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cooking yields, the nutritional value, and the sensory acceptability of fish burgers with an addition of flaxseed flour in different concentrations (5, 10, and 15%). The results showed that the cooking yields (79.2%) of the F0 (control) group was lower (p < 0.05) than the burger to which flaxseed four was added. The flaxseed addition had some effect on the nutritional value of the fish burgers. The flaxseed rates increased the protein, but the fat content did not change significantly. The control group had the highest moisture and the lowest ash. Fish burgers made with the addition of 15% flaxseed flour had the highest energy value and the lowest moisture. There was no statistically significant difference among the fish burger groups with respect to sensory properties. The general acceptability scores showed that the group with the most positive response was the one containing 10% flaxseed flour fish burgers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorella powder is a promising process to prepare high Fischer ratio oligopeptides (HFOPs). However, the relationship between Fischer ratios and enzymatic hydrolysis approaches remains poorly understood. In HFOPs production, directed enzymatic hydrolysis to release aromatic amino acids may be an effective way to increase Fischer ratio. The mutant carboxypeptidase from Aspergillus niger M00988 (cpAR), which has good specificity for hydrophobic amino acids in terminal peptidolysis, and commonly used papain and flavourzyme have been used to prepare HFOPs in this study. cpAR enzyme, flavourzyme The results show that the use of cpAR enzyme can increase the Fischer ratio. With chlorella powder as the raw material, alkaline protease and cpAR enzyme were used for two-step hydrolysis, and then activated carbon adsorption and ultrafiltration were used to prepare HFOPs. The Fischer ratio of oligopeptides reached 37.39, the length of the peptide chain was mainly distributed around 7-9 amino acids.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Malpighia emarginata D.C is an important crop of Brazil and significant source of antioxidant active compounds with notable health effects. The purpose of this work was to study three varieties of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C) at green unripe stage of maturity from the São Francisco Valley of Northeast Brazil. The fruits were evaluated for physico-chemical composition, bioactive compounds, through spectrophotometric analysis and liquid chromatography, as well as the profile of macro and micro minerals and antioxidant capacity. The fruits presented satisfactory results in physico-chemical quality parameters. HPLC-DAD phenolic profile analysis identified kaempferol-3-glucoside (32.68 mg/100 g), p-coumaric acid (28.87 mg/100 g) and isorhamnetin (11.41 mg/100 g) as the major compounds, mainly in the variety of Flor Branca (FB). The results obtained from the profiles of sugars and organic acids were similar among the varieties. The minerals were excellent sources of the elements of K, Ca, Mg and Mn. Moreover, FB variety represents higher antioxidant capacity in ABTS·+ (8613.54 μM Trolox/g) and ORAC (2454.42 μM Trolox/g). Thus, the results show the potential to be applied for variety selection and utilization programs based on their specific nutritive characters, contributing to the development of new products.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The method of microencapsulation has been performed on the probiotic microorganisms (Lactobacillus paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum), which are used in conjunction with the starter cultures in white cheese production from goat‘s milk. For this purpose, 3 types of microcapsules, namely, one containing the probiotic bacteria and another symbiotic microcapsule containing the probiotic bacteria and fructooligosaccharides have been obtained in the study and the cheese containing these microcapsules were produced. The cheese samples have been stored at +40C for 180 days and during storage, loss in viabiality that might be consisted at in-vitro conditions at gastrointestinal system is analyzed. The present study revealed that probiotic bacteria at different bile concentrations gained resistance during maturation, and the rate of resistance was higher in prebiotic and protein-supported microencapsulated probiotic bacteria. The resistance of lactic acid bacteria used in cheese production to gastric secretions was lower than that of probiotic bacteria. The determination of hydrophobicity of bacteria revealed that Bifidobacterium longum had the highest hydrophobicity level followed by Lactococcus, which forms the cheese culture, while Lactobacillus paracasei had the lowest level. It was determined that the microencapsulation method reduced the viability losses of probiotic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To investigate the function and mechanism of GINS complex subunit 2 (GINS2) in osteoblast and osteoclast in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SINFH). Clinical specimens were collected from 40 cases of SINFH patients and 40 cases of control patients. Then, SINFH mouse model was built. Immediately, osteoblasts and osteoclasts were induced and differented from the pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and the mononuclear macrophage cell line RAW264.7 of mice, respectively. The qRT-PCR assay was used for detecting the expressions of GINS2, p53 and growth arrest and DNA damage 45A (GADD45A). The cytoactive, proliferation and apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteoclasts of SINFH mice were measured by tartaric acid phosphatase staining, CCK-8 and Annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining, respectively. GINS2 was up-regulated while p53/GADD45A was down-regulated in femoral tissues in SINFH patients and mice. GINS2 was down-regulated while p53 and GADD45A were up-regulated in osteoblasts of SINFH mice, which presented opposite trends in osteoclasts formations. GINS2 decreased osteoblasts activities and increased osteoclasts activities, inhibited apoptosis and promoted proliferation in osteoblasts and osteoclasts via p53/GADD45A pathway. GINS2 affects activity/differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation of osteoblast and osteoclast in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head by regulating p53/GADD45A signaling pathway.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To study the exact effect of purple wheat (PW) on dyslipidaemia in rats so as to lay the foundation of a dietary therapy for hyperlipidaemia. A total of 42 rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal control group (NC) consisting of 12 rats were fed with standard diet in the whole testing process, the other group rats were fed with high-fat diet to induce dyslipidaemia. The dyslipidaemic rats were averagely divided into three groups: dyslipidaemia control group (DC) with 60% common wheat flour, PW1 group with diet containing 60% purple wheat Jizimai1 flour, PW3 group with 60% purple wheat Jizimai3 flour. Six weeks later, the weight-gain-ratio of the rats in PW1 and PW3 groups were lower as compared to the rats in DC and NC groups. Further, we found that the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in the PW1 and PW3 groups were significantly reduced to almost that of normal levels. Finally, the results of hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that intaking of Jizimai1 and Jizimai3 could repair hepatocyte steatosis and kidney injury due to dyslipidaemia. Purple wheat diet therapy reduced lipid metabolism disorders and the liver tissue and renal injury in hyperlipidaemic rats.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Breast milk is the best food for the baby and infant formula is an essential food for infants who are deprived of breast milk. There has been a lot of research on the optimization of infant formula that uses different milks. The composition of camel milk is close to human milk and is important in terms of nutritional properties, non-food allergy and medicinal value and therapeutic applications, and this can be an appropriate alternative to cow’s milk in infant formula. In the present study, the effect of replacing cow’s milk with camel’s milk in infant formula was investigated. The number of treatments was determined by using the Mixture Design method and the necessary tests were performed for infant formula and physicochemical and qualitative tests including moisture, dry matter, measurement of color parameters, density, particle size, insoluble index, pH, acidity, total sugar, fat, protein, ash, vitamin C, minerals, aflatoxin M1, wettability acceptable and scorched particles were done. The results showed that adding camel’s milk to cow’s milk could meet 87.3% of our expectations for the production of infant formula from camel’s milk and not have an adverse effect on the physicochemical properties of the formula.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Aroma attributes are one of the most important criteria that affect the flavor quality of dried shrimp, but the dynamic changes of aroma attributes remain largely unknown during the drying process. The present study investigated aroma attributes change during the hot-air-drying process of shrimp using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), electronic nose (E-nose) and sensory analysis. The potential correlations among volatile compounds, sensory attributes and E-nose data were analyzed by partial-least-squares regression (PLSR). Results showed that the aroma characteristic of shrimps changed significantly during processing. The odor in the fresh shrimp was very light, and the key aroma compounds mainly consisted of trimethylamine and three aldehydes. The aroma characteristics mainly consisted of roasted and meat-like odors had come into being gradually with the decrease of water activity (Aw), and the aroma attributes were the most acceptable at about Aw 0.274 (hot-air drying for 7 h). Four kinds of aroma-active compounds (pyrazines, amines, aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds) made important contributions to the formation of aroma characteristics. The PLSR result showed a good correlation between most variables of volatile compounds, E-nose data and sensory attributes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Minced fish (MF) is an interesting material for development of novel fish products; however, the mechanical deboning process interferes with MF quality, by increasing the lipid oxidation. This study reports the effect of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) hydro-ethanolic bark extracts as natural antioxidants on both washed and unwashed MF of broadband anchovy during six months of storage at -18 °C. Spray-dried cinnamon extract (DC) and spray-dried cinnamon extract using maltodextrin 10DE (DCM) as a carrier were evaluated in relation to antioxidant activity in vitro. DC and sodium erythobarte were added to both washed and unwashed MF at 0.25% (w:w), whilst DCM was added at 1.055% (w:w). The DC extract presented higher antioxidant activity in vitro compared to DCM extract. The addition of cinnamon extracts reduced the lipid oxidation in washed and unwashed MF compared with the controls. C. zeylanicum extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation in MF during the frozen storage and are alternatives for food industries that seek to meet the demand of consumers increasingly concerned with the consumption of healthy foods.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postural nursing intervention on patients with moderate pressure ulcers through posterior thoracolumbar incision and internal fixation. A total of 100 patients were divided into a control group and an experimental group. The satisfaction rate of nursing care, incidence of complications, hospital stay, incidence of pressure ulcers, and VAS score of pain before and after operation were recorded in the 2 groups. Compared with the control group, the patients in the experimental group has higher satisfaction rate, shorter hospitalization time, and lower incidence of pressure ulcers and complications (all P <0.05). The VAS score of the control group (2.83 ± 0.56) was higher than that in the experimental group ((1.28 ± 0.57) all P <0.05). Postoperative thoracolumbar vertebral incision and internal fixation surgery for patients with postural nursing intervention can not only improve the satisfaction rate of nursing, reduce the occurrence of complications, shorten the length of hospitalization, but also reduce the incidence of intraoperative pressure ulcers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Aortic dissection(AD) is a life-threatening disease due to a tear in the intimal layer of the aorta within the aortic wall. To compare diagnostic value and imaging of AD between computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 120 AD patients diagnosed were examined with 64-slice CT and 1.5 MRI, the imaging data of true and false lumen, intimal flap, intimal tear, mural thrombus and aortic calcification were compared. The intimal flap rate of CT and MRI was 81.7% and 100%, respectively; The intimal tear rate of CT and MRI was 68.3% and 83.3%, respectively; The rate of mural thrombus in CT and MRI was 26.7% and 54.2%, respectively; The rate of aortic calcification in CT and MRI was 62.5% and 18.3%, respectively; The number of patients with intimal tear lower than 1mm in CT and MRI was 5 and 0, respectively. Both CT and MRI can show the true and false lumen well, but the detection rate of intimal flap, intimal tear and mural thrombosis in MRI is significantly higher than that in CT, and the detection rate of aortic calcification and intimal tear<1mm in CT is higher than that in MRI.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To observe effect and safety of different doses of ketorolac tromethamine in patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) after hip arthroplasty. 60 hip arthroplasty patients injected with 0.5 mg/kg ketorolac tromethamine before anesthesia were randomly divided into group A, B and C in which the patients were injected 2, 3 and 4 mg/kg ketorolac tromethamine after operation respectively. Compared with group A, MAP and HR in group B and group C were lower at T1 (3 h after operation) and T2 (6 h after operation). In group A, MAP and HR at T3 (24 h after operation) and T4 (48 h after operation) were lower than at T1. Compared with group A, NRS scores of group B and C were significantly lower during the analgesia. Compared with group A, ramesay sedation scores in group B and group C were significantly higher at T1 and T2; Harris hip scores of group B and group C were significantly higher at T3 and T4; the total number of pushing PCA pump and dezocine dosage were significantly decreased in group B and group C. Preemptive analgesia combined with postoperative analgesia on patients after hip replacement was appropriate.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To investigate the characteristics of heart rate variability in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and the relationship between HRV parameters and inflammatory activity. Background: CD is a chronic inflammatory granuloma disease of the digestive tract. A total of 37 patients with CD and 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Demographic information, medication, and medical history were collected from questionnaires completed by all participants. HRV parameters was recorded by 5 min short-term heart rate variability analyzer. Inflammatory factors, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI), and anxiety and depression were assessed. The mean autonomic nerve function score was 72 in CD group, significantly lower than that in control group (75, P < 0.05). The equilibrium in CD group was strongly lower than that in control group (P = 0.001). CD subjects had lower autonomic nervous function compared with controls, which positively correlated with body mass index. Equilibrium was significantly lower among CD subjects, which negatively correlated with inflammatory markers C reactive protein and platelet count. Autonomic dysfunction was observed in CD subjects, mainly manifested as decreased equilibrium, which this inherent imbalance of autonomic function associated with active inflammation.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study was planned to determine in vitro glycemic indices of some traditional foods frequently consumed by Turkish nation and to evaulate their effects on nutrition. Glycemic indices of roasted chickpea, Turkish bagel, tarhana, bulgur, Turkish delight, baklava, pişmaniye and kadayıf species; white bread was taken as reference (70) and analyzed in vitro by taking digestive system model. Glycemic index of Turkish bagels and bulgur was high (> 70), medium (55-70) of tarhana and low (<55) of roasted chickpea. There was a significant relationship between the hydrolysis indices of Turkish Delight and other sweet foods and also glycemic indices (p <0.05). Absorption rates of all foods increased and reached the highest level in parallel with their hydrolysis indices after 3 hours. Turkish delight had the highest RAG (glucose released from starch and sugars within 20 min incubation), while RAG and RDS (rapidly digestible starch) of the roasted chickpea were low. Chickpeas with the lowest glycemic index according to their digestibility and effects on blood glucose should be recommended by nutrition professionals to provide glycemic control and controlled consumption of the delight with the highest glycemic index.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study, we investigated the differences between the gilthead bream fishes that live in cages and feed by fish feed (CF), had escaped from the cages and started to live in their natural medium (EF), and live in their natural medium and do not feed by fish feed (NF). We would like to demonstrate the micro pollutants and heavy metal residues in CF, EF and NF and reveal out the diversity in living in three different ambient conditions. We analyzed Mn, Cr, Zn, Sn, Ag, Hg, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb residues and p-p’-DDE, α-BHC, endosulfan-sulfate, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor, p-p’-DDD, p-p’-DDT, β-BHC, aldrin, cypermethrin, dieldrin ve endosulfan pesticides in three types of gilthead bream (CF, EF and NF) and also researched the heavy metal residues in the marine sample that provided from Guvercinlik Cove in three different time intervals by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Physical and chemical parameters of sea water samples were studied to reveal out the effect of fish feed between the regions. Heavy metal and organochlorine pesticides residues of gilthead bream muscle tissues from CF are remarkable higher than other regions when we evaluate the all results. The results show an indication of the significant health risks associated with the consumption of these contaminated fish in the cages. The morphology of gilthead bream fish liver tissue samples were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Wild edible plants are important nutrient contributors in the diet of populations both in rural and urban areas. Eastern Anatolia has high plant diversity, and many plants are widely used as traditional food and medicine. In this study, approximate compositions, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of twelve edible wild plants in Eastern Anatolia were investigated. L-ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and total phenolic contents of analyzed edible wild plants ranged from 1.03 to 10589.71 mg/kg dw, 88.70 to 1740.02 mg/kg dw, 25.00 to 700.20 mg β-car. eq./kg dw, and 444.14 to 2071.96 mg GA eq./kg dw, respectively. Chlorogenic and gallic acids were the most abundant phenolic acids in the plant samples. Rutin, quarcetin, kaempferol and luteolin were identified and quantified in the samples. Luteolin (15.98- 832.82 mg/kg dw) was identified in almost all tested plants (except Coriandrum sativum). The results showed that Arum conophalloides, Rumex tuberosus, Rheum ribes, Plantago lanceolata, Tragopogon longirostris, and Chenopodium album had high contents of different phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities. These plants are available for a short time of the year and in small quantities. Future studies should be focused on biological, functional and toxicological assays and finally for commercial production of these promising plants.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Percophis brasiliensis is a fish species appreciated as a fried appetizer at beachside kiosks of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The constant presence of helminth larvae in the viscera and serosa of individuals of the species has been the subject of complaints among local fish traders because of economic losses due to their repugnant aspect. Considering their hygienic-sanitary importance and significance for collective health, the presence of helminth larvae was investigated in 64 individual fish of P. brasiliensis purchased from Niterói fish markets in 2019. Cestodes, identified as larvae of Grillotia carvajalregorum, were found parasitizing the serosa of the stomach, mesentery and abdominal cavity. Nematodes, identified as third-instar larvae of Contracaecum sp., Terranova sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, H. fortalezae and Raphidascaris sp., were found parasitizing the stomach, intestine, liver, gonads, stomach serosa, mesentery and abdominal cavity. The highest parasitic indices were for G. carvajalregorum and H. deardorffoverstreetorum, with prevalences of 100% and 81.25%, mean intensities of 8.05 and 8.13, mean abundances of 8.05 and 6.61 and infection ranges of 1–131 and 1–42 specimens per host, respectively. Considerations about the zoonotic potential and hygienic-sanitary significance of these parasites are presented in order to increase food safety for consumers.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To seek a possibility of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L) DC) utilized as a food, the development of jack bean milk processing was investigated. The processing steps included boiling, soaking, grinding and heating. The raw beans, boiled beans, soaked beans, extracted liquid and separated solid were all freeze dried. Those samples were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, compared to those of the raw materials. The increase in TPC and TFC during bean boiling observed, and estimated due to the liberation of phenolics by the destruction of chemical bonds in cell matrix, physical destruction of the matrix by heat treatment observed by SEM results reported in this study. This mentioned that some phenolics existed as a bonded component. Decreasing of TFC was observed in the soaking step due to the migration of the compounds into soaking water. UHPLC-MS-MS based multivariate analysis showed grouping of phenolic compounds present in methanol extracts of the dried samples, mentioning its changes during processing. Kaempferol glucosides detected and quantified in this study, play an important role in the changes. The considerable concentrations of them in jack bean milk, lead to the development of functional drink.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is a plant with great importance in food security, especially in developing countries. Grown in more than 100 countries, it is nutritious and contains high levels of dietary fiber, minerals such as iron and vitamins A, B and C. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of two cultivars of yellow sweet potatoes Beauregard (biofortified) and Carrot (organic). The ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of raw, bleached and dried sweet potatoes at 40, 50 and 60 o C. The results showed that ORAC assay revealed the highest values for antioxidant activity in all conditions of Beauregard and cv. Carrot were tested. Both cultvars can be be use to elaborate functional products as supplements among others. contributing to the consumption of pro-vitamin A rich foods.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Malatya cheese is generally produced and consumed in Malatya province of Turkey.The starter culture is not used in the production of this cheese. It is traditionally made from raw cow or sheep milk or a mixture of them. This study aims to determine some characteristics parameters (the antioxidant activity, mineral composition, chemical, biochemical and textural properties) of Malatya cheese and therefore, 25 samples purchased from retail markets in Malatyawere analysed. The antioxidant capacity of the water-soluble extracts was detected using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) methods, mineral composition of samples prepared by dry ash method were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). This samples were generally different from each other according to the chemical, biochemical and textural properties; however, some interesting similarities were identified. Besides, the mineral compositions and antioxidant activities in cheese samples were determined higher than expected. In conclusions, the production method and ripening conditions may play a decisive effect on some basic properties of the cheeses investigated.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Many studies have examined the association between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) -L55M polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the results remained inconsistent. We therefore aimed to address this association by performing an updated meta-analysis in the Chinese population. The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched up to May 2020. The strength of statistical association was assessed with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of eight studies with 1826 CHD cases and 1817 controls were finally included in the analysis. In the overall and subgroup analyses by control sources and geographic areas, the results showed no significant associations with CHD among all analysis models. Furthermore, we performed the analysis by including or excluding the HWE-violating studies. The results suggested that the MM genetype were significantly associated with CHD in studies not consistent with HWE under recessive and dominant models. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the PON1 -L55M polymorphism may not be associated with CHD risk in the Chinese population. Further studies with strict selection of patients and controls in different ethnic populations will be required to clarify this finding.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Food safety means that food is non-toxic, non-hazardous, meets the nutritional requirements and does not pose any acute, subacute or chronic risks to human health. Food safety and hygiene management measures adopted by the competent authorities should be based on risk assessment. The fast proliferation of text-messaging-based mobile health (mHealth) initiatives offers a chance to enhance food quality awareness and dietary habits, especially among difficult groups. Text messaging may be used to successfully prevent or cure health problems in people and encourage good health through the use of high-quality meals. In both industrialized and developing nations, dietary practices such as frequent eating of nutrient-poor products (as unhealthy snacking) and unwillingness to consume green leafy fruit and vegetables limit micronutrient intake. In this study, we comprehensively reviewed the scientific literature on the impact of mobile health on sickness prevention control and promotion. This study focuses on the deployment of mobile health in communicable disease preventive measures, chronic illness management, and maternal healthcare to give a benchmark for mobile health intervention research in China, based on the features of existing literature.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Conventional culture media are expensive owing to their constituents. Thus, several studies have sought to develop and evaluate the efficacy of alternative, low-cost culture media, in most cases, using natural and easily accessible raw materials. The present study is a literature review, observing various formulations of culture media based on products of plant origin for the growth of microorganisms and production of microbial compounds of industrial interest. In most formulations, vegetable substrates, such as soy, certain beans, corn, and rice, were used in addition to hortofruticultural products. Compared to conventional media, the alternative culture media often present satisfactory results in terms of microbial growth efficiency and production cost.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Pitaya fruits have high senescence rates throughout their postharvest storage period. Additionally, studies have confirmed that melatonin plays a regulatory role in plant senescence. However, the involvement of melatonin in the postharvest senescence of fruits remains unclear. In this study, two cultivars of pitaya fruit, ‘Zihonglong’ and ‘Jinghonglong’, were treated with melatonin and then evaluated for characteristics of senescence while in storage for 10 days. The results showed that melatonin treatment delayed fruit senescence in both pitaya cultivars, as indicated by the inhibition of weight loss, decay incidence, relative membrane permeability, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as the maintenance of the total soluble solids and ascorbic acid contents and the reduced respiration intensity. In addition, melatonin treatment reduced the O2·- production rates, H2O2 contents, and lipoxygenase activities but enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in both pitaya cultivars. These results indicate that melatonin may contribute to delaying senescence in pitaya fruits. This study shows the potential of the use of melatonin in the postharvest storage of pitaya fruits, as well as other horticultural fruits.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to detect the volatile components in co-fermented fruit wines made by Lycium ruthenicum Murray (LRM) and wine grapes using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 52 kinds of volatile components were detected in the co-fermented fruit wines, more than those detected in commercially available Changyu dry red wine (30 kinds) and 0# wine (26 kinds) made by wine grapes in the laboratory. Esters (22 kinds) and alcohols (17 kinds) constituted a major proportion of co-fermented fruit wines, then followed by volatile acids, phenols, aldehydes and ketones. The relative intensity of aroma in the co-fermented fruit wines was greater than that of the Changyu wine and 0# wine, exhibiting a comprehensive fruit and floral aroma profile. Additionally, grape wines (containing Changyu wine and 0# wine) were distinguished from the co-fermented fruit wines (1#–9#), 1# wines distinguished from the other co-fermented fruit wines (2#–8#) in second layer of clustering, indicating that the composition of raw material and fermentation conditions were the main influencing factor in the attributes of volatile components. Overall, co-fermented fruit wines possess more advantages in composition of volatile components and aromas, which showed a richer volatile and aroma structures.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a pulse of great importance for food and feed due its high resistance to poor environmental conditions. However, it contains anti-nutritional factors and a neurotoxin, which is partially lost during soaking. A first approach to mass transfer during the soaking of grass pea was carried out by modeling the water uptake during soaking time using empirical mathematical models. The water uptake behavior was successfully described by the Peleg and the Exponential models, with these models showing several advantages when compared to the Mitscherlich and Page models. Both models estimated an increase of the equilibrium moisture content at temperatures between 50 °C and 100 °C, and detected an increasing effect of the area per volume ratio of the seed on the water uptake rate, but only at 75 °C and 100 °C. Additionally, grass pea presented a high true porosity, 13.651%, showing that it contains a large empty volume into which water can enter by capillary flow. Solids loss was observed to be high, varying from 18% at 25 °C to 44% at 100 °C for long soaking times, confirming that its effect in soaking cannot be neglected.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Some physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes of homemade and commercial yoghurts sold at 15 points of Van province in Turkey were determined. The average pH, titration acidity, dry matter, fat-free dry matter, syneresis and protein of homemade and commercial yoghurts were 4.02 and 4.08, 1.16 and 1.10%, 14.55 and 13.77%, 4.23 and 3.49%, 10.31 and 10.27%, 29.16 and 29.32 ml/100 g, 3.61 and 3.66%, respectively. In homemade and commercial yoghurts, the average number of yeasts and molds was 6.02 and 3.63 log cfu/g; the number of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was 7.98 and 7.78 log cfu/g; the number of S. thermophilus was 8.29 and 7.60 log cfu/g. In homemade and commercial yoghurts, the average appearance was 3.38 and 3.88, consistency was 3.01 and 3.61, odor was 3.73 and 3.89 and taste was 3.74 and 3.64.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Chocolate can be produced in plain, flavored and filled chocolate shapes. This study aimed to develop the filling material (ganache), which is one of the main ingredients of filled chocolate production, in chili taste. Firstly, for this purpose the production processes to be used were determined and different chili filled ganache were developed with, these fillings became the final product of control group (CG) ganache, powdered chili pepper (PCP) ganache and chili pepper seed oil (CPS) ganache filled chocolate. The consumable status of the produced chili ganache filled chocolate samples was determined by the sensory analysis and physicochemical analysis methods. All samples were stored for 30 days and analyzed at 0, 15 and 30 days. As a result of sensory analysis, it was found that CPS ganache filled chocolate samples were more preferable than PCP ganache filled chocolate samples in terms of color and brightness (p<0.05). When the samples were evaluated from the physicochemical point of view, it was determined that they have gained more hardness as of the 30th day, L* values (brightness) have decreased and b* values increased conversely. Viscosity measurement showed, CPS ganache has less viscosity compared to control group and PCP samples.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The intake levels of sugar and fats, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFs), trans-fatty acids (TFAs), and saturated fatty acids (SFAs), should be monitored to prevent the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Cereal-based bakery products are one of the significant sources of dietary fat and sugar intake throughout the world. This study evaluates the trend of fat and sugar in Iranian bakery products, focusing on saturated and TFAs and their implication for public health. In this regard, 132 industrial and traditional cereal-based-backed products were randomly collected from the Tehran market. The total fat, SFAs, TFAs, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and sugar of each bakery product were determined. The fatty acid compositions of these products were evaluated according to the direct methylation method. Our results indicated that total fat in Iranian bakery products ranged from 8.99±2.95% (sponge cake) to 24.92±7.86% (puffed product). Total sugar varied from 11.12±1.89% (pirashki) to 30.38±13.11% (funnel pastry). Among fifteen different types of bakery products, the highest TFAs and UFAs levels were detected in simple biscuits (0.52±0.50%) and (17.20±8.71%), respectively. The present study indicated that bakery products' sugar and fat content as risk factors of non-communicable diseases was not higher than those of other countries.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This work aimed to study the effect of citric acid and passion fruit albedo concentrations and pulp/sugar ratio in optimizing of jam production process of Pouteria cf. gardneriana Radlk (guapeva fruit) and evaluating the nutritional characteristics and functional properties of the developed jams. A factorial design 23 with 11 assays was used, considering citric acid concentration, pulp/sugar ratio, and albedo concentration as independent variables. Formulations containing a 50/50 pulp/sugar ratio proved to be excellent for quality parameters, the potential of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and sensory properties. The formulation indicated as most desirable was the one containing a 40/60 sugar/pulp ratio. Guapeva proved to be a good alternative for jam production because even after thermal processing, it was possible to obtain jams rich in Vitamin C, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant potential.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Bread fermentation is one of the most important steps in breadmaking. In straight dough method fermentation stage is realized after dough mixing; while in pre-fermented method, part of ingredients is mixed and rested for some hours in order to pre-ferment. This second method is well known to produce breads with improved properties, however no studies related to the production of composite bread using pre-fermented dough method can be found in the literature. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the effect of pre-fermented dough process method on a composite bread properties. Control breads (wheat bread) and green-banana-wheat bread were produced by straight and pre-fermented dough method. Breads were evaluated in relation to local water content, water loss, color parameters, specific volume, crumb porosity and texture profile analyses. Pre-fermented breads presented significantly higher specific volume in relation to straight breads. Similarly, pre-fermented method give breads with lower values of water loss, and lower levels of darkening. All of this could contributed to the better crumb texture properties of pre-fermented breads in relation to straight dough method. Therefore, it could be concluded that pre-fermentation dough method improved the technological properties of composite bread, representing an important strategy to be more explored.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The low chemical stability under environmental conditions of “Pitanga” leaf hydroethanolic extract (PLHE) can limit its application in industrial scale. It is known that this extract has high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and that it must be stored under special conditions or encapsulated into W/O emulsions. The objective of this research was to encapsulate PLHE in a W/O emulsion, analyzing the effect of the concentration of the emulsifier and phase ratios on its droplet size, physical stability and viscosity. In general, the droplet size and stability of the W/O emulsions were affected by the concentrations of emulsifiers and phase ratios. The emulsion with a 20/80 W/O ratio and 3 g PGPR/100 g oil was chosen as the most stable formulation because they presented well distributed droplet sizes (unimodal distribution), the lowest D3,2 (0.25 ± 0.02 μm), the highest physical stability at 60 °C and presented Newtonian behavior. In conclusion, the W/O emulsion is able to encapsulate PHLE and can be applied to thermal processed foods.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Cajeta is a Mexican artisanal candy elaborated from goat milk. While it is popular among consumers, it is necessary to find alternative uses to improve access to stable and fair trade for producers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a functional beverage using whey with different levels of inulin (4, 8 and 12%) as a prebiotic, guar gum (0.321, 0.625 and 1.25%) as a thickener and cajeta (20% v/v) as flavoring. Nine formulations were prepared, stored at 4 °C and analyzed on days 0, 7 and 14. The pH values were constant (5.9) in all formulations, while acidity exhibited changes on days 0 and 14. Flow properties of the beverages exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior and fitted best with the Power Law (PL). According to acceptance tests and a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questionnaire, it was possible to obtain a cajeta-flavored whey-beverage using lower concentrations of inulin and gum. The physicochemical characteristics provided by ingredients added in lower concentrations did not affect the organoleptic properties of the product, showed lower viscosity, and were highly accepted by most participants.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Meat analog is a plant protein product that comes from non-meat materials. The materials were used in this research were cowpea curd protein (20−30%) and cocoyam modification starch (20−30%) by autoclaving-cooling. This research aimed to ascertain the optimum formulation of cowpea curd protein as a raw material and cocoyam modification starch as a filler in the meat analog. The data obtained were processed with response surface methodology (RSM) to find the optimum formulation. The optimum results of the central composite design (CCD) showed that the moisture response had a 2FI (2-factor interaction) model with a final equation of Y=52.05−1.73X1+1.16X2+1.84X1X2, where X1X2 Curd protein*modified starch. The ash content had a 2FI model with a final equation of Y=2.79−0.71X1+0.43X2−1.02X1X2, the fat content had a linear model with a final equation of Y=2.59+0.11X1+1.26X2, the protein content had a linear model with a final equation of Y=18.26+0.62X1+0.056X2, the carbohydrate content had a linear model with a final equation of Y=24.54+1.17X1−2.38X2, the texture value had a mean model with a final equation of Y=0.072, and the color value had a mean model with a final equation of Y=30.41. The optimum condition of cowpea curd protein was added by 30% and cocoyam modification starch was added by 30% a with response of water content 50.92%, ash content 2.11%, protein content 18.97%, fat content 4.18%, carbohydrate content 23.82%, texture 0.075 (mm/gr/dt), and color 22.44 (L).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Okara is a byproduct obtained in the processing of water-soluble soy extract. The objective of this work was to use the quantitative descriptive analysis to develop the descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of tapioca formulations with the addition of okara. Four tapioca formulations were developed with the addition of okara to replace the cassava starch in concentrations of 15%, 30%, 40% and 50%. The descriptive terms generated for sensory profile were: color, soy aroma, soy taste, starch taste, softness and crispness. From the descriptors, a 9 cm scale was defined for each term with the extremes varying from weak to strong. After conducting the training and the sensory tests, the data obtained were submitted to ANOVA and the means compared by the Tukey test (p<0.05). The F50 formulation showed superior scores for the attributes color, soy aroma, and softness. The intensity of soy taste did not differ between the formulations F40 and F50. There was an increase in the softness of tapioca with the addition of okara. The addition of okara to the tapioca formulations allowed us to obtain a product with its own characteristics such as color and softness, maintaining the overall quality close to the traditional tapioca.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This work aimed to analyze 1,4-DMN efficiency in the suppression of sprouting and the consequent maintenance of quality in potato tubers of Asterix and Challenger cultivars stored during different periods under varying temperatures: eight treatments with and without 1,4-DMN under temperatures of 8 °C and 20 °C. Treatments effect were evaluated after 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 days after application. The evaluated parameters were the loss of fresh mass, length of the sprouts and activity of the enzymes polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase. The results indicate that the application of 1,4-DMN reduces the loss of fresh mass, this effect was more intense for the cultivar Challenger, at 8 °C. There were also significant effects in reducing the average length of the sprouts for both cultivars evaluated, after 180 days, at 20 °C. There was little or no difference in the level of oxidative stress caused in the tubers. Hence, the effects of 1,4-DMN on the quality control of potatoes included reduced loss of fresh mass and a shorter average length of sprouts for both cultivars evaluated compared to control, for both temperatures. These effects intensify in the cultivar Challenger and treatments with temperatures of 20 °C.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study's objective was to evaluate the physical-chemical, microbiological, and sensory aspects of pork meat with different levels of salting. Pork from the Duroc and Landrace breeds, with an average live weight of 281 ± 15.72 kg, were used. The physicochemical data were analyzed following a completely randomized design with four salt addition levels (30, 50, 70, and 90%). Sensory analysis was performed through a completely randomized design, observing the influence of salt levels in meat. The physical-chemical and sensory variables did not significantly affect (P>0.05) salt addition, except for cooking loss and water retention capacity. It was concluded that the salt introduction levels of 30 and 50% are the most appreciated by consumers. The addition of salt levels in the pork meat does not modify the physical-chemical characteristics and the meat's sensory analysis.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Jambolan (Syzygium cumini) is a tropical fruit rich in anthocyanin pigments, but its fragile skin and pulp present low protection against physical damages and microorganisms. In this sense, a preservative technology, as osmotic dehydration (OD), was studied to investigate the impact of some variables over this process. At first, fruits of jambolan were submitted to physical and physical-chemical analysis. Furthermore, whole fruits underwent OD following a fractional factorial design. The influence of the process variables: temperature (20-50ºC), sucrose concentration (30-60%), pressure (10-90 kPa), vacuum pulse time (5-15 min), calcium lactate concentration (0-4%) and number of vacuum pulse (1-3) was assessed on water loss (WL), solid gain (SG) and weight reduction (WR). In general, biometric analysis showed positive and significant correlation among the physical characteristics of jambolan. Physical-chemical assay demonstrated that the fresh fruit presents a potential source of bioactive compounds. The screening design showed that temperature, sucrose concentration, calcium lactate concentration and pressure affected the WL in jambolan. On the other hand, vacuum pulse time and number of vacuum pulse showed no influence on the WL, SG and WR; therefore, these variables must be fixed at the most economically viable level for any further trials.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Cancer is a disease that invades the lives of millions of people each year. Chemotherapy is currently the most effective treatment however resulting in many adverse effects to the human body. Alternative treatments are being explored to overcome this obstacle. Peptides that possess radical scavenging activity and bioactive properties can be advantageous in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In this study, Lablab purpureus isolate and its hydrolysates (trypsin, pepsin and alcalase) were analysed for radical scavenging potential (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide radical scavenging and FRAP) and antiproliferative activity. Antiproliferative activity was confirmed with the peptides ability to induce apoptosis (Caspase 3/7 activity and Annexin V-PI). The lowest inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for DPPH, ABTS and Superoxide radical scavenging ranged between 1.81-4.47, 1.73-2.42 and 1.36-4.41 mg/mL, respectively. FRAP ranged from 19.20 to 21.94 mg/mL. Generally, it is considered that a good antioxidant encompasses antiproliferative potential. Cell lines, A549, MCF-7 and HEK293, treated with pepsin hydrolysate showed (IC50 values of 119.6, 9.80 and 13.86 µg/mL). The isolate and pepsin were chosen for apoptotic studies. The pepsin hydrolysate showed the highest inhibition in the cancerous cell lines (A549 and MCF-7) without greatly effecting normal cells (HEK293), and the isolate was selected for comparative analysis. Annexin V-PI staining showed cells in different stages of apoptosis (cells during early apoptosis; A549, 42%; MCF-7, 17%; HEK, 34%). Caspase 3/7 assay demonstrated that the peptide causes an increase in caspase activity. Peptides have the potential to act as chemo-preventative agents due to their antioxidant and apoptotic abilities.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The study aimed to evaluate tannic acid's influence on lactating cows' diets on milk production and lipid composition. Five crossbred cows (Holstein x Zebu), distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square, were used to evaluate the effect of increasing tannic acid (hydrolyzable tannin). The diets were composed of 35 kg of corn silage as bulking and 6.38 kg of concentrate. The treatments consisted of increasing levels of tannic acid added to diets (0%, 1.3%, 2.6%, 3.9% and 5.2%). It was observed a decreasing linear effect (P<0.05) of the inclusion of tannic acid in the concentration of saturated butyric fatty acids (C4:0) presenting a mean of (2.99), and quadratic effect in the concentration of saturated fatty acids lauric (C12:0) presenting mean (26.74). The addition of tannic acid had effects on saturated fatty acids, decreasing the concentrations of butyric acid and increasing the concentrations of lauric acid. Atherogenicity and thrombogenicity rates reveal the potential for the prevention of coronary heart disease. However, the observed changes do not compromise the milk's chemical composition and nutritional quality,the y nutritional quality of the milk, presenting possibilities of human health benefits, thus enabling the aggregation of value for these products.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus dry leaves extracts on S. enterica and E. coli and their interaction with conventional antimicrobials. Dried powdered leaves were used to produce hexane (Hex), methanolic (MeOH) and ethanolic residue (EtOHr) extracts. The antimicrobial test was performed against Escherichia coli, ATCC 25922, E. coli EPEC, CDC 086H35, and Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phagotype 4 (SE PT4) through minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The agar diffusion technique, well and disc-variants were used to measure the antimicrobial effect of the plant extract combination with antimicrobial of clinical usage. We highlight the bactericidal effect of jackfruit tree leaves on E. coli and S. enterica SE PT4 at 7.2 mg/mL and the effect of the extracts on antimicrobial activity. The interaction between chloramphenicol and dry leaves extracts was characterized by both synergism and antagonism depending on extract type and bacteria used. The interaction between antimicrobial of clinical usage and jackfruit tree leaves extracts demonstrated changes in susceptibility profile of antimicrobials tending to an antagonist effect. As the jackfruit tree leaves may interfere on antimicrobials action, special attention should be given to its usage as traditional medicine in the treatment of food borne diseases.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Phycocyanin, a natural pigment extracted from spirulina (Spirulina platensis), is used in foods, but its use is limited due to its relatively heat labile nature. Thus, here, we aimed to investigate the effect of cysteine addition on increasing the thermal stability of phycocyanin extracted from spirulina using Collupulin. Our results showed that 0.5% cysteine was the most effective in extracting phycocyanin. Furthermore, 95 °C heat treatment increased the stability of phycocyanin extracted with Collupulin and cysteine. The thermal kinetic model of the phycocyanin extracted with Collupulin and cysteine was confirmed to follow the second order. The activation energy of phycocyanin extracted with Collupulin and cysteine, calculated using the reaction constant (k) obtained from the secondary thermal kinetic model, was 65.3 kJ. Collectively, the addition of 0.5% cysteine increased the thermal stability of phycocyanin extracted with Collupulin, and this phycocyanin could be used in foods that undergo a heating process.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a superb nutritional source of phenolic compounds that are beneficial in the prevention of different diseases. The main goal of the current study was to estimate the oxidative activity and compare the effect of the ethanol extract of this fruit's peel and flesh on pancreatic cancer against pancreatic cancer and in vitro 2, 2-azobis-2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH) erythrocytes hemolytic oxidative damage. Firstly, HPLC was utilized to identify the phenolic compounds in each extract that showed that p-coumaric acid & ferulic acid (in the peel), syringic acid & cinnamic acid (in the flesh) were the most abundant. Concerning the anti-cancer effect, flesh extract exhibited more cytotoxic impact as detected by the reduction of PANC-1 cell line viability with IC50 of 232.89 µg/ml contrasted with the IC50 of the peel extract (556.60 µg/ml). Relative to ascorbic acid, both kiwi extracts have been considerably successful in diminishing hemolysis, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and GSH levels of AAPH-induced RBCs. Interestingly, with 80 μg/ml, the ethanol peel extract returned the TBARS and GSH levels to the normal level of RBCs (0.022 and 2.86 nmole/mg hemoglobin, respectively).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study, we determined the nutritional and functional characteristics of cookies supplemented with chichá almond, gurguéia nut, and soursop residue using two developed cookie formulations and one standard formulation. Acceptance and purchase intention were evaluated. As the chichá almond 6 and gurguéia nut 2 formulations were sensorially viable, descriptive quantitative analysis, centesimal composition and caloric value, mineral levels, microbiological quality, bioactive compound levels, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. In the hedonic scale test of the standard cookie, the chichá almond-6 and gurguéia nut-2 cookies obtained scores above 7 (“I liked it”) from 86.18%, 96.35%, and 93% of the evaluators, and 70.79%, 94.36%, and 83.2% of them said they would purchase the product, showing a statistically significant difference between formulations. The chichá almond 6 cookie presented higher ash, protein, lipid, copper, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, selenium, and zinc levels, and lower carbohydrate levels and total energy values, as well as a higher total phenolic compound, total flavonoid, and condensed tannin levels. The gurguéia nut 2 cookie showed higher vitamin C and antioxidant activity. The use of residue and Cerrado fruit flour proved to be viable in cookie production, conveying sensorially desirable, nutritional, and functional characteristics.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this study was to use the passion fruit peel P. cincinnata Mast., as a viable alternative to produce food (flour and cookies) that is rich in fiber and environmentally sustainable. For this, fruit peels were obtained, which were hygienized, dehydrated and ground in a knife mill in order to develop the flour, which was then used in different concentrations in three formulations of chip cookies (using 10%, 20% and 30% of the flour developed). Analyzes physicochemical and microbiological composition were performed for both flour and for the cookies developed and a sensorial acceptance test was performed for the cookies. It was possible to observe that the flour had an adequate centesimal composition, when it was about quality and safety, as well as health benefits. As for the physicochemical composition, the flour had 5.79 ± 0.11% of ashes; 78.23 ± 0.84% of total carbohydrates; 5.78 ± 0.11% moisture; 4.83 ± 0.00% acidity; 3.74 ± 0.04 pH; 1.66 ± 0.06% lipids; 8.59 ± 0.82% protein and 58,3 g/100g dietary fiber. The study demonstrates its nutritional quality by reducing the lipid content of the final product, by comparing the formulation with 30% of the flour developed to the standard formulation, as well as increasing the ash content and acidity and reducing its pH when compared to the standard formulation, promoting the safety and quality of food. Flour presented promising capacity in the development of functional foods, health promoters, and environmental conservation by avoiding its inappropriate disposal.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The physicochemical quality parameters of meat from finishing lambs supplemented with quebracho tannin extract (QTE) were evaluated. Lambs were assigned to four treatment groups: CON—animals fed basal diet (BD); QTE 1% (T1%)—BD + tannins at 1% dry matter intake (DMI); QTE 3% (T3%)—BD + tannins at 3% DMI; and QTE 6% (T6%)—BD + tannins at 6% DMI. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum samples were vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C for 28 days. The samples were evaluated weekly for proximate composition, pH, color, myoglobin forms, cooking loss, shear force, lipid (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances—TBARS), and protein (carbonyl and thiol) oxidation. Chemical composition and pH did not vary among treatments. The meat from lambs fed with higher proportion of QTE (T6%) presented lower redness, chroma, and oxymyoglobin content, and higher yellowness, hue angle, cooking loss, shear force, TBARS, and carbonyl content than the meat from the other groups. Our findings indicate that higher dose of QTE may exert pro-oxidative effects in lamb meat, negatively affecting its quality.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract To explore characteristics of patients with pneumonia infected by 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2019 outside Hubei Province, China. 40 patients with pneumonia infected by COVID-19 which were confirmed by COVID-19 nucleic acid test were included. Procalcitonin (PCT), serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and computed tomography (CT) manifestations were analyzed. 40% of patients had clear contact history with Wuhan or other areas of Hubei Province. 60% of patients were clustered diseases and 40% were imported cases. 75% of patients had initial fever, 7.5% had cough, 5% had sore throat at first. 45% had decreased lymphocyte count, 72.5% and 55% patients had increased levels of SAA and CRP. 72.5% of the patients showed multiple ground glass lesions in one or two lungs on chest CT. 90% of the patients with pneumonia are of the common type, and α-interferon atomization inhalation combined with Lopinavir/Ritonavir tablets were given to patients during treatment. 62.5% of the patients were treated with antibiotics, and 15% with hormone. All patients improved after treatment, and 14 patients were cured and discharged. Family cluster infection and asymptomatic infection may be the main way of spreading of COVID-19 pneumonia outside Hubei Province in China.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Objective The paper investigated the effect and molecular mechanism of Houttuynin on breast cancer in vitro, so as to provide clinical basis for the treatment of breast cancer with Houttuynin. Methods: Cell survival rate was measured by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and AO/EB double staining method. The expressions of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR proteins and their phosphorylation levels were determined by WB experiment. Results: Houttuynin can significantly inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells and arrest cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Houttuynin induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells through two pathways, namely, mitochondria and death receptors. It was verified by WB experiment that Houttuynin could induce autophagy in breast cancer cells and reduce the expressions of PI3K, AKT, mTOR and other proteins. Conclusion: Houttuynin induced breast cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The aim of this study was to provide a scientific basis for anti-arthritic and anticancer activities by inhibiting cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) expression by ingestion of Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem (A. elata), which is used in traditional medicine in East Asia. A. elata extract inhibited the adhesion between monocytic THP-1 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) monolayers, respectively, compared to the TNF-α-treated group. The methanol extract of A. elata potently suppressed TNF-α-stimulated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin. Additionally, the methanol, ethyl acetate, and chloroform extracts of A. elata exhibited significant cytotoxicity against stomach cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer cells; however, the butanol and aqueous extracts of A. elata were cytotoxic only against stomach cancer cells. A. elata is anticipated to inhibit atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer progression by suppressing the expression of CAMs in HUVECs
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Green-kernel black bean (Vigna cylindrica (L.) Skeels) were processed with various treatments including soaking, roasting, cooking, autoclave and germination. The effects of these treatments on the chemical compostion, mineral, anti-nutrients, antioxidant and physical properties of the resultant flours were analyzed. The results indicate that green-kernel black bean was excellent sources of dietary fiber (165.4 g/kg), magnesium (2190 mg/kg), anthocyanin (791.6 mg/kg) and phenolic compounds (4.4 g gallic acid equivalent/kg), which were virtually higher than those reported for other pulses. Among the studied processing methods, cooking and autoclave provided the most evident effects on all flour characteristics, where the water holing capacity was enhanced and the flour became brighter. In addition, the levels of anti-nutrients such as tannin, saponin and trypsin inhibitors remarkably reduced and hence the starch digestibility was improved. However, antioxidant compounds were degraded or lost, leading to lower antioxidant capacities in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). On the other hand, germination resulted in lesser reduction of anti-nutrients but lesser losses of antioxidants and good starch digestibility. Meanwhile, roasting caused the least effects on flour characteristics but was still able to partially degrade anti-nutrients.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Balanced colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in the newborn is very important for the acquisition of an immune system in infancy. Lactobacillus spp. is useful in human nutrition because of its potential probiotic and functional features. In this research, 27 strains were identified representing 104 species of Lactobacillus isolated from baby feces. The probiotic and functional properties of isolates were investigated. In this study, the sample consisted of 14 children aged 3-47 weeks who were breastfed. Strains were determined phenotypically by testing arginine hydrolysis, salt tolerance, production of gas from glucose, and growth at 15 and 45 °C. Isolated strains were genotypically characterized as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (41), L. casei (17), L. fermentum (24), Lactobacillus spp. (11), and L. rhamnosus (11) using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Several strains of L. fermentum, and a majority of the strains of L. rhamnosus and L. casei/L. paracasei subsp. paracasei were able to produce hydrogen sulfide. Almost all strains showed antibacterial activity against the enteric pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella Enteritidis. In this research, lactobacilli isolated from babies had probiotic properties.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Although, wheat aleurone layer flour (WALF) is a good source of nutrients, it has certain disadvantages due relatively high levels of lipids and various of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, in the current study, the effect of superheated steam (SS) treatment on stabilization of WALF was investigated. This study aims to explore the effects of SS treatment on the degradation of free fatty acids of WALF under different conditions. The optimal process was obtained by an orthogonal optimization experiment, including optimized SS temperature, material moisture and treatment time. Results showed that the free fatty acids content of WALF significantly were decreased with SS treatment as the increase of treatment temperature, material moisture content and treatment times (p<0.05). Therefore, the optimum treatment conditions were selected during SS treatment. Compared with raw WALF, the activity of enzymes, total number of microbial colonies and phytate content in WALF were notably reduced after the SS of optimal condition. Nevertheless, its total dietary fiber content, insoluble dietary fiber content, pentosan content, total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity presented a remarkable increase (p<0.05).
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Dehydrofreezing is a food freezing method in which the foods are partially dehydrated before freezing. In this study, carrots were frozen with convective (-30, -35, -40oC and 2 m/s airflow) and cryogenic methods after dehydrating them by different methods (osmotic dehydration, convective and vacuum drying). The effects of dehydration method, freezing conditions and storage time on β-carotene amounts of dehydrofrozen carrots and the changes in β-carotene content of dehydrofrozen carrots during storage for six months at -20oC were investigated. The findings obtained in this study showed that the reaction representing the carotene change in the storage process took place in accordance with the first-degree kinetic model. The reaction rate constants (k) were affected by freezing conditions, and the k value decreased as the freezing temperature decreased. The β-carotene losses were less in the storage process in the cryogenically frozen carrots compared to those frozen by the convective method. As the freezing temperature decreased, the half-life period increased.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objective of this work was to formulate and to characterize chemically and physically different formulations of camu-camu jellies, with or without mixture of other fruits. Their sensory acceptance was evaluated by identifying the formulations with greater acceptability while maintaining their nutraceutical potential. The formulations were: camu-camu jelly, camu-camu jelly with jabuticaba, camu-camu jelly with guava, camu-camu jelly with acerola, camu-camu jelly with passion fruit and camu-camu jelly with papaya. Untrained tasters were used to assess consumer acceptability. In a second scale the purchase intention was evaluated. The following variables were also analyzed: pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio (SS/TA), ascorbic acid, total anthocyanins and flavonoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by the DPPH and FRAP methods. The results showed that camu-camu jelly without mixtures was not well accepted in the sensory test when compared to the others. The greatest preference was for mixed jams of camu-camu with guava and jabuticaba, in which they obtained greater acceptance and purchase intention. Jellies with higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxitant activity obtained low acceptance and purchase intention, perhaps due to their high astringency.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract A new GC-MS method is developed for the determination of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde exposure to the food materials may lead to its migration into food. The formaldehyde is reported to be toxic to human health if taken or exposed in higher than recommended quantity. This papers reports analytical method to get the information about the content of the formaldehyde in the kitchenware. Prior to the determination process, simulation study was performed to get the information about the migration of formaldehyde. Method was applied to the real samples for formaldehyde determination. It has been observed that the all the simulated real sample witnessed migration of formaldehyde from the kitchenware. Alongside the validation study was performed too, which suggest that the method is linear in the concentration range of 2.5 to 30 mg l-1. The precision study suggests a % RSD in the range of 0.568- 3.77 for all concentration points. The recovery study highlights an excellent recovery of the method which was found in the range of 97.64-99.43%. LOD and LOD of the method was found to be 0.35 and 1 ml l-1, which is equivalent to 0.05 and 0.142 mg l-1 of formaldehyde, respectively.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Germination can alter the physicochemical, nutritional, and nutraceutical value of brown rice. This study aimed to evaluate some characteristic changes from five Indonesian brown rice varieties during germination. The germination was carried out through a complete soaking method for up to 120 h, and the samples were taken and analyzed every 24 h. The results showed that germination increased GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) content in brown rice. The highest level of GABA, up to 126.55 mg/100 g, obtained in rice var. Inpari 43, after 120 h. Germination also affected the changes in phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and γ-oryzanol, while fatty acid compositions showed no changes. The pasting properties changed significantly after germination, especially in peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown, and setback. In conclusion, the changes in brown rice characteristics during germination, especially for increased GABA content and shifting of pasting properties, are valuable information for developing functional rice-based food products.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murry (LRAs) were used to explore the anti-fatigue activities of LRAs at different concentrations in a mouse fatigue model. Eight biochemical indexes were determined in liver tissue, muscle tissue and serum. The results showed that the LRAs used in the experiment mainly contained delphinium, petunidin and malvidin. During 21 days of gavage, there was no significant difference in mouse body weight. The exercise time of the LRA-exposed mice increased. LRAs could increase serum glucose (Glu), liver/muscle glycogen and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduce the vitality of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the levels of lactic acid (LD) and serum urea nitrogen (BUN). This study indicated that LRAs can enhance exercise endurance, increase sugar reserves, scavenge free radicals and improve metabolism, thereby increasing anti-fatigue activities.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The objectives of this research are trifold. The first is to unveil antecedents of food-handling behaviors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The second is to investigate the consistency of impacts of proposed determinants across different handling behaviors. The third is to confirm whether or not the premise of intention as the sole direct determinant of behavior in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) holds. As such, TPB served as the guiding theory, and Factor Analysis and Seemingly Unrelated Regression were used for data analysis. The results discuss the discrepancy of impacts between heterogeneous food-handling behaviors. The contribution of habit and information-seeking behavior across behaviors were confirmed, while the influence of income, minor, objective norm, perception of food risks, trust, perceived behavioral control, and intention was statistically significant but inconsistently differed between behaviors. The independent contributions of gender, age, education, subjective norm, and attitude were negligible. This paper’s findings offer evidence to highlight the role of volitional predictors to anticipate safe food-handling behaviors to suggest suitable policy interventions to reinforce the last line of heath defense in the household, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Phytosterols are bioactive components capable of reducing the level of cholesterol in serum. In this study, phytosterol acetic ester (PA), phytosterol oleate ester (PO) and phytosterol linoleic ester (PL) were synthesized from phytosterol (PS) and organic acid to improve the solubility of phytosterols in oil. The purities of PA, PO and PL were 98.4, 95.9 and 95.7%, respectively. Caco-2 cell monolayers and Wistar rats were used to research the bioavailability of synthesized esters (PE) in vitro and in vivo. Experiments using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model showed that the transport mechanism of phytosterol esters was passive transport. Experiments in vivo showed that the PS content in rat blood reached the highest level at 3 h, with a value of 21.82 μg/mL. PS content in the liver was the highest at 3 h, with a value of 43.65 μg/g. Bioavailability of PL is the highest, reaching a value as high as 19.57%. Acute study in the rats showed that the PS concentration in blood was at the safe level, and it had no side effects for health. In conclusion, the bioavailability of PL and PO is better than PS, PL and PO have more advantages in application.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Orgu cheese, widely produced and consumed in Turkey's South-eastern Anatolia region, is usually made from sheep's milk. In this study, 15 traditional and 15 industrially produced Orgu cheese samples were compared in terms of chemical, biochemical, mineral content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity. While the mineral substance and antioxidant activity values of Orgu cheese samples produced by both traditional and industrial methods were close to each other, it was determined that there were differences in terms of chemical and biochemical content. The mineral content was obtained quite high and antioxidant activity was low in cheese samples. Also, the water-soluble extracts of cheese samples didn’t show any antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11303. It was detected that the production method and ripening conditions have a decisive effect on some basic characteristics of the examined cheeses.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Bacteriocin, a peptide produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) widely used as a natural and safe preservative in food products. This work aimed to evaluate the characterization of bacteriocin from dadih’s LAB and to study its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Supernatant from 12 LBA strains could inhibit S. aureus growth with different inhibition zones. Only nine strains showed inhibition zones of > 3.5 mm and were further evaluated for their antibacterial compounds. Three strains had antimicrobial activity derived from organic acids, especially lactic acid, and six strains had antimicrobial compounds in the form of bacteriocin. Bacteriocin strain R-55 showed the highest activity against S. aureus, with an average inhibition zone of 8.43 mm. The molecular weight of the purified isolated bacteriocin from the R-55 strain was 14.4 kDa. Bacteriocin obtained from St. faecalis subsp. liquefaciens R-55 is a promising natural preservative to prevent the growth of S. aureus as foodborne pathogens.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to investigate the potential use of anthocyanin of Berberis crataegina DC. as a natural food coloring agent in the food industry. For this aim, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was performed to extract anthocyanin of Berberis crataegina DC. The effect of ultrasound power (X1: 20-100%), extraction temperature (X2: 20-60 °C), and time (X3: 10-20 min) on TPC and TAC of Berberis crataegina DC. extracts were examined and optimized by applying the Box–Behnken experimental design (BBD) with the response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of three independent variables and their combinatorial interactions on TPC and TAC were investigated by the quadratic models (R2: 0.9638&0.9892 and adj R2:0.9171&0.9654, respectively). The optimum conditions were determined as the amplitude level of 98%, the temperature of 57.41 °C, and extraction time of 13.86 min. The main anthocyanin compounds were identified, namely, Delphinidin-3-O-galactoside, Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, Cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, Petunidin-3-O-glucoside, Pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside, and Peonidin-3-O-glucoside. The anthocyanin degradation showed first-order kinetic, degradation rate constant (k), the half-life values (t1/2), and loss (%) were significantly affected by different temperatures (P < 0.05). Higher degradation (k) in anthocyanin content was observed at 90 °C. This study suggested that UAE is an efficient method for the extraction of TPC and TAC from Berberis crataegina DC.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to develop Greek style yoghurts with the addition of bovine colostrum. Four yoghurt formulations were produced with different colostrum content (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). The fat, protein, total solids, ash, retinol levels were quantified as well as the colour was measured. A sensory analysis was conducted with 103 untrained panelists, evaluating the attributes of appearance, aroma, consistency, flavour, overall acceptance and the purchase intention. Colostrum addition increased the fat and protein levels in the yoghurt formulations. The Greek style yoghurts with bovine colostrum reached sensory acceptance above 70% for all attributes.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study aimed to determine the physicochemical and rheological characterization of Rocket seed gum (RSG) as a plant-based natural gum. Moisture, ash, protein, monosaccharide composition, and pH value were determined. Mannose and galactose were the main monosaccharides with a ratio of (mannose/galactose) 1.52. The absorptions at wavenumber 2855 cm-1 and 2922 cm-1 indicate the presence of galactose and arabinose. RSG showed shear-thinning flow behavior at all concentrations. The K value of the RSG ranged between 0.24 and 6.31 Pa.sn and significantly increased with increased gum concentration. Hysteresis area was found 11.53-183.23 and increased with increasing gum concentration. The percentage recovery for the G′ was significantly affected by gum concentrations and found as 42.54-81.20. RSG showed a solid-like structure, the storage modulus (G′) was higher than the loss modulus (G′′) in all frequency range. G′ and G′′ value increased with increased RSG concentration. The physicochemical and rheological characterization indicated that RSG could be evaluated as thickeners and gelling agents in the food industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Thirty-two Santa Inês male lambs, not castrated, were distributed in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of different tropical forage cultivars (two Panicum maximum (Syn. Megathyrsus maximus): Aruana and Massai, and two Brachiaria brizantha (Syn. Urochloa brizantha) Marandu and Piatã) on carcass characteristics, quality, physical composition, and meat chemistry. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance, and the means compared using the Tukey test at 5% significance. There was no effect of cultivars on body weight, slaughter weight, and biometric measurements of the carcass. The Aruana and Piatã cultivars provided higher weights of hot and cold carcasses when compared to the Massai and the Marandu had no significant differences compared to the others. The animals kept in the pasture of the Aruana cultivar showed higher shank yields. However, forage cultivars did not affect the ribeye area or subcutaneous fat thickness. There was also no effect of cultivar on pH, temperature, cooking losses, cooling losses, and meat shear strength. The cultivars did not change the quality and composition of the meat. However, the Aruana, Piatã, and Marandu cultivars were the ones that provided higher carcass weights and ham yields.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Objective The paper investigated the effect and mechanism of α-Cyperone-containing serum on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis in rats. Methods: Female SD rats of 21-25 days old were obtained. Mechanical separation and trypsin digestion method were used to collect rat ovarian granulosa cells. H2O2 of 50 μM, 100 μM, 200 μM, 500 μM, and 1000 μM were applied to intervene in ovarian granulosa cells. CCK-8 method was employed to screen appropriate drug concentration and establish rat ovarian granulosa cell oxidative stress model. 5%, 10%, and 20% drug-containing serum intervention were performed, CCK-8 method was used to screen serum concentration and intervention time. 200 nm, 400 nm, and 800 nm JNK signaling pathway inhibitor SP600125 were used to intervene with oxidatively stressed ovarian granulosa cells, and CCK-8 method was applied to screen the appropriate concentration. Ovarian granulosa cells in the logarithmic growth phase were randomly divided into the blank group, the H2O2 intervention oxidative stress model group (the model group), the drug-containing serum group, and the JNK pathway inhibitor group. After intervention, the laser confocal microscope was used to observe the expressions of intracellular ROS, and the average optical density of each group was compared. The laser confocal microscope was used to observe TUNEL staining, and the apoptosis rate of each group was compared. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of p-JNK, Bax, and caspase-3 proteins. Results: 200 μM H2O2 was used to induce ovarian granulosa cell model of oxidative stress. The optimal concentration of drug-containing serum was 10%, and the intervention time was 24 h. The intervention concentration of JNK signal pathway inhibitor SP600125 was 800 nm. Compared with the blank group, the average optical density of intracellular ROS and apoptosis rate increased in the model group, the drug treatment group, and the JNK pathway inhibitor group. Compared with the model group and the JNK pathway inhibitor group, the intracellular ROS expression and apoptosis rate of the drug group decreased. The Western blot expressions of p-JNK, Bax, and caspase-3 proteins in the model group were higher than that of the blank group, the drug administration group, and the JNK pathway inhibitor group. Conclusion: The serum containing α-Cyperone may inhibit the ROS-JNK signaling pathway and reduce the H2O2-induced oxidative stress ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study, by the addition of chicken egg the production possibilities of the block-typed processed cheese and the changes that occur on the various properties due to the storage of the produced cheese were analyzed. Before the blanching, three different parts of the egg; albumen, yolk and whloe egg were added to the processed cheese formulation. The cheeses were analyzed on the first, 15th, 30th and 60th days. The physico-chemical, textural and sensory characteristics of the cheese samples were tested. It was determined out of the obtained results that the use of the chicken egg was decreased in the values of L*, a* and b*. According to the texture results, the control sample stood out to be the cheese type that has the highest hardness. Of all the parameters, the sample with yolked-cheese got the highest point according to the results of the sensory evaluation. The use of yolk affected positively both the structure and the appearance. At the end of this study, it is found out that the use of chicken egg in the production of the block-typed processed cheese did not cause any drawback in terms of both production process, shelf life and from the sensory point.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this work were determining the total phenolic content, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity in formulations of red fruit juice supplemented with different concentrations of aqueous extract of Brazilian green propolis. And, also was investigate the formulation sensory acceptance by volunteers’ consumers. The addition of propolis to red fruit juice increased the content of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, enhanced the antioxidant activity of the final product as assessed by radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS and FRAP methods, and no negative effect on consumer taste. All red fruit juice formulations containing propolis presented significant results through overall acceptability test and were approved in relation to purchase intent by the volunteer consumers. Formulation F3 (6.1 mg.mL-1) showed the best results. The antioxidant activity increment was proportional to the concentration of aqueous green propolis extracts added to the juice. The positive purchase intention reached up 64.75% of participants' acceptance. A new, sugar-free drink with pleasurable sensory and functional properties, combined with health benefits, has been obtained.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study was designed to evaluate the changes number of cells of the two selected probiotic bacteria, B. longum TISTR2195 and L. plantarum TISTR1465, and yeast S. cerevisiae TISTR8656. The microorganisms were cultured in two types of media, namely selective media and protein base model. Selective media were divided into 4 sub-groups: with 2% glucose added as a positive control (i), inulin (ii), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (iii), and without added carbon source as negative control (iv). Protein base media had chicken egg and coconut juice, baker’s yeast and potassium chloride (i), with 9% FOS (ii), or inulin (iii), or 7.34% whey protein (iv) to verify growth. All the probiotics were able to utilize inulin and FOS to growth. The numbers of cells increased with incubation time. However, L. plantarum produced an acidic in the selective culture medium significantly. Protein based with FOS and inulin added supported all probiotics growth. In addition, acetic acid content was the highest among short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. B. longum produced acetic acid very fast within 24 h. L. plantarum cultured in inulin added provided the peak level of acetic acid at 72 h. However, S. cerevisiae tended to decrease the SCFAs with incubation time.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Araticum (Annona crassiflora) fruits have relevant characteristics for industrialization, a characteristic aroma and a slightly acidic flavor, with relevant amounts of vitamins A, C, B1 and B2. The objective of this study was to fit different mathematical models to the experimental data, evaluate the effective diffusion coefficient and determine the activation energy for the araticum epicarp subjected to different drying conditions. The epicarps of araticum fruits were dried at temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. Midilli, Logarithmic and Two Terms models can be used to represent the drying of araticum epicarp, and the Two Terms model was selected according to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The linear model satisfactorily represented the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of drying temperature. In the evaluation of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy, both enthalpy and entropy tend to decrease when temperature increases. The higher the temperature used for drying of araticum epicarp, the lower the value of diffusivity, i.e., the lower the resistance to water removal.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract This study evaluated the effects of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed gum (CG) and various starches on the viscosity, viscoelasticity, texture, syneresis, and sensory quality of non-fat yogurt after up to 7 days in cold storage. Yogurt was prepared with CG alone or in combination with one of four different starches: sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas; SPS), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; CPS), corn (Zea mays; CS), or Turkish bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; TBS). All the yogurt samples had pseudoplastic propertie (n < 1) irrespective of the storage time, while samples containing CG with SPS or CPS had the highest consistency coefficients (k) at 0 and 7 days, respectively. The sample containing CG with CPS also had the highest elastic modulus (G’), irrespective of the storage time, suggesting the formation of a solid-like gel. The addition of CG alone or in combination with any of the starches conferred significant firmness to the yogurt samples, while the addition of CG together with starch significantly reduced wheying-off and improved the sensory acceptability compared with the control.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Being waste products of the food industry, longan stones can be a promising functional food ingredient owing to their high fiber content, nutrients and antioxidative properties. Biscuits were enriched with roasted and unroasted longan stone powder. The longan stones were roasted at 170 °C for 5, 15, and 25 min by using a fluidized bed roaster. Longan stone powders were incorporated in wheat flours at different concentrations. Biscuits were obtained with higher fiber content (5.72 ± 0.03%) and lower fat content (12.50 ± 0.02%) compared to the control biscuits. Antioxidant activity (51.18 ± 0.02% inhibition) and total phenolic contents (394.61 ± 0.63 mg GAE/100 g) of the biscuits increased significantly as the roasting degree of added longan stone powder increased (p≤0.05). Biscuits enriched with longan stone powder roasted during 15 minutes took higher sensory scores than control biscuits and biscuits enriched with unroasted longan stone powder. The roasting process increased the acceptability of addition longan stone powder.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Aconiti kusnezoffii Radix (Caowu), a traditional Chinese medicine and Mongolian medicine, has been commonly used owing to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we performed a qualitative analysis of aconite alkaloids (AAs) in raw and processed Aconiti kusnezoffii Radix by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we quantified benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylhypaconine, aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine in raw and processed Aconiti kusnezoffii Radix using a HPLC system coupled with a diode array detector. The analysis of AA fragmentation patterns in positive electrospray ionization mode revealed 155 AAs, including 6 with unambiguous identities, 109 with putative assignments, and 40 unknown compounds. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of the alkaloid extracts of Aconiti kusnezoffii Radix. Importantly, alkaloid extracts of Aconiti kusnezoffii Radix at three different concentrations exhibited protective effect against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Thus, the proposed method can be used not only for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of Aconiti kusnezoffii Radix, but also for evaluating other Aconitum spp. Our study lays a foundation for the clinical application of poisonous Aconitum.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study baicalin was extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and applied to alleviate the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in rats. The baicalin with 89.53% purity was successfully extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Sixty-five rats were randomly divided into control, model and low-, middle- and high-dose baicalin groups. The oleic acid-induced ARDS model was established in model and baicalin groups. The low-, middle- and high-dose baicalin groups were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg baicalin, respectively. After 3 h from treatment, compared with model group, in baicalin groups the arterial oxygen partial pressure and oxygenation index were obviously enhanced, the left lung ratio wet weight to dry weight and number of neutrophil, total protein content, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly decreased, and the lung tissue high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein expression levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, baicalin may alleviate the ARDS in rats by reducing the inflammatory response via inhibiting the HMGB1/NF-κB signal pathway.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Objective The paper aimed to explore the mechanism of Forsythin regulating miRNA expression in laryngeal carcinoma cells, and to clarify the molecular biological mechanism of Forsythin regulating miRNA to promote the apoptosis of laryngeal carcinoma cells, providing theoretical and experimental basis for clinical application of Forsythin as an anti-laryngeal cancer treatment drug. Methods: A miR-1469 low-expression laryngeal carcinoma cell line was established. Western blot and flow cytometry were applied to detect the effect of Forsythin on cell apoptosis. Western blot was employed to detect the effects of Forsythin on P53 protein, P53 low expression, and P53 overexpression in laryngeal carcinoma cells, as well as the effects on overexpression of miRNA-1469, and on double low expression of P53 and Mcl1. Real-time PCR method was used to detect the effect of miR-1469 on p53 low expression in laryngeal carcinoma cells. Results: Flow cytometry detection of cell apoptosis showed that, after the cells with low miR-1469 expression were treated with Forsythin, the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced. Western blot detection showed that, compared with the Control group, the expression level of miR-1469 was significantly reduced after Forsythin administration in Hep2 cells with low expression of P53. Compared with the idle Control group, the apoptosis level of laryngeal carcinoma cells in Hep2 cells with low expression of P53 was significantly reduced. In Hep2 cells transfected with P53 overexpression plasmids, apoptosis level of laryngeal carcinoma cells increased. Compared with the idle Control group, the apoptosis level of laryngeal carcinoma cells in the single-transformed P53 shRNA group decreased, while the apoptosis level of the double-transformed miR-1469 mimic+P53 shRNA group increased again. After drug treatment, the apoptosis level of the single-transformed P53 shRNA group decreased, while the apoptosis level of the double-transformed Mcl1 shRNA+P53 shRNA group increased again. Conclusion: Forsythin can promote the apoptosis of laryngeal carcinoma cells by up-regulating the expression of miR-1469 and then down-regulating the expression of Mcl1. The drug can up-regulate the expression of miR-1469 by elevating the expression of P53. miR-1469 can promote the apoptosis of laryngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting the expression of its downstream target gene Mcl1.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is a fruit of tropical and subtropical zones of the world, is an important source of phytochemicals (phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins). Several studies have associated phytochemicals with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The objective of this work was to analyze the polyphenolic content, the antioxidant and antifungal properties of jackfruit extracts on phytopathogenic fungi. Two phenolic extracts of jackfruit of different maturity level (J1-J2) were used. The total polyphenol content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and total flavonoids (TFC) by the aluminum chloride method, the free radical trapping potential was measured using FRAP and ORAC methods. The results showed a TPC of 844 and 1,178 mgEAG/100 g and TFC of 37 and 68 mgQE/100 g, of dry jackfruit, the antioxidant potential analysis by FRAP was 7,575 and 8,691, by ORAC was 13.369 and 14.728 µmol Trolox/100 g, of dry jackfruit for J1 and J2 respectively. Additionally, it was observed that the phenolic extracts of jackfruit reduced the mycelial growth of: Penicillium digitatum (20-14%), Geotrichum candidum (56-55%), Aspergillus niger (72-67%) and Botrytis cinerea (100%-100%) for J1 and J2 respectively. We conclude that regardless of the degree of maturity, jackfruit has antioxidant and antifungal properties on phytopathogens important in agriculture.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The skimmed milk was previously concentrated by the block freeze concentration and, thus, used in the manufacture of an ice cream sample with Bifidobacterium BB-12 addition. This sample was compared with two control samples, one ice cream manufactured with skimmed milk, and the other an MRS broth, which supplies an excellent base for comparison of the bacterial survival. All three samples were submitted to the in vitro gastrointestinal assays from the mouth to the large intestine. The initial Bifidobacterium BB-12 viable cell count (> 8 log CFU/g or mL) of both ice cream samples ensured their classification as probiotic products. This behavior was noted during all in vitro steps (from the mouth until the colon). From the mouth to the ileum was observed that both ice creams showed a slight oscillatory probiotic count. For the ice cream manufactured with concentrated milk, it was observed a high bifidobacteria protective effect in the descending colon, with probiotic viable cells count and recovery rate values equal to 9.88 log CFU/g and 112.02%, respectively. Finally, it was possible to conclude that as well as the ice cream with milk, the concentrated milk served as a succesful probiotic carrier.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract The effects of roasting on the colour parameters, anthocyanin content, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, and the microstructure of germinated Thai black rice (GTBR: non-waxy) and germinated Thai black sticky rice (GTBSR: waxy) were appraised. The results revealed that both types of roasted germinated Thai black rice showed an increase in all lightness (L*), redness(a*) and yellowness (b*). For the chemical properties, only the concentration of anthocyanin slightly decreased, whereas the total polyphenol content, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, and GABA content markedly increased after roasting. Moreover, images of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) displayed that both germinated black rice grains became more compact and had a tight shape in the surface structure. Additionally, small pores were found in the GTBR and large pores were present in the GTBSR rice kernel when compared with the unroasted black rice in the internal structure. Together,the roasting process was capable of enhancing the GABA and phenolic contents, and antioxidative capacity in both the GTBR and GTBSR.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract Meatballs were coated by gelatin-based mixes incorporated with potassium sorbate and rosemary extract. Coated samples were evaluated by free fatty acids (FFAs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content. In addition, texture profile analysis (TPA) was performed to evaluate the textural features of meatballs. Uncoated sample as control along with 3 other samples coated by different formulations were stored in zipped plastic bags at +4 °C for 10 days. No significant difference was observed between samples regarding FFA and TBARS although coating with potassium sorbate showed suppressive effect on TVB-N initially. The starting pH of meatball was 6.22 and the coatings generally limited the change in pH compared to the control. Although significant differences in color were observed due to the color of coating itself, the coatings limited the variations in color to some extent. Other quality parameters were not improved much with the studied formulations. It is concluded that active edible coatings might be utilized in muscle foods for preservation and shelf-life extension if appropriately formulated and applied. Comprehensive studies are needed to determine the performance of carrier polymers in release of active ingredients and suitable formulations for every single group of food.
Resumo em Inglês:Abstract In this study, synbiotic kefir types were produced by the addition of probiotic bacteria and prebiotics to cow and goat milk. Commercial DVS kefir cultures, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-11 as probiotic cultures and inulin as prebiotic for the production of the kefir samples. The effect of the different probiotics and prebiotic on some characteristics of kefir made from cow and goat milk was investigated. Titratable acidity, tyrosine content, volatile components and sensory properties of samples were examined on the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. According to the results, titratable acidity and tyrosine amount in kefir increased during the storage period. There was a gradual increase in the acetaldehyde value of kefir made from cow milk during the storage period, whereas there were no regular changes obtained in the kefir produced from goat milk. However, the diacetyl content varied in all the synbiotic products during storage. The total acceptability results showed that the synbiotic kefir made from cow milk was more preferred to the one made from goat milk.