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Food Science and Technology, Volume: 36, Issue: 3, Published: 2016
  • Applications of electronic noses in meat analysis Review

    GÓRSKA-HORCZYCZAK, Elżbieta; GUZEK, Dominika; MOLĘDA, Zuzanna; WOJTASIK-KALINOWSKA, Iwona; BRODOWSKA, Marta; WIERZBICKA, Agnieszka

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Electronic noses are devices able to characterize and differentiate the aroma profiles of various food, especially meat and meat products. During recent years e-noses have been widely used in food analysis and proved to provide a fast, simple, non-expensive and non-destructive method of food assessment and quality control. The aim of this study is to summarize the most important features of this analytic tool and to present basic fields and typical areas of e-nose use as well as most commonly used sensor types and patterns for e-nose design. Prospects for the future development of this technique are presented. Methods and research results presented in this manuscript may be a guideline for practical e-nose use.
  • Effect of different ripening stages on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of wild Rosa laevigata Michx Research Paper

    XIE, Guofang; WANG, Jiajia; XU, Xiaoyan; WANG, Rui; ZHOU, Xiaoli; LIU, Zhigang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Rosa Laevigata Michx., contents of bioactive components contribute to the health beneftis of consuming fresh, snacks and medicine, is widely used as the Chinese medicinal herbs. The effect of fruit ripening on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of Rosa laevigata Michx fruits was investigated. The results showed that, the bioactive compounds, including titratable acidity, reducing sugar, total ascorbic acid, total polyphenol and total flavonoids, significant changes occurred at different ripening stages. The contents of reducing sugar, total polyphenol and total flavonoids were directly proportional to the maturity. However, the content of titration acid and ascorbic acid is inversely proportional to the maturity. Antioxidant capacity and ROS inhibition are proportional to the maturity, and the antioxidant capacity of Rosa laevigata Michx significantly increase during maturity. The Rosa laevigata Michx fruits at fully ripe stage had higher healthcare and medicinal value.
  • Influence of calcium acetate on rye bread volume Research Paper

    FUCKERER, Katharina; TREUDE, Julia; HENSEL, Oliver; SCHMITT, Joachim Johannes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The positive accepted savoury taste of rye bread is dependent on acetate concentration in the dough of such breads. In order to study how calcium acetate influences rye bread properties, the pH of rye doughs fortified with calcium acetate and the resulting volume of the breads were measured. Furthermore, CO2 formation of yeast with added calcium acetate and yeast with different pH levels (4, 7, 9) were measured. Thereby, it was determined that the addition of calcium acetate increased the pH of dough from 4.42 to 5.29 and significantly reduced the volume of the breads from 1235.19 mL to 885.52 mL. It could be proven that bread volume was affected by a 30.9% lower CO2 amount production of yeast, although bread volume was not affected by changing pH levels. Due to reduced bread volume, high concentrations of calcium acetate additions are not recommended for improving rye bread taste.
  • Sensory perception of the fermented goat milk: potential application of the DSC method Research Paper

    BESSA, Martha Eunice de; RODARTE, Miriam Pereira; OTÊNIO, Marcelo Henrique; STRINGHETA, Paulo Cesar; OLIVEIRA, Juliana Mauricio de; BARBOSA, Jucélia Silva; PINTO, Miriam Aparecida de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Goat milk and its derivatives present proven beneficial health properties; however, some sensory aspects associated to consumers’ expectations restrict the consumption growth for these products. In this work, fermented caprine milk formulations have been evaluated utilizing the methodology of Discourse of the Collective Subject (Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo – DSC) associated to sensory analysis, in order to evaluate the perception of fermented caprine milk by consumers. The physicochemical and microbiological requisites of the fermented milk formulations evaluated during the storage, were according to current legislation. The probiotic characteristics of evaluated formulations were preserved, presenting viable cells counts for Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium BB-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus higher than 1x106 CFU/mL, along 28 days of storage. The Discourse of the Collective Subject results have shown that the typical taste and flavor, present in products derived from caprine milk, did not influence the purchase intention, which was expressive for all fermented milks. The Discourse of the Collective Subject has elucidated the consumers’ perspective, determining then both, the consumers’ profile and the factors interfering on the acquisition of fermented caprine milk.
  • Physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat cupuaçu and açaí nectar: characterization and changes during storage Research Paper

    FERNANDES, Eneide Taumaturgo Macambira Braga; MACIEL, Vlayrton Tomé; SOUZA, Maria Luzenira de; FURTADO, Cydia de Menezes; WADT, Lucia Helena de Oliveira; CUNHA, Clarissa Reschke da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical composition, color and sensory acceptance of low-fat açaí and cupuaçu nectar, as well as changes in these parameters during storage. Nectars were prepared with açaí pulp previously defatted by centrifugation on a pilot scale. The study consisted of two steps. In the first step, the physicochemical characteristics, instrumental color, and sensory acceptance of the nectar prepared with low-fat açaí pulp were evaluated and compared with those of nectar prepared with full-fat açaí pulp. In the second step, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, anthocyanin content, instrumental color, and sensory acceptance of the low-fat açaí and cupuaçu nectar were evaluated for 6 months of storage at 25°C in the absence of light. The use of low-fat açaí pulp resulted in nectars with good overall acceptance, but with lower scores for color acceptance than those of the full-fat nectar. The low-fat nectar remained stable with respect to acidity, pH, and soluble solid content during storage for up to 180 days. However, there was degradation of anthocyanins, which had a negative impact on the product color and sensory acceptance over time. Under the conditions evaluated, the estimated product shelf life is up to 120 days.
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of snack bars added of jerivá flour (Syagrus romanzoffiana) Research Paper

    SILVA, Edson Pablo da; SIQUEIRA, Heloisa Helena; DAMIANI, Clarissa; VILAS BOAS, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this work was to characterize promising fruit crops and to explore opportunities for the sustainable and commercial use of flours obtained from fruits as an ingredient in snack bars. The fruit selected was Jeriva, which grow from north to eastern Brazil, and can be found in the Savanna biome. The fruit flour was obtained from dehydrated pulps and the proximate composition, dietary fiber, vitamin C, % scavenging free radicals, mineral composition, pH, ºBrix, titratable acidity and sensory analysis were determined. The flour was incorporated into the formulation by partial substitution of the standard ingredients of snack bars. The presence of increasing amounts (up to 20%) of Jeriva fruit flour resulted in sensory accepted snack bars, with 7.02 average in the scores evaluated, without significant differences among the formulations and significantly increased the protein at 7.12%, vitamin C 40.81 mg.g-1 and fiber contentes showed values at 6.66% for dietary fiber. Moreover, the results of free radical scavenging confirmed the greater antioxidant activity proportional to the increment of flour. Therefore, Jeriva fruit flour could be an alternative sensorily acceptable, for obtaining of snack bars.
  • Bioactive fractions from cantabrian anchovy (Engraulis encrarischolus) viscera Research Paper

    BURGOS-HERNÁNDEZ, Armando; ROSAS-BURGOS, Ema-Carina; MARTÍNEZ, Marina; NUNCIO-JAUREGUI, Paloma-Nallely; MARHUENDA, Frutos; KAČÁNIOVÁ, Miroslava; PETROVÁ, Jana; CARBONELL-BARRACHINA, Angel-Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The potential of cantabrian anchovy (Engraulis encrarischolus) viscera as a source of bioactive compounds is of interest for both, pharmaceutical and food industries. Cantabrian anchovy guts and heads were freeze-dried, extracted with methanol and subjected to fractionation by solvent partitioning using hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. Fractions were tested for antimutagenic, antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial activity using the Ames test; DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays; the radial grown inhibition assay; and the microbroth dilution method, respectively. Five fractions were obtained from the anchovy gut methanolic extract, in addition to the hexane- (HF), ethyl acetate- (EAF), and butanol-soluble (BF) fractions, an aqueous-soluble fraction (ALF) and precipitated crystals (ACF) in this were also obtained. HF and EAF resulted to be antimutagenic, HF and ALF showed antifungal activity, BF and ACF showed the highest antioxidant potential, and HF and BF were antibacterial against several strains. Anchovy gut, which to the present study had not been reported for any bioactivity, has antimutagenic, antifungal, antioxidant, and antibacterial compounds, which need to be isolated for full characterization and study.
  • Personal characteristics of coffee consumers and non-consumers, reasons and preferences for foods eaten with coffee among adults from the Federal District, Brazil Research Paper

    SOUSA, Alessandra Gaspar; MACHADO, Liliane Maria Messias; SILVA, Eduardo Freitas da; COSTA, Teresa Helena Macedo da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of consumers and non-consumers, the reasons and foods associated with coffee intake among adults from the Federal District, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted by telephone interview (n= 1,368). We collected information on detailed coffee intake, socio-demographic aspects and personal characteristics. The coffee had an average daily intake of 319 mL. Individuals were more likely to drink coffee at an older age (68%) and with higher body mass index (58%). The most cited reason for consuming coffee was the “personal pleasure” (48%), followed by “habit / tradition” of consuming coffee. Among non-consumers of this beverage, the main reason was not liking the taste and / or aroma of coffee (62%). The method of coffee preparation used was by infusion (86%) and sugar was the main sweetener used by 83% of consumers. The majority of consumers (59%) reported consuming coffee with certain foods such as bakery products. The results from our study may suggest that the popularity of coffee can be attributed to its taste, personal pleasure and habit, and the consumption is more likely to occur with the advance of age and with intake of other foods.
  • Identification of volatile compounds in cultivars barker, collinson, fortuna and geada of avocado (Persea americana, Mill.) fruit Research Paper

    GALVAO, Mercia de Sousa; NUNES, Maria Lúcia; CONSTANT, Patricia Beltrão Lessa; NARAIN, Narendra

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this paper was to determine the volatile profile of four cultivars - Barker, Collinson, Fortuna and Geada of avocado (Persea americana, Mill.) fruit and to perform a detailed study on the effect of volatiles extraction conditions. The best conditions for extraction for Collinson and Fortuna cultivars were by using a mixture of pentane and ethyl ether (2:1) as solvent for 80 min, while for Barker and Geada cultivars, the solvents were hexane and pentane-ether (2:1), respectively but for a shorter extraction period of 60 min. A total number of 158 compounds were separated in all 4 avocado cultivars, among them eighty-four volatile compounds were identified. The principal volatile compounds viz. hexanal, ethyl acetate, methyl dodecanoate, 2,5-dimethyl furan, 1,3-butanediol, 2-ethylphenol, 2-butanol, α−bergamotene, β−caryophyllene, (E)-2-decenal were common in all the 4 cultivars. (E)-2-pentenal which possesses fruity aroma was found only in the cultivar Fortuna while ethyl acetate possessing fresh fruity flavor was present in higher content in Collinson cultivar. Benzaldehyde which possesses characteristic fruity and nutty odor note was present at a higher concentration (4.3%) in only Geada cultivar and in traces in Barker cultivar but it was not detected in Collinson and Fortuna cultivars.
  • Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study Research Paper

    BARROS, Cássia Pereira de; ROSENTHAL, Amauri; WALTER, Eduardo Henrique Miranda; DELIZA, Rosires

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.
  • Electrolytic treatment and biosurfactants applied to the conservation of Eugenia uniflora fruit Research Paper

    DILARRI, Guilherme; SILVA, Vinicius Luiz da; PECORA, Hengli Barbosa; MONTAGNOLLI, Renato Nallin; CORSO, Carlos Renato; BIDOIA, Ederio Dino

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Microorganisms are the primary responsible for food poisoning and food spoilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different fruit washing methods with tap water, electrolyzed water and rhamnolipids solution produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, in order to inhibit microbial growth. The tested organism was Eugenia uniflora. The fruits were washed and periodically inoculated into culture media to evaluate and count the colonies on the fruit surface. It was also observed the deterioration level of the fruits after each treatment. The results showed that treatment with rhamnolipids were the most efficient, inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. The electrolyzed water proved to be very efficient in bacterial inhibition at the initial time, but in the final time it did not present any inhibitory effect. The electrolyzed water was also not effective in eliminating fungus. Washing with tap water was the less efficient treatment of all. The only treatment that showed an increased durability has been with rhamnolipids, increasing shelf life by up to two days. Thus rhamnolipids are the most recommended method for fruits sanitation.
  • Good hygiene practices in hospital nutrition services: the view of internal and external auditors Research Paper

    STANGARLIN-FIORI, Lize; MEDEIROS, Laissa Benites; SERAFIM, Ana Lúcia; BERTIN, Renata Labronici; MEDEIROS, Caroline Opolski; HECKTHEUER, Luisa Helena

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition services according to internal and external auditors, before and after intervention, based on the requirements of Good Hygiene Practices. Fifteen hospital nutrition services were evaluated based on a checklist applied by internal auditors and by an external auditor. The intervention program was prepared and implemented in all the locations over one year, and was composed of four points: 1) training; 2) preparation of the action plan; 3) preparation of the documentation; 4) monthly visits to motivate the food handlers and responsible technicians, accompaniment and assistance in the implementation of Good Hygiene Practices. An improvment in the application of Good Hygiene Practices was observed in the hospital nutrition services after the systematic intervention, in the view of both the internal and external auditors, except the requirement related to operational aspects, which had a low percentage of adequacy, both before and after the intervention Before the intervention, there was a significant difference between the evaluation of the internal auditors and the external auditor, which was not found later. These results suggest that the systematic intervention assisted in the adoption of Good Hygiene Practices by hospital nutrition services, according to both the internal and external auditors, and contributed to increasing the knowledge of the internal auditors.
  • Osmotic dehydration of yellow melon using red grape juice concentrate Research Paper

    CHAMBI, Hulda Noemi Mamani; LIMA, Wiliene Camila Valadares; SCHMIDT, Flávio Luís

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The main objectives of this work were to study the effect of fruit ripening on the melon osmotic dehydration at reduced pressure and to model the mass transfer of moisture during melon dehydration with grape juice concentrate and sucrose solution. The ripening level had no relevant effect over the physical characteristics of the final product, with soluble solids, moisture and water activity without significant differences. Besides, the mass loss and solute gain parameters did not show significant differences, and only the solute gain had few variations. The process of the osmotic dehydration with grape juice concentrate was the most effective one, with higher dehydration and lowest solutes gain compared to the process carried out with sucrose solution. The water effective diffusivity calculated by the Fick’s equation for the process conduced with grape juice was lower than the one obtained for the sucrose solution, according to different equilibrium moisture content calculated by Peleg’s equation. The dehydrated melon with grape juice concentrate showed reduced water activity (~ 0.92) and low moisture content (~ 58%).
  • Effectiveness of convective drying to conserve indigenous yeasts with high volatile profile isolated from algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb) Research Paper

    HAMOUDI-BELARBI, Latifa; NOURI, L’Hadi; BELKACEMI, Khaled

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Yeasts Candida tropicalis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saprochaete suaveolens and Trichosporon coremiiforme were isolated and identified by physiological, biochemical tests with API 20C AUX system and molecular methods by restriction fragment analysis of PCR-amplified 28S-rRNA from Algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb). Selected yeasts S. suaveolens, I. orientalis, K. marxianus and W. anomalus produced esters and higher esters which can exert a pertinent influence on the sensory characteristics of Rayeb. Viability of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus using three methods of drying (freeze-drying, convective drying, and spray-drying) and during 4 months of storage at 4 °C and 25 °C in the darkness was studied. Immediately after each drying method, high survival was obtained using freeze-drying followed by convective drying in rice cakes and spray-drying respectively. During storage at 4 °C, convective drying provided better survival of yeast cultures of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus than freeze-drying. At 25 °C of storage, convective and freeze-dried yeast cultures showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 2 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 3 months of storage at 25 °C.
  • Effects of carbon monoxide treatment before vacuum packaging on the physical parameters and consumer evaluations of raw beef Research Paper

    SAKOWSKA, Anna; GUZEK, Dominika; WIERZBICKA, Agnieszka

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study examined the color changes of packaged beef due to the effects of carbon monoxide exposure before vacuum packing and storage time, as well as consumers’ evaluations of that beef. In the experiment, 400 striploin steaks (M. longissimus dorsi) were vacuum packed or after 48 hours of exposure to different concentrations of CO (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) vacuum packed. The color measurements and consumer evaluations were conducted after 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days of storage in the dark at 2 ± 1 °C. Consumers evaluated the color, surface discoloration, attractiveness, and their willingness to buy the meat. The results showed that regardless of storage time, the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*) were significantly higher for the steaks vacuum packed after exposure to carbon monoxide in comparison to those packaged in a vacuum without the use of CO. Based on the consumer evaluations, the most attractive steaks were those that had been exposed to 0.3% and 0.5% CO, which were characterized by bright red or cherry-red colors. Consumers did not accept the appearance of steaks packaged without the carbon monoxide pretreatment. Exposing meat to CO before packaging allows to obtain the attractive color of vacuum packed beef.
  • Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO2 extracts from freeze-dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) Research Paper

    TANG, QingFeng; DAI, Yin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) resources, the supercritical CO2 fluid freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae (fdTML) extraction on the immune systems of mice was carried out. The results about the effects of supercritical CO2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased. The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.
  • Computer vision system approach in colour measurements of foods: Part II. validation of methodology with real foods Research Paper

    TARLAK, Fatih; OZDEMİR, Murat; MELİKOGLU, Mehmet

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The colour of food is one of the most important factors affecting consumers’ purchasing decision. Although there are many colour spaces, the most widely used colour space in the food industry is L*a*b* colour space. Conventionally, the colour of foods is analysed with a colorimeter that measures small and non-representative areas of the food and the measurements usually vary depending on the point where the measurement is taken. This leads to the development of alternative colour analysis techniques. In this work, a simple and alternative method to measure the colour of foods known as “computer vision system” is presented and justified. With the aid of the computer vision system, foods that are homogenous and uniform in colour and shape could be classified with regard to their colours in a fast, inexpensive and simple way. This system could also be used to distinguish the defectives from the non-defectives. Quality parameters of meat and dairy products could be monitored without any physical contact, which causes contamination during sampling.
  • Essential minerals and inorganic contaminants (barium, cadmium, lithium, lead and vanadium) in dried bee pollen produced in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Research Paper

    SATTLER, José Augusto Gasparotto; DE-MELO, Adriane Alexandre Machado; NASCIMENTO, Kelly Souza do; MELO, Illana Louise Pereira de; MANCINI-FILHO, Jorge; SATTLER, Aroni; ALMEIDA-MURADIAN, Ligia Bicudo de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Like other beehive products, such as honey, royal jelly and propolis, bee pollen has attracted great interest because of the health benefits it can provide when consumed. Bee pollen has high contents of sugars and proteins and a low content of lipids, it is also a rich source of vitamins and other bioactive compounds, which makes it an attractive micronutrient supplement. However, few studies have investigated its composition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the essential minerals and inorganic contaminants present in bee pollen produced at apiaries in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) revealed the presence of 8 essential minerals (calcium, iron, copper, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus and zinc) in the 5 analyzed samples; 6 of them were in sufficiently high amounts to meet dietary requirements. Of the 5 inorganic contaminants assessed (barium, cadmium, lithium, lead and vanadium), only cadmium was present at levels over the International Honey Commission’s standards. All bee pollen samples showed a high content of the 8 essential minerals. Contamination usually results from the use of pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals in agriculture; thus, monitoring of its levels must be included in bee pollen analysis.
  • Assessment of volatile organic compounds from banana Terra subjected to different alcoholic fermentation processes Research Paper

    CAPOBIANGO, Michely; DINIZ, Isabela Maia; ANDRE, Leiliane Coelho; OLIVEIRA, Evelyn de Souza; CARDEAL, Zenilda de Lourdes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Banana characteristics could provide yeast growth and support the action of yeast to produce beverages. The effects of enzymatic treatment, centrifugation, commercial yeast and two selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using the fermented banana Terra. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the condition employing enzymatic treatment, centrifugation and wet commercial yeast provided maximum ethanol yield (86%) and effiency (98%). Twenty-two compounds of distinct chemical classes were analysed including alcohols, esters, acids and aldehydes. The concentrations of the VOCs differed depending on the fermentation condition and were more influenced by using different yeasts. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.056 to 2.694 mg L–1 and 0.057 to 2.904 mg L–1 respectively. Among the most prevalent VOCs the higher alcohols ranged from 353 to 1017 mg per 100 mL of anhydrous alcohol. The fermented banana studied showed a composition similar to other fermented fruit pulps.
  • Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl. Research Paper

    LI, Yibin; LAI, Pufu; CHEN, Junchen; SHEN, Hengsheng; TANG, Baosha; WU, Li; WENG, Minjie

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than Vc by evaluating of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, polyphenol extracts (IC50 = 179 g/mL) showed obvious inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. These findings suggest that polyphenol extracts from P. salicina can be potentially used as natural antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agents.
  • Presence of central nervous system tissues as bovine spongiform encephalopathy specified risk material in Turkish raw meat ball (cig kofte) Research Paper

    DİNÇOĞLU, Ahmet Hulusi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a virulent disease which may infect by affecting the central nervous system (CNS) tissues in cattle and causes degeneration in nerves. Central nervous system tissues such as brain and spinal cord which are classified as specified risk materials (SRMs) are regarded to be main source of infection. The contamination of the meat with the specific risk materials (SRMs) can occur in phases of slaughter, fragmentation of carcass and processing. This study was conducted in order to investigate the existence of CNS tissues in raw meat ball (cig kofte) which is commonly consumed in the Southeastern Region of Turkey, particularly in Şanlıurfa. For this purpose, 145 samples of raw meat ball were tested. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Ridascreen risk material 10/5, R-biofarm GmbH) which determine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as determinant were used. As a result of the analyses, positivity was detected in 21 of totally 145 samples of raw meat ball (14.48%). 6 (4.14%) of the samples gave low level of positivity (≥ 0.1 standard absorbance), 10 (6.90%) gave medium level of positivity (>0.2 standard absorbance) and 5 (3.45%) gave high level of positivity (≥0.5 standard absorbance). As a consequence, meats are contaminated in any phase of both slaughter and meat production even if accidentally. Regarding this matter, necessary measures should be taken and hygiene rules should be applied.
  • Homogenate extraction of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and evaluation of the antioxidant activity Research Paper

    KE, Leqin; CHEN, Haiyan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes were extracted using homogenate method. Factors affecting the yield of crude polysaccharides were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. The homogenate extraction method was compared with traditional heating extraction method. The antioxidant activity of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes was evaluated. Results showed that, the optimal conditions of homogenate extraction were as follows: solvent pH, 10; liquid-solid ratio, 30: 1 (mL: g), extraction time, 66 s; number of extraction, 1. Under these conditions, the yield of crude polysaccharides was (13.2 ± 0.9)%, which was 29.82% higher than that of traditional heating extraction. Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes had good DPPH scavenging activity. Compared with the traditional heating extraction, the homogenate extraction had notable advantages including good extraction yield, short extraction time and low extraction temperature. It is an efficient way to extract crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes.
  • Fruit salad as a new vehicle for probiotic bacteria Research Paper

    MARTINS, Eliane Maurício Furtado; RAMOS, Afonso Mota; MARTINS, Maurilio Lopes; LEITE JÚNIOR, Bruno Ricardo de Castro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work aimed to study the use of fruit salads as carriers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. We evaluated the viability of this probiotic in fruit salads and the phsyico-chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of this food. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to verify microorganism adhesion on the fruit tissues. The viability of L. rhamnosus in fruit salads was 8.49 log CFU.g-1 after 120 hours. SEM images showed that fruit tissue provided protection for probiotic. Adhesion sites were observed in higher quantity in banana, apple and guava. The addition of L. rhamnosus did not alter texture of fruits (p > 0.05). Fruit salads containing probiotic had different values of pH and acidity compared to the control (p < 0.05). Ascorbic acid content decreased over time; however, total carotenoids did not significantly decrease (p > 0.05). Fruit salads containing L. rhamnosus showed counts of psychotrophic microorganisms of at least 2.0 log CFU.g-1 lower than control salad after 120 h of refrigerated storage. The fruit salad was well accepted by consumers. Therefore, this product can be used as a carrier for probiotic and an alternative to consuming functional foods.
  • Effects of different packaging techniques on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of coated pumpkin slices Research Paper

    AKSU, Filiz; URAN, Harun; DÜLGER ALTINER, Dilek; SANDIKÇI ALTUNATMAZ, Sema

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this study the effects of zein film coating along with benzoic acid on the quality of sliced pumpkin samples, which were packaged with different techniques were investigated. The samples were allocated into different groups and were treated with different processes. Following processing, the samples were stored at +4 °C for twenty days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the samples once every five days during the storage period. According to color analysis, the L* value was observed to have significantly decreased in the processed and packaged samples in comparison with the control group. Besides, a* and b* values increased in all groups. It was determined that zein film alone did not exhibit the expected effectiveness against moisture loss in the samples. According to the results of microbiological analysis, a final decrease at approximately 1.00 log level was determined in total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB) in the group which was vacuum packaged in PVDC with zein coating when compared with the initial TMAB. Furthermore, no molding occurred in zein-coated group on the last day of the storage period, while massive mold growth was noted in the group which was packaged without any pretreatment procedure.
  • Physico-chemical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of cereal bars with addition of acacia gum, inulin and sorbitol Research Paper

    SREBERNICH, Silvana Mariana; GONÇALVES, Gisele Mara Silva; ORMENESE, Rita de Cássia Salvucci Celeste; RUFFI, Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The cereal bars are products globally accepted and consumed by all age groups. In this study, by Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effects of different concentrations of inulin, acacia gum and sorbitol in the characteristics of hardness, color and water activity of cereal bars were studied. A total of 17 experiments being 8 factorials, 6 axials and 3 repetitions at the central point were performed. The regression model presented for the hardness was significant indicating that the quantities of inulin, acacia gum and sorbitol affect the hardness of the cereal bars. Referring to color it was observed that the less inulin and more sorbitol, the more yellow the tone of the bars was. The results of water activity were not influenced by the ingredients. In a comprehensive assessment through the RSM, the bars coming from the treatments 5 and 11 provided the best results and when submitted to sensory evaluation they were not statistically different. Although these bars have presented reduction of 15 to 20% in calorific value, according to the DRC 54/2012 they cannot be considered products with a reduced caloric value. These bars also presented considerable level of soluble fiber (more than 3% inulin).
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