The article discusses the possibility of defining a new profile for teachers of early childhood education and the first four years of primary school. There are two different models of teachers that have emerged historically: the one qualified at the secondary level, that teaches all the subject matters, and the other that is qualified at the college or university level, that is especialized by different subjects. The first one works with preschool and primary school children. There is another kind of educator that work in day care centers; in Brazil they generally lack any kind of qualification. In the context of the recent legal and institutional reforms in the educational systems in Brazil, the article discusses the following aspects of the qualification of teachers for children up to 10 years of age: the relationships between theory and practice; the relationships between knowledge of the subjects contents and the knowledge about children's development; secondary or post secondary level of qualification; especialization by sub groups of age between the 0-10 group; and preparation for work with parents and the community. The article also stresses the importance of planning for the transition period until the new levels of qualification are attained.