This paper describes the trajectory of kindergarten and pre-school until the 1966 Brazilian Education Basic Tenets Law (LDB) transformed them into the child education institution responsible for the first phase of basic education. It shows that the attempts to articulate research, policies and pedagogical practices ensured progress and innovation in this area, which have been building a child pedagogy involved in guaranteeing, at the municipal level, the right to education of the 0-6 year olds. Still a new area in education, it suffers pressures that may lead to a retroversion, as is the case nowadays. Eluding conclusions, this text highlights that the transgression implemented by a child education giving life to a childhood that extends to the first grades practically hinders nationally integrated policies. This is also the case in Italy, where 0-3 year olds education in kindergarten is not free and where a government fell, in 1968, when people wanted free pre-school.
Child education; Integrated policies for childhood; Little children; Kindergarten; Pre-school; First phase of basic education