Abstract in English:Six Salmonella Agona strains from an outbreak of 15 days duration which occurred in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed. The outbreak involved six infants (mean age, 24 days; mean body weight, 1612 g), all of them with severe clinical signs and symptoms. Two of them had surgical implications, two were preterm and two had respiratory distress at birth. The Salmonella strains were resistant to nine antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, cephalotin, cefriaxone, gentamicin, amykacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracyclin). Analysis of the plasmid pattern of the wild strains and of the transconjugants confirmed that these were identical strains.
Abstract in English:Faeces from 17 children less than 1.6 years old 15 adultsmore than 22 years old were collected during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in aday care nursery and screened for the presence of adenovirus and rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIARA) and other viruses by electron microscopy (EM) and polycrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Ten samples (58.8 per cent) from childrenand one (6.7 per cent) from adults were positive for rotavirus and all samples were negative for bacteria and parasites. No other viruses were observed in EM. An enzyme immunoassay test using monoclonal antibodies (MAb-EIA) to determine the subgroup(s) and the serotype(s) of rotavirus was performed and the results showedthat all positive samples belong to serotype 1, subgroup II of group A rotaviruses. In PAGE test all samples had the same profile and the 10 and 11 dsRNA segments corresponed to the "long" profile of group A of rotaviruses. These results corroborated the MAbEIA results and indicate a sole source of infection. The majorsymptoms observed were: vomiting (60 per cent), fever (70 per cent) and diarrhoea (100 per cent). In previous years (1989 to 1991) we observed only rotavirus serotype 2 in this same day care nursery, but no outbreak was reported.
Abstract in English:Variations in the rate of predation of the waterbugs Sphaerodema annulatum and S. rusticum on the snails Lymnaea (Radix) luteola have been noted in respect to the morphs of the waterbugs, size of the prey individuals, densities of prey and predators, temperature and surface area of the waterbody concerned and the seasons. Consumption rate was highest (7.2 and 2.2 individuals per day per individual of S. annulatum and S. rusticum, respectively) in prereproductive ages of the waterbugs. This was followed by a gradual decline with the increase in age of the predators. The consumption rate was gradually higher with the increase of temperature from 20 °C to 35 °C. The bugs failed to survive beyond 35 days at 35 °C. Though the bugs prey upon the snails of all sizes preference for 6.5 ÷ 4.5 mm to 8 ÷ 5 mm individuals by S. annulatum and for 5 ÷ 3 mm to 6.5 ÷ 4.5 mm individuals belonged to 3 ÷ 2 - 4 ÷ 3 mm size group maximum when supplied separately. The rate of predation gradually declined with the rise of predator's desity irrespective of waterbug species. Predation rate increased with increasing prey density. This was level off when the prey snails were 1100 and 700 in number for S. annulatum and S. rusticum respectively. An adult S. annulatum and S. rusticum consumed 5.04, 3.7, 1.43 and 3.36, 2.49, 1.04 snails per day respectively in summer, monsoon and winter.
Abstract in English:Dengue virus replication in mosquito cell cultures was observed by electron microscopy in one fatal and 40 classical isolates from a dengue type 2 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro and compared with the prototype New Guinea C strain. All the Brazilian isolates presented, beside the classical structured dengue virus particles, fuzzy coated virus-like particles, never observed in thereferencial New Guinea C virus strain. more numerous DEN-2 virus particles, fuzzy coated virus-like particles, defective virus particles and smooth membrane structures inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum characterized the unique fatal isolate examined.
Abstract in English:A new Brazilian species of the Culicoides limai group. C. lobatoi from Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro, is described and illustrated from female specimens.
Abstract in English:Amblyomma dissimile is a common ectoparasite of cold blooded animals and is an accidental ectoparasite of some wild mammals. Details of the biology of specimens from the State of Amapá were studied in the laboratory in a humidity chamber at an average environmental temperature of 19.5 °C, using Bufo marinus as host for the time in Brazil. We also report the first record of this species in the State of Minas Gerais.
Abstract in English:The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852) Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana) and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821) Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802) Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.
Abstract in English:The high rate of natural Trypanosoma cruzi infection found in opossums does not always correlate with appreciable densities of local triatomid populations. One alternative method which might bypass the invertebrate vector is direct transmission from mother to offspring. This possibility was investigated in five T. cruzi infected females and their litters (24 young). The influence of maternal antibodies transferred via lactation, on the course of experimental infection, was also examined. Our results show that neonatal transmission is probably not responsible for the high rate of natural T. cruzi infection among opossums. In addition antibodies of maternal origin confer a partial protection to the young. This was demonstrated by the finding of a double prepatency period and 4,5 fold lower levels of circulating parasites, in experimentally infected pouch young from infected as compared to control uninfected mothes. On the other hand, the duration of patent parasitemia was twice as long as that observed in the control group.
Abstract in English:A slide micro-immunoenzymatic assay (micro-SIA) to detectantibodies to non-particulate Toxoplasma gondii antigens is described. This assay allows the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis infection in about 1 hr. Twenty-four determinations can be performed per slide. Five hundred ng of antigen and 5 or 10 µl drop of each reactive are necessary per well. The clear contrast of colours obtained for negative and positive sera after the test is finished, allows direct discrimination of the results. However, it is possible to quantify the results of the reaction using a minireader. Sera dilution cutoff value, determined as themost frequent titre for the general population, is 1:100. The toxoplasma micro-SIA correlates well with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), its sensitivity is atleast three times as much as IIF. The test has an intra and inter assay variation coefficient of 5.46 per cent and of 6.24 per cent respectively. Sera obtained at random from argentinian people were analyzed and a 56 per cent of infection was found. The main features of the Toxoplasma micro-SIA are its simplicity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and the virtual absence of background making it very suitable for screening tests.
Abstract in English:An ELISA test for the serological diagnosisof amoebic liver abscess (ALA) was standardized and evaluated in sera from three groups of patients: (1) three patients with diagnosis confirmed by isolation of the parasite,(2) thirty seven patients with diagnosis established by clinical findings and ultrasound studies and (3) seven patients whose diagnosis were established by clinical findings and a positive double immunodifusion test. Ninety one serum samples from healthy subjects and 22 from patients with other liver or parasitic diseases were also included in the study. the optimum concentration of Entamoeba histolytica antigen was 1.25 µg/ml and optimum dilutions of serum and anti-human IgG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate were 1:400 and 1:4000 respectively. The cut-off point of the ELISA test in this study was an absorbance value of 0.34. The test parameters were: sensitivity = 95.7 per cent, specificty = 100 per cent, positive predictive value = 100 per cent and negative predictive value = 98.2 per cent.The ELISA test was found to be of great use as a diagnostic tool for the establishment of amoebic etiology in patients with clinical supposition of ALA. The test could also be used for seroepidemiological surveys of the prevalence of invasive amoebiasis in a given population, since it allows the processing of a greater number of samples at a lower cost tahn other serological tests.
Abstract in English:A case of a 20-years-old black man from Salvador, Bahia with HTLV-I associated T cell lymphoma is presented. In spite of the absence of splenomegaly and leukemia, the patient had a marked cephalic tumoral infiltrationassociated with axillary tumors in a pattern not yet described in adult T cell lymphoma. Peripheral blood involvement was observed later on in the course of thedisease. The patient underwent chemotherapy but died seven monts after diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Selection III mice have particular immunological characteristics: they are high (H III) or low (L III) antibody producer animals, yet both lines display similar T cell responses and macrophage activities. We submittedthese mice to infection with Schistosoma mansoni to assess in vivo parasite and egg burden, hepatic collagen and cellular composition of granulomas in both lines. Titration of anti-Schistosoma IgG by ELISA showed remarkably higher values inH III line, at both studied periods (8th and 12th weeks post-infection). Nevertheless, the number of adult worms recovered from the portal system was similar inboth lines, being not associated with anti-Schistosoma antibody levels. There isan increase in hepatic collagen from the 8th to the 12th weeks post-infection, which is paralleled by an increase in the number of eggs in the liver. This association apparently occurs at the same radio in H III and L III animals. The most important difference found between the two lines was the outstanding contrast interms of volume and eosinophil counts in the granulomas, with lesions from H IIImice clearly being larger and containing more of these cells than LIII lesions.
Abstract in English:A number of glycoconjugates, including glycolipids and glycoproteins, participate in the process of host-cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and one of the most important carbohydrates involved on this interaction is sialic acid. It is known that parasite trans-sialidase participates with sialic acid in a coordinated fashion in the initial stages of invasion. Given the importance of these sialogycoconjugates, this review sets out various possible biological models for the interaction between the parasite and mammalian cells that possess a sialylated receptor/ligand system.
Abstract in English:Rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain exhibited hypertrophy of the submandibular gland at 18 days after infection.SDS-PAGE of infected rats saliva revealed the presence of an additional band with an apparent molecular weight of about 13KDa. Electrophoresis of protein salivaand immunochemical analysis with antibody against rat cystatin S confirmed that the protein was identical to that induced by beta adrenergic stimulation.
Abstract in English:The irp2 gene codes for a 190 kDa protein (HMWP2) synthesidez when highly pathogenic Yersinia are grown under conditions of iron starvation. In this work, the presence of irp2 in strains of Y. pestis isolated from different hosts during several plague outbreaks in the foci of Northeast Brazil wasstudied. For this purpose, 53 strains were spotted onto nylon filters and their DNA was hybridized with the A13 probe which is a 1 kb fragment of the irp2 coding sequence. All strains except two hybridized with the probe. However, when the initial stock culture of these two strains were analyzed, they both proved to bepositive with the A13 probe, indicating that the locus was lost after subculturein vitro but was always present in vivo. To examine the degree of conservation of the chromosomal fragment carrying irp2 among Brazilian strains, the hybridization profiles of 15 strains from different outbreaks, different hosts and different foci were compared. The hybridization profiles of these strains were all identical when their DNA was digested with either EcoRI, EcorRV or AvaII, indicatingthat the restriction sites surrounding the irp2 locus are very well conserved among Northeast Brazilian strains of Y. pestis. Altogether, these results suggest that the irp2 chromosomal region should be of prime importance for the bacteria during their multiplication in the host.
Abstract in English:In order to evaluate the effect of chaotropic agents on proteoglycan and non-collagenous proteins, chicken xiphoid cartilage was treated with guanidine-HCI and MgCl2 in different concentrations (1M to 5M), and different periods of time (12, 24, 48 and 72hr). The maximum yield of uronic acid was obtained with 3M MgCl2 (73.3 per cent). Concentrations of 4M and 5M of MgCl2 showed that much less uronic acid was removed, 55.3 per cent and 38.1 respectively. Extraction with 3M MgCl2 and 3M guanidine-HCl resulted better efficiency when performed for 48 hr. Analysis by SDS-PAGE of the extracts obtained with guanidine-HCl and MgCl, in different concentrations pointed out that most components are equally removed with the two solvents, showing that the extraction with MgCl2 is an alternative assay to remove non-collagenous proteins from extracellular matrix.
Abstract in English:The paper discusses the utilization of new techniques ot select processes for protein recovery, separation and purification. It describesa rational approach that uses fundamental databases of proteins molecules to simplify the complex problem of choosing high resolution separation methods for multi component mixtures. It examines the role of modern computer techniques to help solving these questions.