Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the optimal dietary concentration of zinc and manganese on the performance characteristic and the requirement of these trace minerals derived from organic sources for broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. In experiment 1, zinc was evaluated, whereas manganese was evaluated in experiment 2. In each experiment, 320 males chicks were distributed in iron mesh metabolic cages (0.9m x 0.7m x 0.5m), according to a completely randomized experimental design in eight treatments with five replicates of eight birds each. In experiment 1, zinc sulfate was included at 0,60 and 100mg/kg and zinc methionine at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mg/kg. In experiment 2, manganese sulfate was added at 0, 65 and 105mg/kg and manganese methionine at 25, 45, 65, 85 and 105 mg/kg. Trace mineral requirements were determined comparing only organic trace mineral levels. The evaluated trace minerals (zinc and manganese) did not influence broiler performance, independently of source or level. It was concluded that the requirements of broilers from 1 to 42 days of age were supplied with no addition of zinc or manganese, under the conditions of the present experiments. However, under commercial rearing conditions, which are more challenging, the use of levels higher than 33.00 mg/kg and37.80 mg/kg of zinc and manganese, respectively, may be justified.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disorder of chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV), is economically significant. The resistance/susceptibility to MD is controlled by host genetics. The host response to different virus strains varies. The pathogenicity of REV-LTR deleted GX0101∆LTR MDV has been previously reported. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the response of chickens to GX0101ΔLTR remains unclear. The current study aimed at identifying the genes and pathways involved in the response to GX0101ΔLTR virus infection in specific pathogen-free chicken embryo fibroblast cells using global transcriptome analysis. A total of 1,633 genes associated with GX0101ΔLTR infection were identified. Functional analysis showed that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction plays an important role in the response to GX0101ΔLTR infection.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to estimate the dig. valine to lysine (Val:Lys) ideal ratio for meat-type quails from 15 to 35 d of age. A total of 385, 15-day-old not sexed quails, were randomly assigned to five treatments, each one seven times replicated with eleven quails per experimental unit. Experimental treatments consisted of five dig. Val:Lys ratios (0.65; 0.70; 0.75; 0.80 and 0.85). Ideal dig. Val:Lys ratio was estimated using polynomial regression and linear broken-line regression model. Significant effect was considered when p≤0.05. Feed conversion ratio was not affected by dig. Val:Lys ratios in any of the assessed phases. From 15 to 21 d of age Val:Lys ratios increased linearly feed intake, weight gain and body weight. From 15 to 28 d of age, weight gain and body weight were both optimized by the Val:Lys ratio of 0.77. A linear effect of dig. Val:Lys ratios was observed on weight gain and final body weight from 15 to 35 d of age. From 15 to 35 d of age, according to linear broken-line regression model, the dig. Val:Lys ideal ratios for optimum final body weight and weight gain were 0.77 and 0.76, respectively. Based on the results the estimated dig. Val:Lys ratio for optimum meat-type quail performance from 15 to 35 d of age is 0.77
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole grape pomace (GP), grape seed (GS) and grape pomace polyphenolic extract (GPEP) on growth performance, total antioxidant status (TAS) and complete blood count (CBC) of 40-day-old chicks (hybrid Cobb 500). A total of 432 unsexed one-day-old chicks were divided into six groups: control (CON) and five experimental groups, 10 g/kg GP, 20 g/kg GP, 5 g/kg GS, 10 g/kg GS and 15 mL/L GPEP. The results showed a higher increase in growing rate in 5 g/kg GS group, from the first week of the chicks’ life throughout their growth, the average body weight of the chicks being significantly higher (p<0.01) than CON. The broilers that received 5 g/kg seeds in the diet, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg GP respectively, have achieved a better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than CON. The introduction of GPEP in drinking water has significantly affected (p<0.05) the growth performance in the fourth week of the experiment, lower weight gains could be due to high levels of polyphenols in grape pomace extract that may have a delayed effect on the growth of chickens. The CBC and TAS were not affected by dietary treatments (p>0.05) at 40 days of age. As a conclusion, the amount of 5 g/kg seeds, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg pomace, can be added to the diet of the broilers, the dose of 5 g/kg seeds in the diet offering advantages in growing rate and feed valorization in weight gain.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT To study the development rules of Chinese native geese, two breeds, Shitou and Sichuan White geese were analyzed from 0 to 12 weeks of age. The growth curves were fitted with commonly used four kinds of nonlinear models (Logistic, Gompertz, Von Bertalanffy and Richards). The results showed that the growth curves were appropriately fitted with all four models but the Logistic and Richards both had the best fitting with growth curve (R2>0.99). Analyzing the fitting parameters of the Logistic and Richards, we found that male Shitou had the highest adult body weight while Sichuan White female had the lowest weight. In Shitou breed, Shape parameter Predicted with Richards model was corresponded with Gompertz curve, while in Sichuan breed it was in between Gompertz and Bertalanffy. Growth parameters predicted with Logistic model was much more closed to observed value as compared others. So overall logistic was the best model to analyze the growth curve in Chinese native goose and Shitou goose had excellent growth performance when compared to Sichuan White.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In recent years, Guangxi has become one of the most severely affected provinces by epidemics of avian cholera in China. To date, the major determinant climatic factors of the disease in the region have remained largely unknown, making it difficult to effectively target countermeasures for avian cholera surveillance and control. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between climatic variables and cases of avian cholera in subtropical areas of China. Data relating to local meteorological variables and notified cases of avian cholera were supplied by the relevant authorities between January 2006 and December 2015. Spearman correlation, co-linearity statistics and cross-correlation analysis were applied to the data, controlling for co-linearity and lag effects. A time-series Poisson regression analysis was conducted to examine the degree of correlation between the climate variables and avian cholera transmission. The results indicated that monthly mean temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and the multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index, with 2-3 months lag, were correlated with avian cholera incidence. The final model had good predictive ability for the occurrence of avian cholera. Overall, the findings indicate that climate variability plays an important role in avian cholera transmission in Guangxi province. Adoption of the model presented in this study could usefully inform avian cholera surveillance strategies, making them significantly simpler and more effective. The model could also serve as a decision support tool for veterinary professionals and health authorities.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Feeding behavior is regulated via a complex network which interacts via diverse signals from central and peripheral tissues. Endocannabinoids modulate release of GABA in a variety of regions of the central nervous system. Endocannabinoids and GABAergic system have an important role in the central regulation of appetite. Thus, the present study examines the possible interaction of central canabinoidergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in 3-h food-deprived (FD3) neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol, selective CB1 receptors agonist, 2µg) significantly increased food intake and this effect of 2-AG was attenuated by Picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist, 0.5µg) (P<0.001); but 21ng CGP54626 (GABAB antagonist) had no effect (p>0.05). Also, hyperphagic effect of CB65 (CB2 receptors agonist, 1.25µg) was not affected by Picrotoxin or CGP54626 (p>0.05). Moreover, the food intake of chicks was significantly increased by ICV injection of GABAA agonist (Gaboxadol, 0.2 µg) and SR141716A (CB1 receptors antagonist, 6.25µg) significantly decreased Gaboxadol-induced hyperphagia (P<0.001) but CB2 receptors antagonist (AM630, 1.25µg) had no effect. In contrast, co-injection of SR141716A or AM630 with GABAB agonist (baclofen, 0.2µg) had no effect on the hyperphagia induced by baclofen (p>0.05). These data showed there might be an interaction between central cannabinoidergic and GABAergic systems via CB1 and GABAA receptors in control of food intake in neonatal layer chicks.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was performed to investigate the effects of crude protein (CP) in diet and sex ratio on egg production, egg and hatching chick weight and hatchability traits in pheasants (Phasianus Colchicus). In this study, the treatment groups were constructed as 15% CP-5:1; 15% CP-7:1; 18% CP-5:1; 18% CP-7:1 for CP and sex (male:female) ratio respectively. The eggs were obtained from 48 weeks old pheasant. In this study, it was determined that there was positive effective on egg production, egg and hatching weight and hatchability of fertile eggs (HFE) for 18% CP. In contrast, fertility (FR) (p<0.05) and hatchability rate of total eggs (HR) (p>0.05), EPEM (p>0.05) and MPEM (p>0.05) tended to decrease with increasing CP. It was found that there was egg production, egg (p>0.05) and hatching weight (p>0.05), FR (p>0.05), HR (p>0.05) and HFE (p>0.05) increased with increasing female for sex ratio. In terms of embryonic mortality, the EPEM (p>0.05) and LPEM (p>0.05) rate decreased with increasing female. For protein levels × sex ratio, it was found that hatchability traits were adversely affected for 15% CP-1:7. Also, it was determined that the lowest EPEM, MPEM and LPEM were determined for 7:1 in 18% CP group. Based on these results, to improve hatchability traits and a lower embryonic mortality rate, it may be beneficial to use 15% CP-5:1 or 18% CP-7:1 for pheasant breeding.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate effects of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal (CRM) in laying hen diets containing corn dried distiller grains with soluble (DDGS) on production performance, egg quality, and excreta noxious gas emission. Two hundred and forty Hy-Line brown laying hens (40 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 replications with 6 hens per replication) for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) corn-based diet (CON); 2) diet containing 10% CRM and 8% DDGS (CRM10); 3) diet containing 20% CRM and 8% DDGS (CRM20); 4) diet containing 30% CRM and 8% DDGS (CRM30). The inclusion of 30% CRM in the diet containing 8% DDGS significantly decreased (p<0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), egg production, and feed conversion ratio. Increasing the level of CRM in laying hen diets did not affect (p>0.05) the egg quality with the exception of decreased (p<0.05) egg yolk color when 30% of CRM was included in laying hens diet. CRM20 and CRM30 dietary treatments tended to decrease ammonia emission compared with CON dietary treatment (p=0.08). In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that CRM may be incorporated to a concentration of 20% in laying hen diets containing 8% DDGS without detrimental effects on production performance and egg quality. Furthermore, the addition of 20% and 30% CRM in laying hen diets containing 8% DDGS tended to reduce the excreta ammonia emission.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter type and litter treatment with enzymatic-bacterial production incidence and severity of footpad dermatitis and consequently on behavior of broiler chickens. A total of 1,200 one day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 replicates in 2 x 2 factorial design. The first factor was the physical form of the straw (chopped on approximately 2 cm or un-chopped) and the second factor was addition of enzymatic-bacterial product applied directly on the straw. Each replicate consisted of 75 as-hatched birds per pen. Occurrence and severity of the footpad dermatitis and histological evaluation of the scores was done at the end of the trial (42 days of age). During the trial, at 3 and 6 weeks of age, broiler behavior was observed by Scan Sampling Method. The results showed that chopped straw significantly lowered the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Chopped straw in combination with enzymatic-bacterial product showed the lowest footpad dermatitis score in broilers. Histological procedures confirmed the macroscopic evaluation of the footpad dermatitis severity. The chopped straw had a significant effect on some behavioral patterns of broiler chickens. Differences were observed for dust bathing and scratching. Correlation between footpad dermatitis and birds locomotor activity was not confirmed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of hatching egg weight of broiler parent stocks on hatching results, chick performance, carcass characteristics, internal organ weights and some blood stress parameters. Eggs were divided into 3 egg weight groups (55.0 to 60.0 g (light), 60.1 to 65.0 g (medium) and 65.1 to 70.0 g (heavy)) for the experiments. After incubation, mixed-gender broiler chicks from the hatcher were placed into 27 grower pens (2x1 m) with 9 replications for 3 weight groups by using randomized block design. Each pen had 25 broiler chicks. Therefore, 225 chicks were used for each group and 675 chicks in total. The experiment was designed with nine replicates. Chi-square test, variance analysis test and Duncan multiple range test were used during statistical analysis. Hatching egg weight significantly affected egg shell thickness (p=0.042), egg weight loss on 18th day of incubation (p<0.001), number of healthy chick (p=0.001) and deformed chicks (p=0.003), hatchability (p=0.003), hatchability yield (p=0.002), hatching weight and 7 day chick body weight (p=0.001), fresh carcass yields (p=0.002), and cooled carcass yields (p<0.001), blood triglyceride level (p=0.031), back toe relative asymmetry (p=0.032) and back toe fluctuating asymmetry (p=0.038). It was concluded in the present study that medium-weight eggs yielded better hatching results and the chicks of medium-weight eggs also yielded better outcomes with regards to other investigated parameters.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In the last decades animal production has considerably increased worldwide to sustain an ever-growing human population. Among animal reared for consumption purposes, chickens are undoubtedly one of the most successful, mainly due to their rapid growth rate. The development of broiler farming has been accompanied in recent years by a substantial attention to animal welfare. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of different housing conditions on both feed conversion ratio and mortality of male broiler flocks through a large-scale study (more than 100 million birds) involving 977 farms belonging to one major producer. For this, we evaluated nine features of the housing system using a linear model with random effect. The features were: roofing, floor, drinkers, feeders, water source, color curtain color, management, light and ventilation. A total of 3516 poultry flocks were assessed. Positive ventilation, metal and clay roof, dirt floor and owner management were shown to reduced mortality. Concrete floor, negative ventilation, blue curtains, fluorescent lightening, owner management, tap water and well water significantly improved FCR. We discuss our findings in relation with economic constraints and provide advices to encourage farmers using simple devices that will improve both production and chicken survival.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two hundred and forty day old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (AMOLE) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The birds were randomly allocated into six treatments with four replicates, and each replicate containing 10 broiler chicks; the CRD was used. The treatments contained AMOLE0+ (positive control with antibiotic treatment), AMOLE0- (negative control with ordinary water), AMOLE60 (60 ml/l), AMOLE90 (90 ml/l), AMOLE120 (120 ml/l) and AMOLE150 (150 ml/l) inclusion levels of AMOLE, respectively. Birds on positive control had the highest final body weight and growth rate (2392.00 g and 53.61 g respectively) and the ones on 150 ml/l of AMOLE had the least (2042.00 g and 45.37 g respectively). Results of feed intake showed that birds on positive control had the highest (84.70 g) and the ones on 90 ml/litre of AMOLE had the lowest (73.19 g); while the results of feed conversion ratio indicated that birds on AMOLE90 and AMOLE120 performed better than the positive control treatment. Birds on the AMOLE had similar dressing percentages though that of positive control was highest (94.93 %); while those on AMOLE60 and AMOLE150 had the highest large intestine and lung weights respectively. Aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract can be included up to 90 ml/litre in the drinking water of broiler chicken for reduced feed intake (12.83 %) and improved feed conversion efficiency (9.11) thus, AMOLE can be used to replace synthetic antibiotics as growth promoter.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The study was conducted to determine the interaction of types of maize (Provitamin A-biofortified maize (PABM) versus white maize) and strain of laying birds (Amberlink and Hyline) on nutritional quality of eggs. Twenty-one of each of Amberlink and Hyline laying hens were fed on three diets for 30 days. Birds were distributed in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement constituting three diets (0, 50 or 100 % of PABM) and two strains (Amberlink & Hyline). There was a diet × strain interaction on egg shell weight, average daily feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg shell thickness. Eggs produced by layers under 100 % PABM had lighter eggshell weight and lower eggshell percentage. In contrast, eggs produced by layers under 50 % PABM diet had signi-ficantly higher eggshell percentage, heavier egg shell weight and thicker eggshell. As the level of PABM increased, the yellow and red hue (Hunter a* and b* values) significantly increased while the lightness values (Hunter L* values) decreased. As the level of PABM in the ration increased, the vitamin A content of the egg yolk also significantly increased. Assimilation of vitamin A from feed to egg yolk in Amberlink and Hyline hens was similar. Hence, egg enrichment with vitamin A can be achieved by using PABM in layers ration. The use of high level of PABM had a negative effect on the eggshell quality traits.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Heat stress, causes economic losses and has negative effects on both broiler husbandry and animal welfare. Nutritional strategies are applied for minimizing the negative effects of heat stress. In the present study, at the finishing period (24-39 days of age) of heat stress, the effects of diet involving 21% and 19% proteins and vitamin E on lipid metabolism and antioxidant mechanism of action, aimed to be identified. This study was carried out in six groups as: HPC (24oC heat + 21% crude protein (CP)), HPS (34oC heat + 21% CP), LPC (24oC heat + 19% CP), LPS (34oC heat + 19% CP), HPSVE (34oC heat + 21% CP + Vitamin E) and LPSVE (34oC heat + 19% CP + vitamin E) groups. Superficial pectoral muscles (breast) and liver tissues were used for oxidative stress and antioxidant defence determinations. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been determined in blood serums. During the research, it is found that heat stress increased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, where Vitamin E has recovered triglyceride levels limitedly and cholesterol levels significantly. It is also observed that the adverse effect of high temperature was directly related to oxidative stress. Protein levels and vitamin supplementation relatively ameliorated these adverse effects, suggesting the tissue specificity. Consequently, the importance of feeding strategies such as the presence of Vitamin E and protein ratios on broiler nutrition in heat stress was established.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effect of diets containing different levels of thyme essential oil (TEO) on performance, some serum parameters and the antioxidative metabolism of the serum and liver tissues in quails. A total number of 200 sixteen-days-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were used in the study. The animals were divided into 4 groups; the control group was fed only basal diet but groups TEO1, TEO2 and TEO3 had thyme essential oil of 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg, respectively, added to their diets. Body weight and daily weight gain increased with higher levels of thyme essential oil in the feed, yet a statistically significant increase was detected in only group TEO3 (p<0.05). Furthermore, in all of the groups that were fed on TEO, feed intake was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In the groups that received thyme essential oil, serum creatinine and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were low, whereas serum magnesium levels were high (p<0.05). Thyme essential oil significantly increased in liver catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and serum CAT and GSH-Px activities, and significantly reduced both liver and serum lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde=MDA) levels (p<0.01). In result, while thyme essential oil partially affected the performance and serum parameters, it had a marked effect on the antioxidant metabolism.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Ten-week-old Langde geese in similar body weight were randomly selected, four for overfeeding and four for routinly feeding. The abundance of liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), thyroid hormone-responsive (THRSP or Spot 14), obese (OB), and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) genes in goose were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. L-FABP was higher expressed in liver and intestine than other tissues, but no expression was detected in the pancreas or brain. The other three genes were widely expressed in different tissues, OB was higher expressed in pancreas and abdominal fat, Spot 14 and Apo A1 was higher expressed in sebum and abdominal fat. Spot 14 and Apo A1 genes were up-regulated in overfed goose livers compared with that in the control. Thus, Spot 14 and Apo A1 genes may play important roles in lipid metabolism in goose fat liver.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In the present study, we investigated the effects of acidified dried whey and acidified yeast product and their combination on broiler growth characteristics, intestinal microflora and gut morphology. Seven hundred and fifty day-old Ross 308 male broilers were fed one of 10 dietary treatments with 5 replicates in a randomized design. A corn-soybean meal based diet (control group) was supplemented with 3 levels (0.15, 0.30 and 0.45%) of acidified whey powder (AW), acidified yeast product (AY), and acidified whey powder and yeast product (AWY). Acidified yeast product improved ADG and FCR at d 42, but the effects of additives on productive performance were not significant across the entire rearing period. The highest level of AY increased the population of Lactobacillus spp., decreased that of E. coli and did not affect the bacterial total count at d 42. Birds fed 0.45% AY showed higher villus height and better gut morphology compared to control birds. In conclusion, acidified yeast product increased the population of Lactobacillus, inhibited the growth of E. coli and improved gut morphology and structure, but did not affect growth performance and relative organ weight.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Self-monitoring procedures are adopted by food industries to ensure the quality and safety of final products, considering hygiene and processing criteria. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in chicken processing, considering the microbiological criteria proposed by self-monitoring systems. Environmental samples from reception, slaughtering and processing were collected from three chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1, Sl2, Sl3), and subjected to microbiological analysis to enumerate hygiene indicators microorganisms: mesophilic aerobes, enterobacteriaceae, coliforms and Escherichia coli. The obtained counts were converted to log10, compared by ANOVA (p<0.05) and self-monitoring microbiological criteria for each slaughterhouse were considered. In reception, the mean counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms in Sl3 were significantly higher than mean counts observed in Sl1 and Sl2 (p<0.05). During slaughtering, the chilling was enough to decrease the mean counts of all hygiene indicator microorganisms in Sl1, Sl2 and Sl3 (p<0.05). Based on self-monitoring criteria, in the first stages of slaughtering the facilities presented higher frequencies of chicken carcasses with counts above their respective reference values. Sl02 presented carcasses with higher counts after final washing, resulting in environmental samples with higher counts when compared to Sl1 and Sl3 (p<0.05). Even considering the high counts observed in the initial steps of chicken processing and slaughtering, the results indicated the efficacy of hygienic procedures in providing chicken carcasses and cuts with low microbiological contamination. Self-monitoring criteria supported these results, and the high levels of microbial contamination during the initial steps of slaughtering require subsequent antimicrobial hygienic procedures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to isolate Lactobacillus salivarius and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains from cecal content and investigate their probiotic potential in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus strains were isolated from the cecal content of SPF chickens and identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis by BLAST analysis at the National Center for Biotechnology Information and phylogenetic analysis using DNAStar software. In an in vivo experiment, 180 7-day-old SPF chickens were randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 served as a control that was fed a basal diet without probiotic supplementation, and groups 2 and 3 were fed the basal diets supplemented with L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus at 2×108 CFU/g, respectively. Body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage (DP), and the apparent digestibility of crude protein (AD-CP) were calculated. We also determined meat color, fat content, shear force, water content and pH value of breast and thigh muscles; ammonia, urea nitrogen and uric acid content in plasma; fecal ammonia emission level and pH value; and Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in ceca. Compared with the control group, L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus supplementation significantly increased BW, ADG, DP, AD-CP, fat content of meat, and the number of Lactobacillus in ceca (p<0.05), and decreased FCR, plasma ammonia content, fecal ammonia emission, and pH value and the number of E. coli in ceca (p<0.05). In the in vitro experiment, L. salivarius and P. pentosaceus treatments significantly decreased the ammonia content in medium compared with the control group without probiotic treatment (p<0.05). These results suggest that P. pentosaceus and L. salivarius strains show promising probiotic properties for improving growth, meat quality and microenvironment in chickens and decreasing ammonia content in the medium.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Essential oil of plants called Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (JE), Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis (OM) were used in this study. In order to determine experimental doses, LD50 values of essential oils were determined on mice. Taking into consideration the LD30 range, the experimental toxic doses were calculated for each rat (rat/kg). The toxic dosages thus determined were adapted to rats for active substances (rat/kg). Using commercially available pure virgin olive oil (VOO) as the solvent and diluting agent, OM oil (n=10), JE fruitoil (n=10), carvacrol (CRV) (n=10), VOO (n=10) and normal saline SF (n=8) were administered on the basis of 12 days into intraperitoneal (IP). Enzyme activities of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Adenosine-deaminase (ADA) and Catalase were studied in isolates of kidney, brain and liver tissues. The data was statistically analyzed through Kruskal Wallis variance analysis. Elevated levels of GST and catalase have been found statistically important, as have both essential oil activities of OM and JE in the kidney tissue (p<0.005). All of the enzymes except the levels of ADA and SOD led to a statistically significant change in the brain and liver. There was sinusoidal hyperemia and capsular adhesion in the liver as histopathological were found to be statistically significant (p<0.005). It did not observe any important changes in the other organs. Findings were scored and analyzed by using x2(chi-square) test and Fisher’s definite variance analysis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A study was conducted to investigate the influence of breed and sex in the gross anatomy, digesta and histology of Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens. Chickens were slaughtered at 90 days of age and the pH of the digestive organs was measured immediately after slaughter. The digestive organ weights and lengths of Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens were measured. Tissue samples of the duodenum, ileum and jejunal from each treatment group were collected and histologically examined. Higher (p<0.05) gizzard pH values were observed in male and female of Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens. The jejunal and ileal pH values were lower (p<0.05) for Venda chickens than in Ross 308 broiler chickens. The absolute weights of the gastrointestinal tract, crop, proventriculus and gizzard were lighter (p<0.05) in Venda chickens than in Ross 308 broiler chickens. The relative organ weights of the GIT, proventriculus, gizzard and caeca were higher (p<0.05) in Venda chickens than in Ross 308 broiler chickens aged 90 days. Male chickens had higher (p<0.05) relative organ weights than female chickens. Interactions between breed and sex influenced (p<0.05) the absolute weights of the crop, proventriculus, caeca and large intestine. Ileum villus heights of female Venda chickens were higher (p<0.05) than those of female and male Ross 308 broiler and Venda chickens. The male and female Ross 308 broiler chickens had higher (p<0.05) ileum and duodenum crypt depths than male and female Venda chickens. The duodenum and ileum villus height/crypt depth ratios were higher (p<0.05) in male and female Venda chickens than Ross 308 broiler chickens. In overall, male broiler chicken performed better.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Salmonellaenterica is responsible for alimentary toxic infections associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products and the antimicrobial resistant patterns of Salmonella circulating in the Tolima region are currently unknown. To address this issue, both the phenotype and genotype antibiotic resistance patterns of 47 Salmonella isolated from raw chicken carcasses sold at the Ibague city were analyzed by the disc diffusion, microdilution and PCR assays. All 47 Salmonella isolates showed resistance to five or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to Ampicillin (AMP), Amikacin (AMK), Gentamicin (GEN), Tobramycin (TOB), Cefazoline (CFZ), Cefoxitin (FOX), Nitrofurantoin (NIT), Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (SXT), Tetracycline (TET), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Enrofloxacin (ENR) was observed in 42.35% of Salmonella isolates. All tested S. Paratyphi B var Java isolates showed resistance to at least 12 antibiotics. S. Hvittingfoss showed resistance to 5 antibiotics, whereas S. Muenster showed resistance to seven antibiotics. Amplification of a number of antibiotic resistance genes showed that blaTEM (100%) correlated well with resistance to Ampicilin and Cephalosporin, whereas aadB (87%) correlated well with resistance to Aminoglycosides. It is concluded that Salmonella isolated from raw chicken meat marketed at Ibague showed MDR by both phenotypic and genotypic methods and they may represent an important threat to human health. Additional studies are needed to establish the relationship between antibiotic resistance in Salmonella from poultry products and clinical isolates.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aims to examine the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) practices on some physiological and behavioral parameters of broiler chicks. A total of 280 one-day old Ross 308 mixed-sex broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 44.5±0.37 g were used in a 42-d trial. Broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 20 pens composed of 14 birds in 1x1.4m sized floor area. Each of the EE treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens (70 chickens per treatment). The treatments were 1) control; 2) perch for EE; 3) ball for EE; 4) mirror for EE; and 5) dust for EE. Final body weights, tonic immobility test results, and rectal temperatures were recorded. Spleen, liver, and bursa fabricius weights were measured. The blood biochemistry of birds was analyzed at the end of the experiment. Besides, gait score test was applied on the 42nd day of experiment. Body weight gain, lymphoid organ weights and rectal temperature values of broilers were not affected by EE treatments on the 21st and 42nd days of the study. At the end of the study, WBC values, tonic immobility values and gait scores of the control groups were found higher than those of the EE groups. HCT and PLT values of the ball groups were found lower than the other groups, concluding that EE improved the welfare of birds.