Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, Volume: 21, Issue: 1, Published: 2019
  • BEAK TRIMMING BY INFRARED RADIATION OF LAYERS ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Pelicia, K; Garcia, EA; Santos, TA; Santos, GC; Vieira, JA; Silva, AP; Moreira, J; Rabello, CBV; Garcia, RG

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed at evaluating beak-trimming methods and intensities on the performance, beak length and uniformity, and egg parameters of commercial layers. During the rearing period, birds were distributed in randomized blocks, with a 2x3 factorial design + two treatments, consisting of beak trimming with infrared (IR) radiation (moderate or severe); three IR intensities (low: 42 nm, intermediate: 46 nm, or high: 52 nm); and two control hot blade (HB) beak trimming treatments (moderate or severe) with eight treatments and five replicates of 21 chicks each, totaling 840 birds. During the growing phase (second experiment) the factorial design was modified to 2 x 3 x 2 + 4, comprising two IR beak-trimming intensities (moderate or severe); three IR radiation intensities (low, moderate and high), second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not, and four additional HB beak-trimming treatments (moderate or severe) beak-trimming intensities, and second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not. There were 16 treatments with six replicates of seven birds each, totaling 672 laying hens, out of which 576 were selected for evaluation during the production period, with the same number of treatments and replicates of the previous phase. Weight gain (g), body weight (g), body weight uniformity (%), beak length (mm) and uniformity (%), absence of cannibalism (%), livability (%), egg production (%), feed intake (g), feed conversion per eggmass, eggmass, specific gravity, eggshell strength, Haugh unit, % yolk were evaluated. Beak trimming by infra-red radiation may be employed in commercial laying hens.
  • Multi-Attribute Evaluation and Selection of Broiler House for the Low Prevalence of Footpad Lesion ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Garcia, RG; Roriz, BC; Nääs, IA; Lima, NDS; Sgavioli, S; Caldara, FR

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Intensive broiler production requires large flock density, which compromises litter quality and increases the prevalence of footpad lesions. The present study aimed at comparing the incidence of footpad dermatitis of broilers reared in two different rearing environments. Data from two broiler houses were recorded during 42 d. Air temperature and relative humidity; litter moisture, pH, and temperature; footpad surface temperature; and the incidence of footpad lesions was investigated. Litter quality was analyzed in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two house types (dark house or open-sided house) and four rearing phases (21, 28, 35, and 42 d of growth), with four replicates per treatment using 12 replicates. Four replicates were used for analyzing the air environment data. For the footpad lesion identification, a randomly factorial scheme of recording the surface temperature was built (2 x 2) using two houses, and the broiler sex using 15 replicates in the grow-out stages. The measures of association (odds ratio and risk ratio) were calculated. The multi-criteria analysis (Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP) was applied for estimating the house that provided less prevalence of lesions. The field data did not provide enough evidence for selection of a particular house with less incidence of footpad dermatitis. However, when applying the measures of association data, and corresponding literature data to the AHP, there was an indication that the dark-house provided broiler rearing condition that reduced the incidence of footpad lesions.
  • Standardization of A Sample-Processing Methodology for Stable Isotope Studies in Poultry ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Denadai, JC; Sartori, JB; Pezzato, AC; Costa, VE; Sartori, MMP; Petinati, BES; Gennari, RS; Silva, ET; Carvalho, MAG; Ishizuka, AND

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine if lipid extraction processes alter the isotopic value of δ13C and δ15N of tissues (pectoral muscle, thigh and liver) and eggs and if the use of anticoagulants interferes with blood and plasma δ13C and δ15N isotopic values. Samples were acquired from the same flock of birds. The 32 egg samples were randomly divided into four treatments (liquid, dehydrated, and fat-extracted with ether or chloroform + methanol) with eight replicates each. The 24 samples of pectoral muscle, thigh muscle and liver of broilers were randomly divided into three treatments (dehydrated, fat-extracted with ether and chloroform + methanol) with eight replicates each. Blood samples were divided into a 3x3 factorial arrangement with three physical forms (liquid, oven-dried or freeze-dried) and three collection methods (with no anticoagulant, with EDTA or heparin). Plasma samples were distributed in a 3x2 factorial arrangement, with three physical forms (liquid, oven-dried, or freeze-dried) and two anticoagulants (EDTA or heparin). The obtained isotopic results were submitted to the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and univariate (ANOVA, complemented by Tukey’ test), using the GLM procedure of the statistical program SAS (1996) or Minitab 16. The results show that it is possible to use the evaluated methods of fat extraction, drying and anticoagulants in the isotopic analyses of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in chicken tissues.
  • Supplementation of Natural Antioxidants to Reduced Crude Protein Diets for Japanese Quails Exposed to Heat Stress ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Şenay, S; Islim, P; Tugay, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The study aimed at comparing the effects of the supplementation of natural antioxidant sources to a reduced crude protein diet on the performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, liver antioxidant enzyme activities and meat lipid peroxidation of Japanese quails exposed to heat stress. A total of 640 14-day-old male Japanese quails were exposed to two different temperature treatments (TT): thermoneutral (TN) or heat stress (HS)and were fed five different dietary treatments (DTs). A normal-protein diet (SCP) was formulated according to the National Research Council (24% CP). The reduced crude protein diet (RCP) was formulated to contain 3% less protein than that of the SCP diet. Three additional diets were prepared by supplementing the RCP with200 mg/kg of α-tocopherol acetate (RCP+TA200), pomegranate peel extract (RCP+PPE200) or apple peel extract (RCP+APE200). HS significantly deteriorated the growth performance of quails throughout the experiment. Quails fed the SCP and RCP+PPE200 presented higher hematocrit values. Feeding the RCP+TA200 and RCP+PPE200 diets reduced the blood heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio compared with the other diets. Quails fed the SCP, RCP+TA200, RCP+PPE200 and RCP+APE200 diets presented higher liver catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, plasma uric acid level, and lower meat malondialdehyde value at 7days of age compared with those fed the RCP diet. In conclusion, the results show that the extracts of pomegranate peel and apple peel can be used as alternative natural antioxidant sources to vitamin E in the diets of Japanese quails exposed to heat stress and fed a reduced crude protein diet.
  • Comparison of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Chicken and Duck Egg Albumens ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Chaiyasit, W; Brannan, RG; Chareonsuk, D; Chanasattru, W

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to investigate the physicochemical and functional properties of fresh and pasteurized chicken and duck egg albumens. The results showed that pasteurization of both chicken and duck albumens significantly decreased (p≤0.05) viscosity, but had no impact (p>0.05) on pH or free sulfhydryl groups. Chicken albumen was shown to have higher (p≤0.05) foam expansion, but lower (p≤0.05) foam stability than duck albumen. Pasteurization decreased (p≤0.05) the foam expansion of both albumens while decreasing (p≤0.05) the foam stability only of duck albumen. Investigation of the gel properties showed that duck albumen has greater hardness and lower expressible water (p≤0.05) than chicken albumen. Pasteurization increased the hardness and decreased the expressible water of both the chicken and duck albumen gels. This study suggests that the superior gel properties of duck albumen offer potential approaches to improving the quality of gel food products.
  • Protease Supplementation under Amino Acid Reduction in Diets Formulated with Different Nutritional Requirements for Broilers ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Dessimoni, GV; Dalólio, FS; Moreira, J; Teixeira, LV; Bertechini, AG; Hermes, RG

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different reductions in digestible amino acids content (lysine, methionine, and threonine), according to two nutritional requirements in corn, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal based diets, with protease supplementation, on performance parameters and carcass characteristics. A total of 1080 day-old chicks, male, Cobb 500, were allotted to a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2, three reductions in digestible amino acids content (lysine, methionine, and threonine) and two nutritional requirements (Rostagno et al. 2005 and Cobb-Vantress Guidelines 2008), and all diets were supplemented with protease (200 ppm) with 6 replicates of 30 birds per pen. There was no significant interaction (p<0.05) between digestible amino acid reductions and both nutritional requirements for the performance variables and carcass yield and cuts. There was an effect of amino acid reduction and protease supplementation only on slaughter weight (p<0.05). Broilers fed according to the nutritional requirements of Rostagno et al. (2005) showed better (p<0.05) performance when compared to broilers fed as specified by the nutritional requirements of Cobb-Vantress (2008) with no significant differences in carcass characteristics. Protease supplementation of corn, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal based diets allows a reduction in the inclusion of crystalline amino acids (lysine, methionine, and threonine).
  • Expression of Myostatin (Mstn) and Myogenin (Myog) Genes in Zi And Rhine Goose and Their Correlation with Carcass Traits ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Zhao, XH; Li, MY; Xu, SS; Sun, JY; Liu, GJ

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Myostatin (MSTN) and MyoGenin (MyoG) on goose skeletal muscle growth. In this study, MSTN and MyoG gene expression in breast and leg muscle of Zi and Rhine goose were detected by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and the correlations between genes expression levels and carcass traits were investigated. The results showed that the breast muscle weight and breast muscle percentage of Rhine goose were significantly higher than Zi goose (p<0.01). MSTN mRNA and MyoG mRNA expression in breast muscle of Zi goose were significantly higher than that of Rhine goose and the level of MSTN in leg muscle of Rhine was significantly higher than that of Zi goose (p<0.01). There was a significant difference between MSTN mRNA expression in breast muscle and in leg muscle of Zi goose (p<0.01). MSTN mRNA expression in leg muscle was significantly higher than that of breast muscle of Rhine goose (p<0.05). There was a significant difference between MyoG mRNA expression in breast muscle and in leg muscle of Zi goose and Rhine goose (p<0.01). There was a negative correlation between MSTN mRNA expression in breast muscle and body weight, breast muscle weight and breast muscle percentage.
  • Effects of Different Anti-Stressors on Growth, Serum Chemistry and Meat Quality Attributes of Japanese Quail ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Rasul, M; Mehmood, S; Ahmad, S; Javid, A; Mahmud, A; Rehman, A; Usman, M; Hussain, J; Ahmad, M; Azhar, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different anti-stressors on growth performance, carcass traits, bloodchemistry and meat quality attributes of broiler Japanese quail. For this purpose, a total of 1,875 quail chicks were procured and arranged according to completely randomized design, birds were divided into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 75 birds each. The treatments consisted of four anti-stressors i.e., synthetic anti-stressors (Vitamin C and Betaine) and natural anti-stressors (Turmeric and Chia Seed) along with a control group. Bird’s diets were supplemented with vitamin C, betaine, turmeric and chia seed @ 600 mg/kg, 700 mg /kg, 300 mg/kg and 7,000 mg/kg, respectively. After four weeks, 10 birds per treatment were slaughtered (Halal method), de-feathered, eviscerated and their carcass traits, serum chemistry and meat quality attributes were calculated. Birds supplemented with betaine revealed significantly (p≤0.05) lower feed intake, glucose, cholesterol, H:L ratio, better weight gain, times of gain, FCR and highest anti-oxidant assay and total viable count. However, carcass traits, processing traits and blood cortisol level did not differ (p>0.05) among the treatment groups. In conclusion, addition of anti-stressors (especially betaine) in the diet of growing Japanese quail had positive influence on growth and serum chemistry.
  • Macro-anatomy of the Bones of Thoracic Limb in Dalmatian Pelican (Pelecanus crispus) ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Ilgün, R

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In this study, the bones forming the poultry skeleton of the Dalmatian pelican were macroscopically examined. For this purpose, three Dalmatian pelicans were used. In the Dalmatian pelicans, the shoulder girdle (Ossa cinguli membri thoracici) is formed by the scapula, os coracoideum and clavicula bones. The scapula bone was short and flat. The humerus was a long bone with a cylindrical, pneumatic structure. Os corocoideum was also in the processus coracoideus tuber. Radius formed a joint with the ulna, and presented a slight slope from proximal to distal direction. Ossa carpi bones (skeleton manus) were composed of os carpi ulnare and os carpi radiale. The phalanx proximalis digiti majoris had a triangular shape on the dorsal side and two blade-shaped phalanxes. The bones that make up the structure of the Dalmatian pelican’s wing have significant similarities to other birds, but also to have many particular characteristics.
  • The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Donganyellow Chicken and Its Phylogenetic Analyses ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Lin, Q; Jiang, GT; Li, YH; Yan, HF

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Donganyellow chicken (Gallus gallusdomesticus, DYC) is one of the famous native breeds of Hunan province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrialgenome sequence of DYC was reported. The total length of the mtDNA is16, 786bp. It contains 22transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes,13 protein-coding genes and 1 D-loop region. The overall composition of the mtDNA is 30.27% for A, 23.74% for T, 32.50% for C and 13.49% for G. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed20Galliformes species are divided into three major clades: Phasianidae, Numidiidae and Odontophoridae. In addition, our work confirmed that DYCand Taoyuan chickenhave a closegenetic relationship with fellow tribal members Xuefeng black-boned chicken and Huang Lang chicken. This work will provide an important data set for the study in genetic mechanism of chicken in Hunan province.
  • Performance and Serum Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Piper Cubeba Ethanolic Extract ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Rubio, MS; Laurentiz, AC; Sobrane, ST; Mello, ES; Filardi, RS; Silva, MLA; Laurentiz, RS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Piper cubeba is an Asian pepper used in popular medicine for its known antimicrobial, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory actions. The study evaluated the effects of dietary inclusion of Piper cubeba ethanolic extract (PE) as a replacement for anantibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on the performance and biochemical serum profile of 1- to 21-d-old broilers (Cobb®). Two hundred one-d-old broilers were housed in experimental battery cages and distributed in a completely randomized design. The following treatments were applied: negative control (NC) - basal diet; positive control (PC) - basal diet with addition of AGP; and the basal diet with inclusion of 0.17%, 0.34%, and 0.52% of PE (NCE1, NCE2, and NCE3, respectively). Growth performance, biochemical serum profile and internal organ weights were evaluated. Birds fed the AGP presented higher feed intake compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). The PC, NC, and NCE1 treatments presented higher weight gain compared with those fed NCE2 and NCE3 (p<0.05). The NC, NCE1, and NCE2 diets promoted better feed conversion ratio than the PC and NCE3 (p<0.05). Lower triglyceride serum levels were determined in broilers fed the NC and NCE1 diets. Amylase serum levels were lower in NCE1 and NCE2 treatments compared with the NC (p<0.05), whereas those obtained with the PC and NCE3 diets were not different (p>0.05) from the others. Organ relative weights were not influenced by the treatments. The inclusion of 0.17% of PE did not compromise the growth performance, biochemical serum profile or organ relative weights of 21-d-old broilers.
  • Epididymal Sperm Characteristics, Testicular Morphometric Traits and Growth Parameters of Rabbit Bucks Fed Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or Zinc Oxide ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Emmanuel, DC; Amaka, AE; Okezie, ES; Sunday, UP; Ethelbert, OC

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objectives of this twelve-week feeding trial were to determine the effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or zinc oxide on epididymal sperm characteristics, testicular morphometric traits, and growth parameters of bucks. 16 (New Zealand White) bucks 16-wk-old, weighing 2.8kg were randomly allotted to one of 4 treatment groups. Each treatment was replicated four times, with 1 buck per replicate, in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment group was randomly assigned to one of the four commercial experimental diets designated thus: TA = control diet with no additives, TB = 0.12g/kg Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TC = 150mg/kg zinc oxide and TD = 0.12g/kg Saccharomyces cerevisiae +150 mg/kg zinc oxide. Although treatment had no effect (p>0.05) on final body weight, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio, epididymal sperm characteristics and testicular morphometric traits differed significantly (p<0.05). Bucks on TB(Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based diet) had improved (p<0.05) sperm concentration, motility and live sperm, tubule diameter, epididymal volume, volume fraction of duct, and total duct volume, but decreased testicular volume. Bucks fed TA (control diet) had improved volume fraction of tubule but recorded the highest incidence of head and tail sperm abnormality. Though, TC(zinc oxide-based diet) enhanced (p<0.05) seminal vesicle volume, sperm pH was better among bucks fed TD (Saccharomyces cerevisiae + zinc oxide-based diet). It can be concluded that dietary inclusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 0.12g/kg of feed improved epididymal sperm characteristics and testicular morphometric traits of rabbit bucks.
  • Technical Cashew Nutshell Liquid in Diets of Growing Meat-Type Quails ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    Sanches, LM; Eyng, C; Garcia, RG; Alves, GP; Sangalli, GG; Nunes, RV

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of technical cashew nutshell liquid (TCNSL) in European quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) diets from 1 to 35 days of age on the performance, carcass traits, and development of the digestive organs. 575 quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% TCNSL), five replicates, and 23 birds per experimental unit. Live performance was evaluated by weight gain, average feed intake, and feed to conversion ratio. The relative weight of the digestive organs (proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas, liver, small intestine, and large intestine), length of the small and large intestine, and carcass and parts yield (breast, wing, and leg) were determined at the end of the experimental period (35 days). The supplementation of quail diets with TCNSL did not influence live performance or carcass and parts yields. The relative weights of the proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine, and the length of the small intestine and large intestine were not affected by the dietary inclusion of TCNSL. However, TCNSL supplementation had a quadratic effect (p<0.05) on liver relative weight, with the lowest relative weight predicted at 0.33% TCNSL. Quails fed 1% TCNSL showed higher liver relative weight compared with those fed the TCNSL-free diets. The dietary inclusion of up to 1% TCNSL did not influence the performance, carcass traits, or development of the digestive organs of European quails.
  • Oxidative Stress of in-Ovo Ochratoxin A Administered during Chick Embryonic Development Original Articles

    Elsayed, MAE; Mohamed, NE; Hatab, MH; Elaroussi, MA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present work was carried out to study the effect of in-ovo injection of ochratoxin A (OTA) as an oxidative stress and its consequences on hepatic and kidney functions, thyroid activity, and histological examination of brain and liver in chicken embryos and subsequently in the hatching chicks. On the 10th day of incubation, one hundred and sixty-two fertile eggs were randomly divided into two equal treatments. Control treatment, (injected by 50 µl sodium carbonate) and OTA treatment (injected by 12.5 ng OTA dissolved in 50 µl sodium carbonate). OTA treatement group significantly reduced glutathione (GSH) and significantly increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production (TBARS) in embryonic and hatched chicks regarding livers, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, heart, and brain as an indicator of oxidative stress. OTA injection increased TBARS and decreased GSH levels in both allantoic and amniotic fluids. On the 14th and 16th days of incubation and at the hatch, a significant lower concentration in cholesterol and higher concentrations of alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, acid phosphatase enzymes activities and triglycerides in the hepatic tissues of the OTA group were observed. Histological examination of OTA group of brain and liver tissues showed some degenerative changes through the experimental period. In conclusion, in-ovo OTA treated had teratogenic and embryotoxic effects.
  • Effect of Origanum syriacum L. Essential Oil on the Storage Stability of Cooked Chicken Meat Original Articles

    Al-Hijazeen, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The effects of the addition of Origanum syriacum L. essential oil (OE) on the lipid and protein oxidation, and sensory attributes of cooked chicken meat were compared with those of synthetic commercial meat preservatives. Ground deboned and skinless chicken breast and thigh meat were distributed according to six treatments: (T1) control (no addition of meat preservative); or the addition of (T2) 100 ppm OE; (T3) 150 ppm OE; (T4) 300 ppm L-ascorbic acid (E-300); (T5) 5 and 14 ppm butylated hydroxyanisoleadded to breast and thigh meat, respectively, (BHA/E-320); and (T6) 150 ppm sodium nitrite (E-250). Meat samples were cooked and analyzed for lipid oxidation (TBARS levels) and protein oxidation (carbonyl levels) on days 0, 4, and 7 days of storage. In addition, cooked meat thigh patties were evaluated for cooking loss and sensory attributes. All additives were showed significant lipid and protein antioxidant effects (p<0.05) compared with the control treatment during storage, with the strongest effects obtained with OEat 150 ppm and E-250. Cooking loss was not influenced (p>0.05) by the treatments. The best sensory attribute scores were obtained with OEat 150 ppm and E-250 treatments. L-ascorbic acid and BHA also showed significant effect (p<0.05) on both lipid and protein oxidation values, and sensory attributes. Based on the results study, it concluded that OEat 150 ppm may be used in replacement of synthetic antioxidants to improve the storage stability of chicken meat.
  • Vegetable Waste Inclusion in Broiler Diets and its Effect on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, Immunity, Meat Mineral Content and Lipid Oxidation Status Original Articles

    Raza, A; Hussain, J; Hussnain, F; Zahra, F; Mehmood, S; Mahmud, A; Amjad, ZB; Khan, MT; Asif, M; Ali, U; Badar, IH; Nadeem, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding vegetable waste (VW) to broilers on their growth performance, serum chemistry, immune status, meat mineral content and lipid oxidation status. For this purpose, 100 one-day-old chicks (Cobb 500) were acquired from a commercial hatchery and allocated according to a completely randomized design into five dietary treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The dietary treatments included: T1 (100%commercialfeed(CF)+0%VW), T2 (75%CF+25%VW), T3 (50%CF+50%VW), T4 (25%CF+75%VW) and T5 (0%CF+100%VW). Experimental birds were subjected to dietary treatments from 5 to 7 weeks of age. At the end of week 7 (49 days), eight birds with uniform average body weight were selected per treatment (2birds/replicate), kept off-feed for 4 h and then manually slaughtered according to the Halal method to collect data for serum chemistry, meat minerals and lipid oxidation status. The results indicated better meat lipid oxidation status (p≤0.05) and lower meat mineral content (p≤0.05) when birds fed VW at 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the diets compared with 100% commercial feed. On the other hand, blood chemistry and antibody response parameters did not respond (p>0.05) to dietary intervention. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of vegetable waste had positive influence on meat quality in terms of meat lipid oxidation and meat mineral content, and may be replace up to 75% of commercial broiler feeds with beneficial effects.
  • Comparative Study on Carcass Traits, Meat Quality and Taste in Broiler, Broiler Breeder and Aseel Chickens Original Articles

    Khan, U; Hussain, J; Mahmud, A; Khalique, A; Mehmood, S; Badar, IH; Usman, M; Jaspal, MH; Ahmad, S

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Present study evaluated carcass and meat quality attributes of broilers, broiler breeders and Aseel chickens. Sixty birds from each chicken genotype (broiler, broiler breeder and Aseel chickens; five-wk-old broilers and 60-wk-old Aseel chickens and broiler breeders) were evaluated. Birds were maintained under similar environment for 21 days, and then slaughtered to analyze their carcass qualitative and organoleptic characteristics. No carcass yield differences were detected among genotypes. Aseel chickens had heavier neck, followed by broiler breeder and broiler (p<0.0001). Higher liver (p<0.0001), intestine (p<0.0001), ribs and back (p=0.0014) yields were obtained in broilers than in broiler breeders and Aseel chickens. Females showed higher gizzard (p=0.0107) and intestine (p=0.0170) yield than males, which presented higher carcass (p=0.0023), thigh (p=0.0039), drumstick (p<0.0001), neck (p=0.0003) and heart (p=0.0139) yields. Broiler meat was lighter (p<0.0001) whereas Broiler breeder meat were yellower (p<0.0001) and redder (p<0.0001), ultimate-pH was lower (p=0.0001) for broiler and Aseel meat. Female meat was yellower (p<0.0001) and reddish (p=0.0482). Aseel breast meat scored lower for flavor (p=0.0121), juiciness (p=0.0178) and tenderness (p=0.0477) compared with broiler breeders and broilers, although no differences among genotypes were detected for color, aroma, taste, and acceptability, whereas for thigh meat, Aseel chickens received lower color (p=0.0344) and acceptability (p=0.0398) scores. Interaction effect were significant for carcass, meat quality and sensory evaluation. Carcass characteristics of broilers were comparable with Aseel chickens, while broiler breeder showed better meat quality traits. Broiler and broiler breeder meat scored higher for sensory evaluation. Male birds had higher carcass yield and better meat quality traits compared with females. It is concluded that meat quality attributes vary among the three chicken genotypes.
  • Duplex Real-Time PCR Using Sybr Green I for Quantification and Differential Diagnosis between Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium Original Articles

    Rubio, MS; Penha, RAC; Almeida, AM; Barbosa, FO; Berchieri, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The incidence of foodborne diseases caused by the genus Salmonella spp. in industrialized countries is often high in epidemiological surveys. Obtaining a rapid diagnostic test for identification of bacteria is crucial in order to rapidly implement control measures to contain bacterial spread, to reduce losses in animal production and to avoid risks from food-borne infections to human health. The aim of this study was to standardize duplex real-time PCR using SYBr Green I for differential and quantitative diagnosis of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. According to the experiment, the melting temperature of 85°C was observed for a 206bp amplified product when S. Enteritidis DNA was added to the reaction. S. Typhimurium DNA showed that the melting temperature of 79°C when observed for a 62bp amplified product. The standard curve showed the high sensitivity of the proposed test, since it was possible to obtain eight quantification points, starting at 108 CFU/mL and ending at 101 CFU/mL. As a result of the present study, a real-time PCR duplex reaction with high sensitivity, specificity and based on the fluorescence of SYBr Green I was standardized. In addition, this methodology aligns low cost to the faster diagnostic result, in relation to other molecular tests, making it attractive for application in routine laboratory analyzes.
  • Variations in Tissue-Specific Expression of Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein Gene in Two Native Yunnan Chicken Breeds Original Articles

    Zhang, B; Xiang, D; Yang, R; Yang, L; Li, J; Zhao, Z

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP) is a fatty acid-binding protein that can promote the absorption of long-chain fatty acids. However, few results have been published regarding its role in Yunnan Native chicken breeds. The aim of this study was to determine ADFP gene tissue-specific expression in Piao chickens (PC) and Wuliangshan black-bone chickens (WBC) by RT-qPCR. The ontogenetic expression levels of the ADFP gene were significantly different during growth and development phases in the subcutaneous fat, liver, and pectoralis muscle of PC, and in the subcutaneous fat, liver, and pectoralis muscle of WBC (p<0.05). Individual tissue-differential expression levelswere detectedon d 91 and 112 in PC, with highest levels determined in abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat, respectively. However, in WBC, the highest levels were determined on d 49, 91 and 112 d in the pectoralis muscle and liver. Correlation analysis revealed ADFP expression level in liver of WBC was significantly related with LW and HC (p<0.05), while no significant correlations with carcass fatness (CF) were found in PC (p>0.05). The results suggest ADFPdifferential expression in the liver and pectoral muscles of PC and WBC during the growth and development phases (p<0.05). The observed expression patterns indicate that the ADFP gene plays an important role in lipid metabolism of PC and WBC, and that these patterns are expressed differently in the tissues of different chicken genotypes.
  • Dietary Effects of Natural Polyphenol Antioxidant on Laying Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Diets with Oxidized Oil Original Articles

    Lee, HH; Kim, DH; Lee, KW; Kim, KE; Shin, DE; An, BK

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary oxidized oil and natural polyphenol antioxidants on laying performances and egg quality of laying hens. A total of two hundred, 61-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were divided into five groups, consisting in four replicates of 10 birds each. They were fed one of the five experimental diets (fresh oil only, oxidized oil without antioxidants, oxidized oil with vitamin E 200 ppm, oxidized oil with vitamin E 100 ppm + Cabanin CSDⓇ 100 ppm, oxidized oil with Cabanin CSDⓇ 500 ppm)respectively, for 6 weeks. There were no significant differences in laying performances and egg weight among the treatments. However, egg mass in group fed oxidized oil with vitamin E 100 ppm + Cabanin CSDⓇ 100 ppmwas significantly higher than group fed oxidized oil only (p<0.05). Eggshell thickness and eggshell strength was not affected by feeding of oxidized oil and antioxidants. Haugh unit checked after storage of 14 d from the end date of the trial showed significant difference (p<0.05). Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity was significantly higher in antioxidant treated groups. The level of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) was significantly lower in groups fed vitamin E 100 ppm + Cabanin CSDⓇ 100 ppm or Cabanin CSDⓇ 500 ppm compared to groups fed oxidized oil without antioxidant. The number of total microbes, lactobacilli, and Enterocossus faecium showed significant difference favored to antioxidants groups. This study indicates that addition of oxidized oil to layer diet may have harmful effect on oxidative status and egg quality, but concurrent addition of vitamin E and natural polyphenol can alleviate the toxic effect of oxidized oil.
  • Performance, Carcass Variables, and Meat Quality of Broilers Supplemented with Dietary Mexican Oregano Oil Original Articles

    Cázares-Gallegos, R; Silva-Vázquez, R; Hernández-Martínez, CA; Gutiérrez-Soto, JG; Kawas-Garza, JR; Hume, ME; Méndez-Zamora, GM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The current study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of Mexican oregano essential oil (MOO; Lippiaberlandieri Schauer) on broiler performance, carcass variables, meat quality, and sensory evaluation. One-day-old mixed-sex broilers were distributed in the following treatment groups, according to MOO supplementation levels: 0 = control diet; 200 = diet + 2200 mg of MOO/kg; 400 = diet + 4200 mg of MOO/kg; 600 = diet + 6200 mg of MOO/kg; 800 = diet + 8200 mg of MOO/kg; 1000 = diet + 1000 mg of MOO/kg. MOO affected (p<0.05) body weight, feed and water intake, and feed conversion ratio. The 200 and 400 mg/kg formulations gave better results at 7, 14 and 28 d than the other diets. MOO at 1000 mg/kg increased (p<0.05) slaughter weight and hot carcass yield, and decreased meat pH and cooking loss. The 200 and 400 treatments increased breast meat redness (a*), but reduced yellowness (b*). Meat hardness, cohesiveness and resilience were affected (p<0.05) by MOO, but not (p>0.05) the sensory parameters evaluated. Mexican oregano oil presents positive qualities as a plant-derived performance enhancer in broiler diets and improves of the meat quality of broilers at the levels of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of diet.
  • Can the Fine Wheat Bran be a Betaine Source in Poultry Diets? Original Articles

    Somensi, ML; Monteiro, ANTR; Marx, FR; Bockor, L; Vieira, MS; Kessler, AM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The effect of fine wheat bran (FWB) as a methyl donor source on performance, metabolism, body composition and blood traits of growing broilers was studied. Three hundred and twenty broilers from eight to 28 d of age, distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and eight replicates of eight animals each were used. The experimental diets were: NC, formulated with 72% of the Met+Cys requirement; Met, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys equivalents by DL-methionine addition; Bet, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys equivalents by anhydrous betaine addition; Fwb-, formulated with 72% of the Met+Cys requirement and 20% FWB; and Fwb+, formulated with 85% of the Met+Cys requirement and 20% FWB. Feed intake was reduced (p<0.05) by FWB inclusion but the feed conversion ratio was the same (p>0.05) between the positive control diets. Supplementation of DL-methionine and anhydrous betaine showed the same (p>0.05) metabolizability of nutrients. Treatments with higher DL-methionine levels (Met and Fwb+) promoted more weight of feathers (p<0.05). Animals fed with FWB showed the lowest (p<0.05) body gains. In conclusion, FWB inclusion did not promote methyl radicals supply.
  • CRF1/CRF2 and MC3/MC4 Receptors Affect Glutamate- Induced Food Intake in Neonatal Meat-Type Chicken Original Articles

    Ahmadi, F; Zendehdel, M; Babapour, V; Panahi, N

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Central glutamate, melanocortin and corticotropin systems have mediatory role on several physiologic functions in the brain, but their interactions on appetite regulation are not fully elicited. So, the aim of the current study was to determine interaction of the glutamate with melanocortin and corticotropin systems on food intake in 3-h food-deprived (FD3) neonatal meat-type chicken. In experiment 1, chicken intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected (A) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (B) glutamate (75 nmol), (C) glutamate (150 nmol) and (D) glutamate (300 nmol). In experiment 2, (A) PBS, (B) astressin-B (CRF1/CRF2 receptors antagonist, 30 µg), (C) glutamate (300 nmol) and (D) astressin-B+glutamate were ICV injected. Experiments 3-5 were similar to experiment 2, except birds were injected with astressin2-B (CRF2 receptor antagonist, 30 µg), SHU9119 (MC3/MC4 receptor antagonist, 0.5 nmol) and MCL0020 (MC4 receptor antagonist, 0.5 nmol) instead of the astressin-B. In experiment 6, the injections were (A) PBS, (B) MTII (MC3/MC4 receptor agonist, 2.5ng), (C) glutamate (75nmol) and (D) MTII+glutamate. Then, cumulative feed intake was recorded at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after injection. According to the results, dose dependent hypophagia observed by ICV injection of the glutamate (75, 150 and 300nmol) compared to control group in neonatal broiler chicken (p<0.05). Co-injection of the astressin-B+glutamate and astressin2-B+glutamate decreased glutamate-induced hypophagia in neonatal broiler chicken (p<0.05). Co-injection of the glutamate+MC3/MC4 receptors antagonist decreased hypophagic effect of the glutamate (p<0.05). These results suggested hypophagic effect of the glutamate mediates via CRF1/CRF2 and MC3/MC4 receptors in chickens.
  • Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Inhibited the Alv-J-Induced Apoptosis in Df-1 Cells by Inactivation of Nuclear Factor κb Pathway Original Articles

    Zhang, Y; Yang, H; Wu, X; Deng, M; Li, Z; Xu, Z

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), a member of the retroviridae family, can infect both broilers and layers and induce a spectrum of different neoplasms, resulting in serious economic losses in poultry production. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major constituent of green tea, has demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive effects in many animal tumor bioassays, cell culture systems and epidemiological studies. To assess the antiviral effects of EGCG on ALV-J-induced cell apoptosis in vitro, DF-1 cells were treated with different EGCG concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL), and their antiviral effects were examined at different time points (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) using a variety of assays. EGCG alleviated the ALV-J-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Because high concentrations (20 and 40 µg/mL) inhibited DF-1 cell growth, and low concentration (5 µg/mL) did not suppress the ALV-J virus, 10 µg/mL was the most appropriate concentration. After 96 h of incubation, 10 µg/mL EGCG improved the ALV-J-triggered suppression of the nuclear transcription factor system by enhancing cytoplasmic NF-κB p50/p65 expression and inhibiting nuclear NF-κB p50/p65 expression, resulting in decreased cell apoptosis. These results demonstrated that EGCG inhibited ALV-J-induced apoptosis in DF-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner via the NF-κB signaling pathway, and that 10 µg/mL EGCG is the optimal concentration, which may be useful for therapeutic drug design.
  • Evaluation of a Feed Plant Additive for Coocidiosis Control in Broilers Herbals for Coccidiosis Control Original Articles

    Sánchez-Hernández, C; Castañeda-Gómez del Campo, JA; Trejo-Castro, L; Mendoza-Martínez, GD; Gloria-Trujillo, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Coccidiosis negatively impacts health and productive performance in broilers. Anticoccidial resistance has prompted alternatives to prevent and control this disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate a plant feed additive consisting of Acacia concinna containing saponins (Peptasan®) and compare its effectiveness with salinomycin in terms of performance of broilers challenged with Eimeria. In the first experiment, 300 Ross chicks (1 day old) were randomly distributed into a negative (uninfected and untreated), and positive control group (infected and untreated), and three levels of dietary Peptasan® (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). In the second experiment, the same number of chicks were distributed in two control groups (negative and positive), two levels of Peptasan® (500 and 750 ppm) and one level of salinomycin (550 ppm). In both experiments chicks were challenged at day 21 of age with 100,000 oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, 50,000 oocysts of Eimeria maxima and 50,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Dietary Peptasan® improved productive performance, reduced mortality and the number of oocysts in feces, as well as increased yellow pigmentation of the skin of challenged chickens. The plant feed additive Peptasan® containing Acacia concinna can be effectively used for preventing coccidiosis in broilers.
  • An Overview on Marek’s Disease Virus Evolution and Evidence for Increased Virulence in Brazil Original Articles

    Torres, ACD; Marin, SY; Costa, CS; Martins, NRS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has been shown to be evolving to higher virulence. One of the genetic sites involved in virulence which enables such characterization is the 339-amino acid Meq protein encoding gene (meq). The reemergence of clinical Marek’s disease (MD) in vaccinated flocks can be associated to changes in meq. Our studies have shown the presence of very virulent MDV strains in the Brazilian industrial and free-range poultry. We present an overview of MD increasing severity and indicate the necessity of using phylogenetic tools for best accompanying MDV evolution.
  • Highly Pathogenic and Multidrug Resistant Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli in Free-Range Chickens from Brazil Original Articles

    Oliveira, ES; Cardozo, MV; Borzi, MM; Borges, CA; Guastalli, EAL; Ávila, FA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Avian pathogenic Escherichiacoli (APEC) virulence mechanism has been continuously studied and it is believed to be multifactorial and because of this, this work aimed to characterize potentially APEC strains isolated from free-range hens. Isolates were submitted to PCR for the detection of virulence genes, which were of high prevalence. In vivo inoculation of day-old chicks revealed that 49 of these strains were of high and intermediate pathogenicity. In addition, isolates were submitted to antimicrobials susceptibility test with the majority of the strains presenting multiresistance. Phylogenetic analysis showed a greater presence of potentially APEC isolates in-group B2. In addition, high heterogeneity was detected among the isolates byXbaI enzyme. Fifteen serogroups were identified, being the O8 the most frequent. These results strengthen the fact that a combination of diverse factors are associated with the pathogenicity APEC strains, as well as to highlight its importance to public health and that free-range hens can act as a reservoirs of potentially zoonoticbacteria.
  • Morphometric Traits, Serum Chemistry and Antibody Response of Three Chicken Genotypes under Free-Range, Semi-Intensive and Intensive Housing Systems Original Articles

    Ahmad, S; Mahmud, A; Hussain, J; Javed, K

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the effect of housing system on the morphometrics, serum chemistry and antibody response of dual-purpose chicken genotypes. A total of 156 pullets and 39 cockerels were randomly picked from 18 treatment block groups (3 housing system × 3 genotypes × 2 sexes) according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Three genotypes, purebred Naked Neck (NN) and two crossbred Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck (RIR × NN = RNN) and Black Australorp × Naked Neck (BAL × NN = BNN), were compared. Morphometric traits were recorded during rearing period, thereafter, serum chemistry and antibody response were evaluated in pullets. Intensive and semi-intensive chickens were heavier (males, p=0.0012; females, p<0.0001) on week 21. Body length was maximum (p<0.0001) for free-range female chicken. Maximum (p<0.0001) keel length was found in semi-intensive female chickens. Regarding genotypes, RNN and BNN chickens were heavier than NN (males, p=0.0015; females, p<0.0001). Keel length was maximum (p=0.0002) in BNN and NN female chickens. Drumstick circumference were maximum (males, p<0.0001; females, p<0.0001) in NN chickens, shank circumference was maximum (p=0.0150) in RNN and BNN male chickens. Wingspan was maximum (p=0.0029) in NN female chickens. Plasma glucose level was higher (p=0.0008) in intensive female chickens whereas cholesterol levels was higher (p=0.0123) in NN female chicken. Antibody titer against ND was higher (p=0.0204) in RNN female chickens while higher (p=0.0001) antibody titer against IB was found in free-range chickens. Overall, housing system did not impact morphometric traits or serum chemistry. Only a few differences were observed regarding body weight, body and keel length, plasma glucose, cholesterol and antibody response against ND and IB.
  • Effects of In-Ovo Rutin Injection to Fertile Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Egg on Hatchability, Embryonic Death, Hatchling Weight, and Hatchling Liver Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Original Articles

    Genc, M; Kandemir, FM; Coban, O

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effects of the antioxidant rutin injected in fertilized quail eggs on incubation parameters and some hatchling liver biochemical parameters. The study was carried out with 6 groups including a control group and 5 different doses of rutin, and it involved 720 fresh Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs. It was observed that rutin dose did not affect the early embryo mortality, whereas intermediate and late embryo mortality rates were higher in all groups given rutin in comparison to the control group. The mean hatchability of fertile eggs and total eggs for the control, 0.25 mg, 0.50 mg, 0.75 mg, 1 mg and 1.5 mg groups were calculated as 82.06, 82.23, 64.43, 68.84, 44.08, 22.95 % and 48.10, 55.49, 34.33, 33.00, 18.03, 8.45% respectively. Compared with the control group, hatchling mortality rate was higher only in the 0.25 rutin group, and lower in all other groups receiving rutin in-ovo. The highest hatchling weight was found in the 0.25 mg rutin group, and hatchling weight decreased as rutin dose increased. Consequently, considering the mortality rates, hatchling weights, and liver antioxidant/oxidant capacities of the hatchlings, it is believed that the in-ovo injection of 0.25 mg rutin may be useful for Japanese quail production.
  • In-Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of High Levels of Chinese Star Anise Articles

    Alhajj, MS; Qasem, MAA; Nabi, AR Jar El; Al-Mufarrej, SI

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the in-vitro antibacterial and fungicidal activities of three crude extracts of Illicium verum (absolute methanol, 50% methanol and aqueous extracts) against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes), two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Arizona), and two fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger). The antibacterial action was measured using an agar disk diffusion test, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined. The fungicidal activity of the star anise extracts was assessed by the agar disk diffusion test, and poisoned food techniques, and the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined. The Chinese star anise extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against A. fumigatus. The results of this study suggest that alcoholic extracts are more active than aqueous extracts and that star anise could be used as a natural antimicrobial agent.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Enterica Serotypes Isolated from Poultry Sources in Brazil TECHNICAL NOTE

    Borges, KA; Furian, TQ; Souza, SN; Salle, CTP; Moraes, HLS; Nascimento, VP

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Salmonella spp. remain among the most important agents of foodborne diseases worldwide. The importance of Salmonella spp. in public health is linked to their wide range of antimicrobial resistance and to their pathogenicity and virulence in both human and animal hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns for Salmonella serotypes isolated from poultry sources in Brazil and to detect virulence-associated genes and verify their association with specific serotypes. A total of 163 strains of Salmonella enterica isolated from poultry sources in Southern Brazil were selected, and each belonged to one of 11 different serotypes. They were tested against ten antibiotics and examined for the presence of 26 virulence-associated genes by PCR. S. Typhimurium, S. Bredeney, S. Schwarzengrund and S. Tennessee showed the highest overall resistance rates. Approximately 18% of Salmonella strains were classified as multidrug-resistant strains. Our results indicate associations between antimicrobial resistance and specific serotypes. Most of the investigated genes presented a high frequency and a regular distribution, regardless of the serotype. Eight genes are positively or negatively associated with at least one serotype. The observed associations between antimicrobial resistance and specific serotypes are useful in developing specific control and treatment measures for each serotype. Despite the virulence genes being evenly distributed among the serotypes, some of these genes are associated with specific serotypes, and sefA, sopEand lpfA were selected as possible markers of Salmonella serotypes.
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