This article aims to explain the educational meager situation of Black Brazilians, from the two axis that have been structuring such situation - exclusion and neglect. The text is organized following assumptions suggested by the documents that support it. A careful look at the educational policies published, during the XIXth and XXth centuries, shows the continuing omission, by the government, of measures in order to benefit Black people. It is pointed out that the imminent abolition of slavery and the changes in the organization of the economy in the XIXth century, compelled to discuss education for slave children, children released from slavery, Black children born free. Finally, it is accentuated the importance of Black activism, mentioned as Black Movement, in the fighting of Black people for education. So Black organizations take the place of the governement in the offering of conditions for education, in spite of great difficulties. Ideas, ideals, initiatives are stood out those from the Black press in the years 20 to 30 of the XXth century, and those from different collective groups, in the end of years 40 and during the 50, notably in the years 80, in the succession of the creation of the Unified Black Movement.