This paper presents an analysis of the way in which the immigrant ethnic groups created community schools in Brazil and coordinated this school dynamics in a concerted perspective, directing the school process towards common goals beyond the isolated immigrant communities. Also describes the support structures that were created in order to enable the operation of the community schools. The analysis shows that not all of the ethnic groups had schools of their own and that there were quite significant differences among those which were committed to such schools. Besides community schools the immigrants also had private schools, which were either lay schools or associated with religious groups/institutions. The structuring of the community school process began by the end of the 19th century, and it was resulted a great extent by the tensions between the churches and lay leaders committed to liberal ideas. In the context of this struggle for influence, both church leaders and lay leaders were strongly present among the immigrants - with the exception of the Japanese, who had a different dynamic- and promoted the creation of a whole set of structures designed to support their project, particularly through the community schools.